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1.
Tumori ; : 300891620988354, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Definition of histologic subtype of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is important for management of patients, because surgical treatment improves prognosis for patients with epithelioid but not biphasic or sarcomatoid MPM. In a series of necropsies performed in a hospital specialized for MPM diagnosis, we retrospectively investigated the accuracy of histologic diagnosis performed on pathologic specimens collected through pleural biopsies obtained at video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or surgery. METHODS: We reviewed histologic records of an unselected series of autopsies performed in patients with MPM employed in the Monfalcone shipyards (Northeast Italy) or living with shipyard workers from 1999 through 2017. Using necropsy results as a gold standard, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of histology from VATS or surgery after combining nonepithelioid subtypes. RESULTS: We retrieved necropsy records for 134 patients: 62 (46.3%) with epithelioid, 51 (38.1%) with biphasic, and 21 (15.7%) with sarcomatoid MPM. We observed good sensitivity of VATS (0.94) and surgery (0.89) in diagnosing epithelioid MPM. Conversely, specificity was low (VATS: 0.46; surgery: 0.32). Therefore, positive predictive values were also low (VATS: 0.58; surgery: 0.60). Misclassification was particularly high for biphasic MPM (three-fourths of biphasic MPM at necropsy had been classified as epithelioid at VATS or surgery). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a substantial degree of misclassification between epithelioid and biphasic MPM for pleural biopsies performed during VATS. Our results suggest caution should be taken in using histologic subtype obtained from VATS in selecting patients with MPM for surgical treatment. We also observed substantial misclassification of biospecimens collected during MPM surgery.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 627423, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777011

RESUMO

Background: Granulomatous and Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung Diseases (GLILD) is a severe non-infectious complication of Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID), often associated with extrapulmonary involvement. Due to a poorly understood pathogenesis, GLILD diagnosis and management criteria still lack consensus. Accordingly, it is a relevant cause of long-term loss of respiratory function and is closely associated with a markedly reduced survival. The aim of this study was to describe clinical, immunological, laboratory and functional features of GLILD, whose combination in a predictive model might allow a timely diagnosis. Methods: In a multicenter retrospective cross-sectional study we enrolled 73 CVID patients with radiologic features of interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated to CVID (CVID-ILD) and 125 CVID patients without ILD (controls). Of the 73 CVID-ILD patients, 47 received a definite GLILD diagnosis while 26 received a clinical-radiologic diagnosis of CVID related ILD defined as uILD. Results: In GLILD group we found a higher prevalence of splenomegaly (84.8 vs. 39.2%), autoimmune cytopenia (59.6 vs. 6.4%) and bronchiectasis (72.3 vs. 28%), and lower IgA and IgG serum levels at CVID diagnosis. GLILD patients presented lower percentage of switched-memory B cells and marginal zone B cells, and a marked increase in the percentage of circulating CD21lo B cells (14.2 vs. 2.9%). GLILD patients also showed lower total lung capacity (TLC 87.5 vs. 5.0%) and gas transfer (DLCO 61.5 vs. 5.0%) percent of predicted. By univariate logistic regression analysis, we found IgG and IgA levels at CVID diagnosis, presence of splenomegaly and autoimmune cytopenia, CD21lo B cells percentage, TLC and DCLO percent of predicted to be associated to GLILD. The joint analysis of four variables (CD21lo B cells percentage, autoimmune cytopenia, splenomegaly and DLCO percent of predicted), together in a multiple logistic regression model, yielded an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.95-1.0). The AUC was only slightly modified when pooling together GLILD and uILD patients (0.92, 95% CI: 0.87-0.97). Conclusions: we propose the combination of two clinical parameters (splenomegaly and autoimmune cytopenia), one lung function index (DLCO%) and one immunologic variable (CD21lo%) as a promising tool for early identification of CVID patients with interstitial lung disease, limiting the use of aggressive diagnostic procedures.

3.
Leukemia ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664463

RESUMO

In this large single-centre study, we report high prevalence (25%) of, small (<10%) and very small (<1%), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) clones by high-sensitive cytometry among 3085 patients tested. Given PNH association with bone marrow failures, we analyzed 869 myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and 531 aplastic anemia (AA) within the cohort. PNH clones were more frequent and larger in AA vs. MDS (p = 0.04). PNH clone, irrespective of size, was a good predictor of response to immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and to stem cell transplant (HSCT) (in MDS: 84% if PNH+ vs. 44.7% if PNH-, p = 0.01 for IST, and 71% if PNH+ vs. 56.6% if PNH- for HSCT; in AA: 78 vs. 50% for IST, p < 0.0001, and 97 vs. 77%, p = 0.01 for HSCT). PNH positivity had a favorable impact on disease progression (0.6% vs. 4.9% IPSS-progression in MDS, p < 0.005; and 2.1 vs. 6.9% progression to MDS in AA, p = 0.01), leukemic evolution (6.8 vs. 12.7%, p = 0.01 in MDS), and overall survival [73% (95% CI 68-77) vs. 51% (48-54), p < 0.0001], with a relative HR for mortality of 2.37 (95% CI 1.8-3.1; p < 0.0001) in PNH negative cases, both in univariate and multivariable analysis. Our data suggest systematic PNH testing in AA/MDS, as it might allow better prediction/prognostication and consequent clinical/laboratory follow-up timing.

4.
J Voice ; 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766419

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia has been described in patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dysphonia, and its severity and extent, of voice fatigue and of dysphagia in non hospitalized patients affected by COVID-19 in Lombardy, the Italian region most hit by the first explosive outbreak of COVID-19 in Europe. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data of 160 consecutive patients, with COVID-19 diagnosis confirmed by nasal swabs processed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, were gathered by means of telephone interviews performed by physicians in charge of daily follow-up. General and specific symptoms concerning voice and swallowing impairment were investigated. Dysphonia grade and duration were graded on 4-point scales, while voice fatigue was graded on a 5-point scale. RESULTS: Dysphonia was reported by 70 (43.7%) patients and was positively associated with voice fatigue (P < 0.001), cough (P = 0.005), rhinitis (P = 0.01), and dyspnea (P = 0.06); it was mild and/or moderate in 69 patients, but its duration was > 2 weeks in 33/70 (47.1%) patients and >1 month in 11/70 (15.7%). Grade and duration of dysphonia were positively associated with cough and rhinitis (all P values < 0.01). Voice fatigue was reported by 43/160 patients (26.8%) and its severity was correlated with dysphonia (P < 0.0001), cough (P = 0.02), rhinitis (P = 0.02), dyspnea (P < 0.001), and loss of appetite (P = 0.01). Dysphagia was encountered in 27/160 patients (16.9%) and was associated with dysgeusia, cough, arthralgia, myalgia and loss of appetite but not with dysphonia. CONCLUSIONS: Dysphonia was a highly prevalent and long-lasting symptom in this series; it has been underestimated to date. Further studies might shed light on the pathophysiology of voice disorders in COVID-19 patients.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e047216, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG among health careworkers (HCWs) in our university hospital and verify the risk of acquiring the infection according to work area. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Monocentric, Italian, third-level university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All the employees of the hospital on a voluntary base, for a total of 4055 participants among 4572 HCWs (88.7%). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of anti-SARS-CoV-2 positive serology according to working area. Association of anti-SARS-CoV-2 positive serology to selected variables (age, gender, country of origin, body mass index, smoking, symptoms and contact with confirmed cases). RESULTS: From 27 April 2020 to 12 June 2020, 4055 HCWs were tested and 309 (7.6%) had a serological positive test. No relevant difference was found between men and women (8.3% vs 7.3%, p=0.3), whereas a higher prevalence was observed among foreign-born workers (27/186, 14.5%, p<0.001), employees younger than 30 (64/668, 9.6%, p=0.02) or older than 60 years (38/383, 9.9%, p=0.02) and among healthcare assistants (40/320, 12.5%, p=0.06). Working as frontline HCWs was not associated with an increased frequency of positive serology (p=0.42). A positive association was found with presence and number of symptoms (p<0.001). The symptoms most frequently associated with a positive serology were taste and smell alterations (OR 4.62, 95% CI: 2.99 to 7.15) and fever (OR 4.37, 95% CI: 3.11 to 6.13). No symptoms were reported in 84/309 (27.2%) HCWs with positive IgG levels. Declared exposure to a suspected/confirmed case was more frequently associated (p<0.001) with positive serology when the contact was a family member (19/94, 20.2%) than a patient or colleague (78/888, 8.8%). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred undetected in a large fraction of HCWs and it was not associated with working in COVID-19 frontline areas. Beyond the hospital setting, exposure within the community represents an additional source of infection for HCWs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Imunoglobulina G , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , /epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466544

RESUMO

Cohort studies showed consistently low risks for malignant mesothelioma (MM) among agricultural workers, however the investigated exposures did not include asbestos. Our aim is to describe sources of asbestos exposure of MM in agriculture. Twenty-six MM cases in agricultural or seed trades workers were identified through the MM registry of the Lombardy region, Italy in 2000-2016. Asbestos exposures were investigated through a standardized questionnaire. The most frequent exposure circumstances were recycled jute bags previously containing asbestos (11 cases) and maintenance and repair of asbestos roofs (12 subjects). Three subjects performed maintenance and repair of tractor asbestos brakes and two used asbestos filters for wine production. Our data suggest asbestos exposure opportunities in the agricultural setting, underlining the need to look for this exposure in subjects affected with mesothelioma.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestos/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 47(1): 87-89, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388783

RESUMO

Mezei et al's letter (1) is an opportunity to provide more details about our study on pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis (TVT) mesothelioma (2), which is based on the Italian national mesothelioma registry (ReNaM): a surveillance system on mesothelioma, with individual asbestos exposure assessment. Incidence of pericardial mesothelioma has been estimated around 0.5 and 0.2 cases per 10 million person-years in men and women, respectively, and around 1 case for TVT mesothelioma. ReNaM collected 138 cases thanks to its long period of observation (1993-2015) and national coverage. Conducting a population-based case-control study with incidence-density sampling of controls across Italy and over a 23 year time-span should have been planned in 1993 and would have been beyond feasibility and ReNaM scope. We rather exploited two existing series of controls (3). The resulting incomplete time- and spatial matching of cases and controls is a limitation of our study and has been acknowledged in our article. The analysis of case-control studies can nevertheless be accomplished in logistic models accounting for the variables of interest, in both individually and frequency matched studies (4). Furthermore, analyses restricted to (i) regions with enrolled controls, (ii) cases with definite diagnosis, (iii) incidence period 2000-2015, and (iv) subjects born before 1950 have been provided in the manuscript, confirming the strength of the association with asbestos exposure (supplemental material tables S4-7). Following Mezei et al's suggestion, we performed further sensitivity analyses by restriction to regions with controls and fitting conditional regression models using risk-sets made of combinations of age and year of birth categories (5-year classes for both). We confirmed positive associations with occupational exposure to asbestos of pericardial mesothelioma, with odds ratios (OR) (adjusted for region) of 9.16 among women [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-150] and 5.63 (95% CI 1.02-31.0) among men; for TVT mesothelioma the OR was 7.70 (95% CI 2.89-20.5). Using risk sets of age categories and introducing year of birth (5-year categories) as a covariate (dummy variables) the OR were similar: OR (adjusted for region) of 9.17 among women (95% CI 0.56-150) and 5.76 (95% CI 1.07-31.0) among men; for TVT the OR was 9.86 (95% CI 3.46-28.1). Possible bias from incomplete geographical overlap between cases and controls has been addressed in the paper (table S4) and above. In spatially restricted analyses, OR were larger than in those including cases from the whole country, indicating that bias was towards the null. Mezei et al further noted that "the regional distribution of controls is different from that of person-time observed". This objection is not relevant because the above analyses were adjusted by region. Our controls were provided by a population-based study on pleural mesothelioma (called MISEM) and a hospital-based study on cholangiocarcinoma (called CARA). In MISEM, the response rate was 48.4%, a low but not unexpected rate as participation among population controls is usually lower and has been declining over time (5). It is important to underline that ReNaM applied the same questionnaire that was used for interviews and carried out the same exposure assessment as both MISEM and CARA. As repeatedly stated in ReNaM papers (6-7), each regional operating center assesses asbestos exposure based on the individual questionnaire, other available information, and knowledge of local industries. Occupational exposure to asbestos is classified as definite, probable or possible. Occupational exposure is (i) definite when the subject`s work was reported or otherwise known to have involved the use of asbestos or asbestos-containing materials (MCA); (ii) probable when subjects worked in factories where asbestos or MCA were used, but their personal exposure could not be documented; and (iii) possible when they were employed in industrial activities known to entail the use of asbestos or MCA. Hence, the definite and probable categories are closer to one another and were combined in our analyses. In any case, restricting analyses to subjects with definite occupational exposure and using each set of controls separately, as suggested by Mezei et al, yielded elevated OR for TVT and pericardial mesothelioma among men using both the above described modelling strategies; the OR could not be calculated for women. There were 70 (25 pericardial and 45 TVT) occupationally exposed mesothelioma cases. In population-based studies, analyses by occupation are limited by the low prevalence of most specific jobs. As briefly reported in our paper, for purely descriptive purposes, the industrial activity of exposure (cases may have multiple exposures), were construction (22 exposures, 7 and 15 for pericardial and TVT mesotheliomas, respectively), steel mills and other metal working industries (4 and 11), textile industries (2 and 3), and agriculture (2 and 5); other sectors had lower exposure frequencies. The absence of industries like asbestos-cement production, shipbuilding and railway carriages production/repair should not be surprising and had already been observed (7). In the Italian multicenter cohort study of asbestos workers (8), given the person-years of observation accrued by workers employed in these industries and gender- and site-specific crude incidence rates, approximately 0.1 case of pericardial and 0.2 of TVT mesothelioma would have been expected from 1970 to 2010. Even increasing ten-fold such figures to account for higher occupational risks among these workers would not change much. Asbestos exposure in agriculture has been repeatedly discussed in ReNaM reports (9: pages 70, 73, 128, 164 and 205). Exposure opportunities included the presence of asbestos in wine production, reuse of hessian bags previously containing asbestos, or construction and maintenance of rural buildings. Similarly, mesothelioma cases and agricultural workers exposed to asbestos have been noted in France (10). In conclusion, the additional analyses we performed according to Mezei et al's suggestions confirm the association between asbestos exposure and pericardial and TVT mesothelioma, supporting the causal role of asbestos for all mesotheliomas. ReNaM`s continuing surveillance system with national coverage is a precious platform for launching analytical studies on pleural and extra pleural mesothelioma. References 1. Mezei G, Chang ET, Mowat FS, Moolgavkar SH. Comments on a recent case-control study of malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis testis Scand J Work Environ Health. 2021;47(1):85-86. https://doi.org/10.5271/3909 2. Marinaccio A, Consonni D, Mensi C, Mirabelli D, Migliore E, Magnani C et al.; ReNaM Working Group. Association between asbestos exposure and pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis malignant mesothelioma: a case-control study and epidemiological remarks. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2020;46(6):609-617. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3895. 3. Greenland S. Control-initiated case-control studies. Int J Epidemiol 1985 Mar;14(1):130-4. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/14.1.130. 4. Pearce N. Analysis of matched case-control studies. BMJ 2016 Feb;352:i969. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i969. 5. Bigert C, Gustavsson P, Straif K, Pesch B, Brüning T, Kendzia B et al. Lung cancer risk among cooks when accounting for tobacco smoking: a pooled analysis of case-control studies from Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and China. J Occup Environ Med 2015 Feb;57(2):202-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000337. 6. Marinaccio A, Binazzi A, Marzio DD, Scarselli A, Verardo M, Mirabelli D et al.; ReNaM Working Group. Pleural malignant mesothelioma epidemic: incidence, modalities of asbestos exposure and occupations involved from the Italian National Register. Int J Cancer 2012 May;130(9):2146-54. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.26229. 7. Marinaccio A, Binazzi A, Di Marzio D, Scarselli A, Verardo M, Mirabelli D et al. Incidence of extrapleural malignant mesothelioma and asbestos exposure, from the Italian national register. Occup Environ Med 2010 Nov;67(11):760-5. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2009.051466. 8. Ferrante D, Chellini E, Merler E, Pavone V, Silvestri S, Miligi L et al.; the working group. Italian pool of asbestos workers cohorts: mortality trends of asbestos-related neoplasms after long time since first exposure. Occup Environ Med 2017 Dec;74(12):887-98. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2016-104100. 9. ReNaM VI Report. Available from: https://www.inail.it/cs/internet/docs/alg-pubbl-registro-nazionale-mesoteliomi-6-rapporto.pdf. Italian 10. Marant Micallef C, Shield KD, Vignat J, Baldi I, Charbotel B, Fervers B et al. Cancers in France in 2015 attributable to occupational exposures. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2019 Jan;222(1):22-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.07.015.

9.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599820987458, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of social isolation during the lockdown due to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in modifying the prevalence of otitis media with effusion (OME) and the natural history of chronic OME. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary level referral audiologic center. METHODS: We assessed the prevalence of OME among children aged 6 months to 12 years who attended the outpatient clinic for hearing or vestibular disorders during 2 periods before the lockdown, May-June 2019 (n = 350) and January-February 2020 (n = 366), and the period immediately after the lockdown, May-June 2020 (n = 216). We also compared the disease resolution rates between a subgroup of children with chronic OME (n = 30) who were diagnosed in summer 2019 and reevaluated in May-June 2020 and a similar subgroup (n = 29) assessed in 2018-2019. RESULTS: The prevalence of OME in this clinic population was 40.6% in May-June 2019, 52.2% in January-February 2020, and 2.3% in May-June 2020. Children with chronic OME had a higher rate of disease resolution in May-June 2020 (93.3%) than those examined in May-June 2019 (20.7%, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Closure of schools and the physical distancing rules were correlated with a reduction in the prevalence of OME and favored the resolution of its chronic forms among children who attended the outpatient clinic. These data could suggest that in the presence of chronic OME, keeping young children out of group care settings for a period might be beneficial to allow for OME resolution.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2594, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510429

RESUMO

Hematologists are frequently involved in the diagnostic pathway of Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1) patients since they present several hematological signs. However, GD1 is mainly underdiagnosed because of a lack of awareness. In this multicenter study, we combine the use of a diagnostic algorithm with a simple test (ß-glucosidase activity on Dried Blood Spot) in order to facilitate the diagnosis in a population presenting to the hematologist with splenomegaly and/or thrombocytopenia associated with other hematological signs. In this high-risk population, the prevalence of GD1 is 3.3%. We propose an equation that predicts the probability of having GD1 according to three parameters that are routinely evaluated: platelet count, ferritin, and transferrin saturation.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379304

RESUMO

Despite their differences, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma are frequently lumped together to describe epidemic curves and to forecast future mesothelioma trends. This study aims to describe the malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) epidemic in Italy (1996-2016) and to forecast future trends up to 2040 in order to contribute to the assessment of MPeM future burden. All MPeM deaths in Italy from 1996-2016 were collected (as provided by the Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT)) in order to estimate MPeM mortality rates for each 3-year period from 1996 to 2016. Poisson age-period-cohort (APC) models were then used to forecast MPeM future trends. Between 2017 and 2040, 1333 MPeM deaths are expected. The number of MPeM deaths, as well as mortality rates, are expected to constantly decrease throughout the considered period. Based on considering the information from this study, it can be concluded that the MPeM epidemic has probably already reached its peak in Italy.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Afr J Paediatr Surg ; 17(3 & 4): 59-63, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342835

RESUMO

Introduction: Appendicitis is the commonest and most frequently misdiagnosed acute abdominal surgical illness in the paediatric population worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of coagulation profile in acute appendicitis (AA) in children. Materials and Methods: we retrospectively collected data of patients submitted to appendectomy from 2011 to 2017. According to histopathology, patients were divided into three groups: not histologically confirmed AA (NAA), simple AA (SAA) and complicated AA (CAA). White blood cell (WBC) count, relative neutrophilia (Neutr%), C-reactive protein (CRP), prothrombin time ratio (PTratio), activated partial thromboplastin time ratio (APTTratio) and fibrinogen (Fib) were compared among groups. Results: Three hundred and seven patients were included: 57 NAA, 184 SAA and 66 CAA. WBC was significantly different among groups: CAA (mean 16.67 × 103/ml), SAA (14.73 × 103/ml, P= 0.01) and NAA (10.85 × 103/ml, P< 0.0001). Significant differences were found for Neutr% (mean CAA 81.14 vs. SAA 77.03 P= 0.006, vs. NAA 63.86 P< 0.0001) and CRP (mean NAA 2.56, SAA 3.26, CAA 11.58, P< 0.0001). PTratio and Fib increased with the severity of AA receiver operator characteristic curves were similar for CRP (0.739), Fib (0.726), WBC (0.746) and Neutr% (0.754), while for PTratio and aPTTratio were 0.634 and 0.441, respectively. Conclusions: extrinsic coagulation pathway is altered in AA, especially in CAA. Coagulation can be useful in the diagnostic and perioperative anaesthetic management of AA in children. Fib seems to have the highest accuracy.

13.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234692

RESUMO

There is consistent evidence of increased respiratory symptoms in occupational cleaners; however, uncertainty remains on type of respiratory health effects, underlying causal agents, mechanisms and respiratory phenotypes. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and if possible, a meta-analysis of the available literature to characterise and quantify the cleaning-related respiratory health effects. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and included studies that evaluated the association of any respiratory health outcome with exposure to cleaning occupation or products in occupational cleaners. A modified GRADE was used to appraise the quality of included studies. We retrieved 1124 articles, and after applying our inclusion criteria, 39 were selected for the systematic review. We performed a meta-analysis of the 21 studies evaluating asthma which showed a 50% increased pooled relative risk in cleaners (meta-relative risk (RR)=1.50; 95% CI 1.44 to 1.56). Population-based cross-sectional studies showed more stable associations with asthma risk. No evidence of atopic asthma as dominant phenotype emerged. Also, we estimated a 43% increased risk (meta-RR=1.43; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.56) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Evidence for associations with bronchial-hyper-responsiveness, lung function decline, rhinitis, upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms was weaker. In our systematic review and meta-analysis, we found that working as a cleaner is associated with an increased risk of reversible and even irreversible obstructive airway diseases. All studies lacked quantitative exposure assessment to cleaning products; this would help elucidate underlying causal agents and mechanisms. Exposure control and respiratory surveillance among cleaners is warranted to prevent the associated respiratory health burden. Trial registration number: CRD4201705915.

14.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.

15.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020016, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921712

RESUMO

The paper wants to present the data of infection of the Health Care Workers of a research and teaching hospital in Milan, Italy. The majority (2554, 55.9%) of 4572 HCWs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 8.8% were found positive. Most of the tested workers were women, but we found higher relative frequency of positivity for men, even after adjustment for age, working area, and occupation. The higher frequency of positive tests in the medicine area is probably explained by the higher concentration in that area of COVID-19 patients. Conversely, the low frequency of positive HCWs in intensive care units is  probably explained by the diffuse and continuous use of PPD. Our results show that HCWs in a research and teaching hospital in the most hit Region in Italy had a similar pattern of infection as all other HCWs all over the world. The problem of SARS-CoV-2 infections among the hospital personnel HCWs should remind us  the concerns about hospital acquired infections both for patients and HCWs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
16.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994139

RESUMO

Cancer is often complicated by the deterioration of both muscle mass and function, which may be more pronounced in older people. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies according to tumour type, stage and sarcopenia definition; in gynaecologic malignancies it ranges from 25 to 50%. Unfortunately, sarcopenia is often underdiagnosed especially in overweight and obese patients. The consequences of sarcopenia are serious: shorter time of tumour progression, increased chemotherapy-related toxicity, post-operative complications, poor functional status, hospitalisation, increased length of hospital stay, high 30-day readmission rate and mortality. Therefore, its precocious recognition and treatment is of paramount importance. We demonstrated that obesity can mask sarcopenia, taking into consideration a sample of older patient with cancer, unless body composition evaluation and comprehensive geriatric assessment, including measures of muscle strength and performance, is executed. Our work underlines the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to older patients with cancer to optimize their management.

17.
Crit Care Med ; 48(11): 1636-1644, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Supplementation of antithrombin might decrease the amount of heparin needed to achieve a given anticoagulation target during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. However, exogenous antithrombin itself may increase the risk of bleeding. We conceived a study to evaluate the effect of antithrombin supplementation in adult patients requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure on heparin dose, adequacy of anticoagulation, and safety. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: ICUs of two Italian referral extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers. PATIENTS: Adult patients requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure and unfractionated heparin for systemic anticoagulation. INTERVENTIONS: Before extracorporeal membrane oxygenation start, patients were randomized to either receive antithrombin concentrate to maintain a plasmatic level 80-120% (treatment) or not (control) during the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation course. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was the total amount of heparin required to maintain activated partial thromboplastin time ratio 1.5-2. Secondary outcomes were anti-factor Xa, the incidence of hemorrhagic and thrombotic events, and the amount of blood products transfused. Twenty-four patients in the treatment group and 24 in the control group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Antithrombin was 109.5% (93.0-123.0%) in the treatment group and 84.0% (68.5-98.0%) in the control group (p = 0.001). Supplementation of antithrombin did not decrease heparin dose (13.5 international units/kg/hr [9.6-17.9 international units/kg/hr] vs 15.1 international units/kg/hr [10.7-18.3 international units/kg/hr] in the treatment and control group, respectively; p = 0.33) and anti-Factor Xa levels (0.4 international units/mL [0.3-0.5 international units/mL] vs 0.3 international units/mL [0.2-0.5 international units/mL] in the treatment group and control group respectively; p = 0.65). Bleeding, blood product transfusions, and thrombosis were not different in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Antithrombin supplementation may not decrease heparin requirement nor diminish the incidence of bleeding and/or thrombosis in adult patients on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

18.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Psycholeptic drugs have been used in the older population for years, especially to control delirium and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of dementia. However, data from the literature confirm that the prolonged use of psycholeptics may be responsible for adverse reactions in older patients. The aim of this study was (1) to identify how many patients receive the first prescription of a psycholeptic drug during the hospital stay; (2) to evaluate the main sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of these patients; and (3) to verify if the prescribed psycholeptic drugs are continued after 3 months from the hospital discharge. DESIGN: Our retrospective study was based on data from the REPOSI (REgistro POliterapie SIMI) registry, a cohort of older patients hospitalized in internal medicine and geriatric wards throughout Italy from 2010 to 2018. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 65 years or older who were not on home therapy with psycholeptic drugs were considered in the analyses. METHODS: We did both univariate and multivariate analyses in order to find the variables associated independently to an increased risk for first psycholeptic prescription at hospital discharge. RESULTS: At hospital discharge, 193 patients (5.8%) out of a total sample of 3322 patients were prescribed at least 1 psycholeptic drug. Cognitive impairment was the main risk factor for the introduction of psycholeptic drugs at discharge. Among them, 89.1% were still on therapy with a psycholeptic drug after 3 months from the hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Cognitive impairment represents the main risk factor for psycholeptic initiation in hospitalized older patients. The vast majority of these treatments are chronically continued after the discharge. Therefore, special attention is needed in prescribing psycholeptics at discharge, because their prolonged use may lead to cognitive decline. Moreover, their continued use should be questioned by physicians providing post-acute care, and deprescribing should be considered.

19.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 35(10): 1997-2001, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shigatoxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most common causes of hemolytic uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS). The aim of our study is to compare the risk of developing STEC-HUS in relation to the type of Stx genes (Stx1, Stx2, or both). METHODS: This is a prospective, observational, multicenter study involving 63 pediatric units in Northern Italy (ItalKid-HUS Network). STEC-infected children were identified within a screening program for bloody diarrhea during a 10-year period (2010-2019). Stx genes were detected by reverse dot blot or real-time PCR. After the identification of STEC infection, children were followed until diarrhea complete recovery for the possible development of STEC-HUS. RESULTS: Of the 214 Stx-positive patients, 34 (15.9%) developed STEC-HUS. The risk of HUS in STEC-infected children with Stx1 (n: 62; 29.0%) and Stx2 (n: 97; 45.3%) was respectively 0% and 23.7%, while in patients carrying both Stx1 and Stx2 (n: 55; 25.7%), the risk was 12.7% (p: 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that Stx1 is a very rare cause of STEC-HUS and demonstrate that the risk of STEC-HUS halves in the case of Stx1+2-producing Escherichia coli infection compared with infections where Stx2 is present alone. This observation is helpful in assessing the risk of individual STEC-infected patients for the development of HUS and suggests that Stx1, in the presence of Stx2, might exert a protective role possibly by receptor competition.

20.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 41: e20190378, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify in the literature the carcinogenic agents found in the work environment, the occupations and the risk for lung cancer. METHOD: A descriptive and analytical study of the Integrative Literature Review type was carried out in national and international databases from the last ten years in the period from 2009 to 2018, concerning 32 studies referring to association between carcinogenic substances to which the worker is exposed and lung cancer. RESULTS: Nine (28.1%) publications originated in China and only one in Brazil. The most exposed workers were from the secondary sector, 50% being from industry and 6.2% from construction, mostly male. Asbestos and silica stood out among the carcinogenic substances most associated with lung cancer risk, accounting for 37.5% and 28.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The association between occupational exposure and the risk for lung cancer was characterized in this research by the substantial scientific evidence from the described studies that confirm this association.

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