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1.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504264

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmias, whose incidence is likely to increase with the aging of the population. It is considered a progressive condition, frequently observed as a complication of other cardiovascular disorders. However, recent genetic studies revealed the presence of several mutations and variants linked to AF, findings that define AF as a multifactorial disease. Due to the complex genetics and paucity of models, molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of AF are still poorly understood.Here we investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of a familial form of AF, with particular attention to the identification of putative triggering cellular mechanisms, using patient's derived cardiomyocytes differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we report the clinical case of three siblings with untreatable persistent AF whose whole-exome sequence analysis revealed several mutated genes. To understand the pathophysiology of this multifactorial form of AF we generated three iPSC clones from two of these patients and differentiated these cells toward the cardiac lineage. Electrophysiological characterization of patient-derived cardiomyocytes (AF-CMs) revealed that they have higher beating rates compared to control (CTRL)-CMs. The analysis showed an increased contribution of the If and ICaL currents. No differences were observed in the repolarizing current IKr and in the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling. Paced AF-CMs presented significantly prolonged action potentials and, under stressful conditions, generated both delayed afterdepolarizations of bigger amplitude and more ectopic beats than CTRL cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the common genetic background of the patients induces functional alterations of If and ICaL currents leading to a cardiac substrate more prone to develop arrhythmias under demanding conditions. To our knowledge this is the first report that, using patient-derived CMs differentiated from iPSC, suggests a plausible cellular mechanism underlying this complex familial form of AF.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 129(10): 4539-4549, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524631

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that lacks therapies to prevent progressive neurodegeneration. Impaired energy metabolism and reduced ATP levels are common features of PD. Previous studies revealed that terazosin (TZ) enhances the activity of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), thereby stimulating glycolysis and increasing cellular ATP levels. Therefore, we asked whether enhancement of PGK1 activity would change the course of PD. In toxin-induced and genetic PD models in mice, rats, flies, and induced pluripotent stem cells, TZ increased brain ATP levels and slowed or prevented neuron loss. The drug increased dopamine levels and partially restored motor function. Because TZ is prescribed clinically, we also interrogated 2 distinct human databases. We found slower disease progression, decreased PD-related complications, and a reduced frequency of PD diagnoses in individuals taking TZ and related drugs. These findings suggest that enhancing PGK1 activity and increasing glycolysis may slow neurodegeneration in PD.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 108, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons (DAn). Previously, we described the presence of DNA hyper- and hypo-methylation alterations in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived DAn from PD patients using the Illumina 450K array which prominently covers gene regulatory regions. METHODS: To expand and contextualize previous findings, we performed the first whole-genome DNA bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) using iPSC-derived DAn from representative PD subjects: one sporadic PD (sPD) patient, one monogenic LRRK2-associated PD patient (L2PD), and one control. RESULTS: At the whole-genome level, we detected global DNA hyper-methylation in the PD which was similarly spread across the genome in both sPD and L2PD and mostly affected intergenic regions. CONCLUSION: This study implements previous epigenetic knowledge in PD at a whole genome level providing the first comprehensive and unbiased CpG DNA methylation data using iPSC-derived DAn from PD patients. Our results indicate that DAn from monogenic or sporadic PD exhibit global DNA hyper-methylation changes. Findings from this exploratory study are to be validated in further studies analyzing other PD cell models and patient tissues.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6811, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048719

RESUMO

Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a powerful tool to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease (PD), and might provide novel platforms for systematic drug screening. Several strategies have been developed to generate iPSC-derived tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurons (DAn), the clinically relevant cell type in PD; however, they often result in mixed neuronal cultures containing only a small proportion of TH-positive DAn. To overcome this limitation, we used CRISPR/Cas9-based editing to generate a human iPSC line expressing a fluorescent protein (mOrange) knocked-in at the last exon of the TH locus. After differentiation of the TH-mOrange reporter iPSC line, we confirmed that mOrange expression faithfully mimicked endogenous TH expression in iPSC-derived DAn. We also employed calcium imaging techniques to determine the intrinsic functional differences between dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic ventral midbrain neurons. Crucially, the brightness of mOrange allowed direct visualization of TH-expressing cells in heterogeneous cultures, and enabled us to isolate live mOrange-positive cells through fluorescence-activated cell sorting, for further differentiation. This technique, coupled to refined imaging and data processing tools, could advance the investigation of PD pathogenesis and might offer a platform to test potential new therapeutics for PD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

5.
Stem Cell Reports ; 12(2): 213-229, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639209

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with the degeneration of ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons (vmDAns) and the accumulation of toxic α-synuclein. A non-cell-autonomous contribution, in particular of astrocytes, during PD pathogenesis has been suggested by observational studies, but remains to be experimentally tested. Here, we generated induced pluripotent stem cell-derived astrocytes and neurons from familial mutant LRRK2 G2019S PD patients and healthy individuals. Upon co-culture on top of PD astrocytes, control vmDAns displayed morphological signs of neurodegeneration and abnormal, astrocyte-derived α-synuclein accumulation. Conversely, control astrocytes partially prevented the appearance of disease-related phenotypes in PD vmDAns. We additionally identified dysfunctional chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), impaired macroautophagy, and progressive α-synuclein accumulation in PD astrocytes. Finally, chemical enhancement of CMA protected PD astrocytes and vmDAns via the clearance of α-synuclein accumulation. Our findings unveil a crucial non-cell-autonomous contribution of astrocytes during PD pathogenesis, and open the path to exploring novel therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking the pathogenic cross talk between neurons and glial cells.

6.
Stem Cells ; 37(4): 476-488, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664289

RESUMO

When considering the clinical applications of autologous cell replacement therapy of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived cells, there is a clear need to better understand what the immune response will be before we embark on extensive clinical trials to treat or model human disease. We performed a detailed assessment comparing human fibroblast cell lines (termed F1) reprogrammed into human iPSC and subsequently differentiated back to fibroblast cells (termed F2) or other human iPSC-derived cells including neural stem cells (NSC) made from either retroviral, episomal, or synthetic mRNA cell reprogramming methods. Global proteomic analysis reveals the main differences in signal transduction and immune cell protein expression between F1 and F2 cells, implicating wild type (WT) toll like receptor protein 3 (TLR3). Furthermore, global methylome analysis identified an isoform of the human TLR3 gene that is not epigenetically reset correctly upon differentiation to F2 cells resulting in a hypomethylated transcription start site in the TLR3 isoform promoter and overexpression in most human iPSC-derived cells not seen in normal human tissue. The human TLR3 isoform in human iPSC-NSC functions to suppress NF-KB p65 signaling pathway in response to virus (Poly IC), suggesting suppressed immunity of iPSC-derived cells to viral infection. The sustained WT TLR3 and TLR3 isoform overexpression is central to understanding the altered immunogenicity of human iPSC-derived cells calling for screening of human iPSC-derived cells for TLR3 expression levels before applications. Stem Cells 2019;37:476-488.

7.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 415, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498432

RESUMO

Using a lentivirus-mediated labeling method, we investigated whether the adult hippocampus retains long-lasting, self-renewing neural stem cells (NSCs). We first showed that a single injection of a lentiviral vector expressing a green fluorescent protein (LV PGK-GFP) into the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the adult hippocampus enabled an efficient, robust, and long-term marking of self-renewing NSCs and their progeny. Interestingly, a subset of labeled cells showed the ability to proliferate multiple times and give rise to Sox2+ cells, clearly suggesting the ability of NSCs to self-renew for an extensive period of time (up to 6 months). In addition, using GFP+ cells isolated from the SGZ of mice that received a LV PGK-GFP injection 3 months earlier, we demonstrated that some GFP+ cells displayed the essential properties of NSCs, such as self-renewal and multipotency. Furthermore, we investigated the plasticity of NSCs in a perforant path transection, which has been shown to induce astrocyte formation in the molecular layer of the hippocampus. Our lentivirus (LV)-mediated labeling study revealed that hippocampal NSCs are not responsible for the burst of astrocyte formation, suggesting that signals released from the injured perforant path did not influence NSC fate determination. Therefore, our studies showed that a gene delivery system using LVs is a unique method to be used for understanding the complex nature of NSCs and may have translational impact in gene therapy by efficiently targeting NSCs.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16644, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413728

RESUMO

Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient ß-glucuronidase (ß-gluc) activity. Significantly reduced ß-gluc activity leads to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in many tissues, including the brain. Numerous combinations of mutations in GUSB (the gene that codes for ß-gluc) cause a range of neurological features that make disease prognosis and treatment challenging. Currently, there is little understanding of the molecular basis for MPS VII brain anomalies. To identify a neuronal phenotype that could be used to complement genetic analyses, we generated two iPSC clones derived from skin fibroblasts of an MPS VII patient. We found that MPS VII neurons exhibited reduced ß-gluc activity and showed previously established disease-associated phenotypes, including GAGs accumulation, expanded endocytic compartments, accumulation of lipofuscin granules, more autophagosomes, and altered lysosome function. Addition of recombinant ß-gluc to MPS VII neurons, which mimics enzyme replacement therapy, restored disease-associated phenotypes to levels similar to the healthy control. MPS VII neural cells cultured as 3D neurospheroids showed upregulated GFAP gene expression, which was associated with astrocyte reactivity, and downregulation of GABAergic neuron markers. Spontaneous calcium imaging analysis of MPS VII neurospheroids showed reduced neuronal activity and altered network connectivity in patient-derived neurospheroids compared to a healthy control. These results demonstrate the interplay between reduced ß-gluc activity, GAG accumulation and alterations in neuronal activity, and provide a human experimental model for elucidating the bases of MPS VII-associated cognitive defects.

9.
Neurobiol Aging ; 69: 283-291, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935433

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA) misregulation in peripheral blood has been linked to Parkinson disease (PD) but its role in the disease progression remains elusive. We performed an explorative genome-wide study of miRNA expression levels in dopaminergic neurons (DAn) from PD patients generated by somatic cell reprogramming and induced pluripotent stem cells differentiation. We quantified expression levels of 377 miRNAs in DAn from 3 sporadic PD patients (sPD), 3 leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-associated PD patients (L2PD) (total 6 PD), and 4 healthy controls. We identified differential expression of 10 miRNA of which 5 were upregulated in PD (miR-9-5p, miR-135a-5p, miR-135b-5p, miR-449a, and miR-449b-5p) and 5 downregulated (miR-141-3p, miR-199a-5p, miR-299-5p, miR-518e-3p, and miR-519a-3p). Changes were similar in sPD and L2PD. Integrative analysis revealed significant correlations between miRNA/mRNA expression. Moreover, upregulation of miR-9-5p and miR-135b-5p was associated with downregulation of transcription factors related to the DNA hypermethylation of enhancer elements in PD DAn (FOXA1 and NR3C1). In summary, miRNA changes are associated with monogenic L2PD and sPD and co-occur with epigenetic changes in DAn from PD patients.

11.
Mol Neurobiol ; 55(9): 7533-7552, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429047

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease is associated with intracellular α-synuclein accumulation and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neuronal death in the Substantia Nigra of brain patients. The Rho GTPase pathway, mainly linking surface receptors to the organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, has been suggested to participate to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Nevertheless, its exact contribution remains obscure. To unveil the participation of the Rho GTPase family to the molecular pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, we first used C elegans to demonstrate the role of the small GTPase RAC1 (ced-10 in the worm) in maintaining dopaminergic function and survival in the presence of alpha-synuclein. In addition, ced-10 mutant worms determined an increase of alpha-synuclein inclusions in comparison to control worms as well as an increase in autophagic vesicles. We then used a human neuroblastoma cells (M17) stably over-expressing alpha-synuclein and found that RAC1 function decreased the amount of amyloidogenic alpha-synuclein. Further, by using dopaminergic neurons derived from patients of familial LRRK2-Parkinson's disease we report that human RAC1 activity is essential in the regulation of dopaminergic cell death, alpha-synuclein accumulation, participates in neurite arborization and modulates autophagy. Thus, we determined for the first time that RAC1/ced-10 participates in Parkinson's disease associated pathogenesis and established RAC1/ced-10 as a new candidate for further investigation of Parkinson's disease associated mechanisms, mainly focused on dopaminergic function and survival against α-synuclein-induced toxicity.

12.
Mol Neurobiol ; 55(4): 3033-3048, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28466265

RESUMO

Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome is a fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative prionopathy clinically characterized by ataxia, spastic paraparesis, extrapyramidal signs and dementia. In some GSS familiar cases carrying point mutations in the PRNP gene, patients also showed comorbid tauopathy leading to mixed pathologies. In this study we developed an induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell model derived from fibroblasts of a GSS patient harboring the Y218N PRNP mutation, as well as an age-matched healthy control. This particular PRNP mutation is unique with very few described cases. One of the cases presented neurofibrillary degeneration with relevant Tau hyperphosphorylation. Y218N iPS-derived cultures showed relevant astrogliosis, increased phospho-Tau, altered microtubule-associated transport and cell death. However, they failed to generate proteinase K-resistant prion. In this study we set out to test, for the first time, whether iPS cell-derived neurons could be used to investigate the appearance of disease-related phenotypes (i.e, tauopathy) identified in the GSS patient.

13.
Curr Opin Genet Dev ; 46: 123-131, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759872

RESUMO

Patient-specific iPSC are being intensively exploited as experimental disease models. Even for late-onset diseases of complex genetic influence, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), the use of iPSC-based models is beginning to provide important insights into the genetic bases of PD heritability. Here, we present an update on recently reported genetic risk factors associated with PD. We discuss how iPSC technology, combined with targeted edition of the coding or noncoding genome, can be used to address clinical observations such as incomplete penetrance, and variability in phenoconversion or age-at-onset in familial PD. Finally, we also discuss the relevance of advanced iPSC/CRISPR/Cas9 disease models to ascertain causality in genotype-to-phenotype correlation studies of sporadic PD.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Doença de Parkinson/genética
14.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 33(4): 351-360, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176010

RESUMO

Aging, injuries, and diseases can be considered as the result of malfunctioning or damaged cells. Regenerative medicine aims to restore tissue homeostasis by repairing or replacing cells, tissues, or damaged organs, by linking and combining different disciplines including engineering, technology, biology, and medicine. To pursue these goals, the discipline is taking advantage of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), a peculiar type of cell possessing the ability to differentiate into every cell type of the body. Human PSCs can be isolated from the blastocysts and maintained in culture indefinitely, giving rise to the so-called embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, since 2006, it is possible to restore in an adult cell a pluripotent ESC-like condition by forcing the expression of four transcription factors with the rejuvenating reprogramming technology invented by Yamanaka. Then the two types of PSC can be differentiated, using standardized protocols, towards the cell type necessary for the regeneration. Although the use of these derivatives for therapeutic transplantation is still in the preliminary phase of safety and efficacy studies, a lot of efforts are presently taking place to discover the biological mechanisms underlying genetic pathologies, by differentiating induced PSCs derived from patients, and new therapies by challenging PSC-derived cells in drug screening.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/patologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/transplante , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/transplante , Medicina Regenerativa/ética , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos
15.
J Vis Exp ; (108): 53282, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26967974

RESUMO

Relatively quiescent somatic stem cells support life-long cell renewal in most adult tissues. Neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain are restricted to two specific neurogenic niches: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ; also called subependymal zone or SEZ) in the walls of the lateral ventricles. The development of in vivo gene transfer strategies for adult stem cell populations (i.e. those of the mammalian brain) resulting in long-term expression of desired transgenes in the stem cells and their derived progeny is a crucial tool in current biomedical and biotechnological research. Here, a direct in vivo method is presented for the stable genetic modification of adult mouse V-SVZ cells that takes advantage of the cell cycle-independent infection by LVs and the highly specialized cytoarchitecture of the V-SVZ niche. Specifically, the current protocol involves the injection of empty LVs (control) or LVs encoding specific transgene expression cassettes into either the V-SVZ itself, for the in vivo targeting of all types of cells in the niche, or into the lateral ventricle lumen, for the targeting of ependymal cells only. Expression cassettes are then integrated into the genome of the transduced cells and fluorescent proteins, also encoded by the LVs, allow the detection of the transduced cells for the analysis of cell autonomous and non-autonomous, niche-dependent effects in the labeled cells and their progeny.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Vetores Genéticos , Lentivirus/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Transfecção/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Epêndima/citologia , Ventrículos Laterais/citologia , Ventrículos Laterais/metabolismo , Camundongos
16.
EMBO Mol Med ; 7(12): 1529-46, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26516212

RESUMO

The epigenomic landscape of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown. We performed a genomewide DNA methylation and a transcriptome studies in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dopaminergic neurons (DAn) generated by cell reprogramming of somatic skin cells from patients with monogenic LRRK2-associated PD (L2PD) or sporadic PD (sPD), and healthy subjects. We observed extensive DNA methylation changes in PD DAn, and of RNA expression, which were common in L2PD and sPD. No significant methylation differences were present in parental skin cells, undifferentiated iPSCs nor iPSC-derived neural cultures not-enriched-in-DAn. These findings suggest the presence of molecular defects in PD somatic cells which manifest only upon differentiation into the DAn cells targeted in PD. The methylation profile from PD DAn, but not from controls, resembled that of neural cultures not-enriched-in-DAn indicating a failure to fully acquire the epigenetic identity own to healthy DAn in PD. The PD-associated hypermethylation was prominent in gene regulatory regions such as enhancers and was related to the RNA and/or protein downregulation of a network of transcription factors relevant to PD (FOXA1, NR3C1, HNF4A, and FOSL2). Using a patient-specific iPSC-based DAn model, our study provides the first evidence that epigenetic deregulation is associated with monogenic and sporadic PD.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Reprogramação Celular , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
17.
Stem Cell Reports ; 5(4): 546-57, 2015 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26411903

RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has been successfully used to recapitulate phenotypic traits of several human diseases in vitro. Patient-specific iPSC-based disease models are also expected to reveal early functional phenotypes, although this remains to be proved. Here, we generated iPSC lines from two patients with Sanfilippo type C syndrome, a lysosomal storage disorder with inheritable progressive neurodegeneration. Mature neurons obtained from patient-specific iPSC lines recapitulated the main known phenotypes of the disease, not present in genetically corrected patient-specific iPSC-derived cultures. Moreover, neuronal networks organized in vitro from mature patient-derived neurons showed early defects in neuronal activity, network-wide degradation, and altered effective connectivity. Our findings establish the importance of iPSC-based technology to identify early functional phenotypes, which can in turn shed light on the pathological mechanisms occurring in Sanfilippo syndrome. This technology also has the potential to provide valuable readouts to screen compounds, which can prevent the onset of neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Mucopolissacaridose III/patologia , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Neurogênese
18.
J Clin Med ; 4(4): 548-66, 2015 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26239346

RESUMO

Cellular reprogramming of somatic cells to human pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) represents an efficient tool for in vitro modeling of human brain diseases and provides an innovative opportunity in the identification of new therapeutic drugs. Patient-specific iPSC can be differentiated into disease-relevant cell types, including neurons, carrying the genetic background of the donor and enabling de novo generation of human models of genetically complex disorders. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is mainly characterized by nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neuron degeneration and synaptic dysfunction. Recently, the generation of disease-specific iPSC from patients suffering from PD has unveiled a recapitulation of disease-related cell phenotypes, such as abnormal α-synuclein accumulation and alterations in autophagy machinery. The use of patient-specific iPSC has a remarkable potential to uncover novel insights of the disease pathogenesis, which in turn will open new avenues for clinical intervention. This review explores the current Parkinson's disease iPSC-based models highlighting their role in the discovery of new drugs, as well as discussing the most challenging limitations iPSC-models face today.

19.
World J Stem Cells ; 7(2): 329-42, 2015 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25815118

RESUMO

Causative mutations and variants associated with cardiac diseases have been found in genes encoding cardiac ion channels, accessory proteins, cytoskeletal components, junctional proteins, and signaling molecules. In most cases the functional evaluation of the genetic alteration has been carried out by expressing the mutated proteins in in-vitro heterologous systems. While these studies have provided a wealth of functional details that have greatly enhanced the understanding of the pathological mechanisms, it has always been clear that heterologous expression of the mutant protein bears the intrinsic limitation of the lack of a proper intracellular environment and the lack of pathological remodeling. The results obtained from the application of the next generation sequencing technique to patients suffering from cardiac diseases have identified several loci, mostly in non-coding DNA regions, which still await functional analysis. The isolation and culture of human embryonic stem cells has initially provided a constant source of cells from which cardiomyocytes (CMs) can be obtained by differentiation. Furthermore, the possibility to reprogram cellular fate to a pluripotent state, has opened this process to the study of genetic diseases. Thus induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a completely new cellular model that overcomes the limitations of heterologous studies. Importantly, due to the possibility to keep spontaneously beating CMs in culture for several months, during which they show a certain degree of maturation/aging, this approach will also provide a system in which to address the effect of long-term expression of the mutated proteins or any other DNA mutation, in terms of electrophysiological remodeling. Moreover, since iPSC preserve the entire patients' genetic context, the system will help the physicians in identifying the most appropriate pharmacological intervention to correct the functional alteration. This article summarizes the current knowledge of cardiac genetic diseases modelled with iPSC.

20.
Nat Cell Biol ; 16(7): 629-38, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24952463

RESUMO

The identification of mechanisms that maintain stem cell niche architecture and homeostasis is fundamental to our understanding of tissue renewal and repair. Cell adhesion is a well-characterized mechanism for developmental morphogenetic processes, but its contribution to the dynamic regulation of adult mammalian stem cell niches is still poorly defined. We show that N-cadherin-mediated anchorage of neural stem cells (NSCs) to ependymocytes in the adult murine subependymal zone modulates their quiescence. We further identify MT5-MMP as a membrane-type metalloproteinase responsible for the shedding of the N-cadherin ectodomain in this niche. MT5-MMP is co-expressed with N-cadherin in adult NSCs and ependymocytes and, whereas MT5-MMP-mediated cleavage of N-cadherin is dispensable for the regulation of NSC generation and identity, it is required for proper activation of NSCs under physiological and regenerative conditions. Our results indicate that the proliferative status of stem cells can be dynamically modulated by regulated cleavage of cell adhesion molecules.


Assuntos
Caderinas/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz Associadas à Membrana/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/enzimologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo
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