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1.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 56-70, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995719

RESUMO

Rhadinorhynchus hiansi Soota and Bhattacharya, 1981 , has remained unknown since its original incomplete description from 2 male specimens collected from the flat needlefish Ablennes hians Valenciennes (Belonidae) off Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Recent collections of fishes along the Pacific coast of Vietnam in 2016 and 2017 produced many specimens of the same species from the striped bonito Sarda orientalis Temminck and Schlegel (Scombridae) off the southern Pacific coast of Vietnam at Nha Trang. We describe females for the first time, assign a female allotype status, and provide an expanded description of males from a larger collection completing missing information on hooks and hook roots, receptacle, lemnisci, cement glands, Saefftigen's pouch, and trunk spines. Specimens of R. hiansi characteristically have no dorsal spines in the posterior field of trunk spines and a long proboscis with 36-48 dorso-ventrally differentiated proboscis hooks per row becoming progressively smaller posteriorly then increasing in size near the posterior end to a maximum at the posterior-most ring. Trunk, testes, and lemnisci in our specimens were considerably larger than those reported in the original description, but the proboscis was relatively smaller. The females had long reproductive system and corrugated elliptic eggs without polar prolongation of fertilization membrane. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) demonstrates high levels of calcium and phosphorus in large gallium cut hooks and high levels of sulfur in tip cuts of large and small hooks and in spines. This EDXA pattern is a characteristic fingerprint of R. hiansi. The molecular profile of R. hiansi is described from 18S rDNA and COI genes, and phylogenetic relationships with most closely related species are discussed.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Beloniformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Algoritmos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Peixes , Gálio , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Espectrometria por Raios X/veterinária , Vietnã
2.
Int J Parasitol ; 49(9): 669-683, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228422

RESUMO

We explored the relationships between features of host species and their environment, and the diversity, composition and structure of parasite faunas and communities using a large taxonomically consistent dataset of host-parasite associations and host-prey associations, and original environmental and host trait data (diet, trophic level, population density and habitat depth vagility) for the most abundant demersal fish species off the Catalonian coast of the Western Mediterranean. Altogether 98 species/taxa belonging to seven major parasite groups were recovered in 683 fish belonging to 10 species from seven families and four orders. Our analyses revealed that (i) the parasite fauna of the region is rich and dominated by digeneans; (ii) the host parasite faunas and communities exhibited wide variations in richness, abundance and similarity due to a strong phylogenetic component; (iii) the levels of host sharing were low and involved host generalists and larval parasites; (iv) the multivariate similarity pattern of prey samples showed significant associations with hosts and host trophic guilds; (v) prey compositional similarity was not associated with the similarity of trophically transmitted parasite assemblages; and (vi) phylogeny and fish autecological traits were the best predictors of parasite community metrics in the host-parasite system studied.

3.
Parasite ; 26: 14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838975

RESUMO

Rhadinorhynchus laterospinosus Amin, Heckmann & Ha, 2011 (Rhadinorhynchidae) was described from a single female collected from a trigger fish, Balistes sp. (Balistidae) from the northern Pacific coast of Vietnam in Halong Bay, Gulf of Tonkin. More recent collections of fishes in 2016 and 2017 revealed wider host and geographical distributions. We report this Acanthocephala from nine species of fish representing six families (including the original record from Balistes sp.) along the whole Pacific coast of Vietnam. The fish species are Alectis ciliaris (Carangidae), Auxis rochei (Scombridae), Auxis thazard (Scombridae), Leiognathus equulus (Leiognathidae), Lutjanus bitaeniatus (Lutjanidae), Megalaspis cordyla (Carangidae), Nuchequula flavaxilla (Leiognathidae), and Tylosurus sp. (Belonidae). We provide a complete description of males and females of R. laterospinosus, discuss its hook metal microanalysis using EDAX, and its micropores. Specimens of this species characteristically have lateral trunk spines bridging the anterior ring of spines with posterior field of ventral spines and a proboscis with 15-19 longitudinal alternating rows of 21-26 hooks each varying with host species. We demonstrate the effect of host species on the distribution and size of the trunk, proboscis, proboscis hooks, trunk spines, and reproductive structures. The molecular profile of this acanthocephalan, based on 18S rDNA and cox1 genes, groups with other Rhadinorhynchus species and further seems to confirm the paraphyly of the genus, which is discussed.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Perciformes/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Masculino , Oceano Pacífico , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Vietnã
4.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(2): 149-169, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747406

RESUMO

The species diversity of Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Lepidapediae) in the Western Mediterranean was assessed based on samples from five deep-sea gadiform fishes collected between the Balearic Islands and the Catalonian coast of Spain: Lepidion lepidion (Risso) and Mora moro (Risso) (both Moridae); Coelorinchus mediterraneus Iwamoto & Ungaro and Trachyrincus scabrus (Rafinesque) (both Macrouridae); and Phycis blennoides (Brünnich) (Phycidae). Integration of morphological and molecular evidence (28S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial nad1 gene) revealed that the deep-sea fishes in the Western Mediterranean share two species of Lepidapedon. Lepidapedon desclersae Bray & Gibson, 1995 was recovered in all five fish species of three families [Moridae (L. lepidion and M. moro); Macrouridae (C. mediterraneus and T. scabrus); and Phycidae (P. blennoides)] and L. guevarai Lopez-Roman & Maillard, 1973 was recovered in three fish species of three families [Phycidae (P. blennoides); Macrouridae (T. scabrus); and Moridae (L. lepidion)]. Therefore, both species are considered to be euryxenic but restricted to gadiforms. The voucher material for the two species from different fish hosts is described in detail and the host-related variability based on the morphometric data is assessed.


Assuntos
Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética
5.
Parasitol Res ; 117(11): 3497-3505, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187169

RESUMO

Hamaticolax juanji n. sp. is described from specimens collected from the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus Delaroche 1809 (Scorpaeniformes: Sebastidae). It is the second Hamaticolax species described and reported from the Mediterranean Sea, after Ha. resupinus Pérez-i-García, Carrassón and Boxshall, 2017. It is distinguished from Ha. resupinus by the presence of only one dorsal naked seta on the third segment of the antennule (vs. four), two unequal short naked setae in distal part of the antenna (vs. four), and the absence of a minute spine on the third endopodal segment of leg 1, among others. It is differentiated from Ha. prolixus Cressey 1969 by a comparatively reduced fourth pedigerous somite, the presence of two naked setae on the third segment of the antennule (vs. three), two naked setae and three curved claws in the distal part of the apical segment of the antenna (vs. three and four), an outer naked seta on the basis of leg 2, and by larger length/width ratio of the third endopodal segment, among others. Hamaticolax juanji n. sp. also has relatively longer inner setae on the first and second endopodal segments of leg 4 than the two former species. Patterns of host-use and host-specificity of the genus Hamaticolax are also discussed. The frequently observed low host-specificity of its members may be better explained by host ecological similarity and host availability phenomena, rather than by host phylogenetic distance.


Assuntos
Copépodes/anatomia & histologia , Copépodes/classificação , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Ecologia , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Mar Mediterrâneo , Filogenia
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 133: 44-52, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041334

RESUMO

Microplastic (MP) ingestion has been reported in a wide variety of organisms, however, its spatial occurrence and effects on wild populations remain quite unknown. The present study targets an economically and ecologically key species in the Mediterranean Sea, the shrimp Aristeus antennatus. 39.2% of the individuals sampled had MP in their stomachs, albeit in areas close to Barcelona city the percentage reached values of 100%. Overall, MP ingestion was confirmed in a wide spatial and depth (630-1870 m) range, pointing out the great dispersion of this pollutant. The benthophagous diet and close relationship with the sea bottom of A. antennatus might enhance MP exposure and ultimately lead to accidental ingestion. Detailed analysis of shrimps' diet revealed that individuals with MP had a higher presence of endobenthic prey. Microplastic fibers are probably retained for long periods due to stomach's morphology, but no negative effects on shrimp's biological condition were observed.


Assuntos
/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos/análise , Estômago/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Parasitol Int ; 64(5): 345-52, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25979612

RESUMO

A new nematode species, Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) macrouri n. sp. (Anisakidae), is described from male and female specimens found in the intestine, and occasionally in stomach and pyloric caeca, of two deep-water macrourid fishes (Gadiformes) off Barcelona, Mediterranean Sea: Nezumia aequalis (Günther) (type-host) and Trachyrincus scabrus (Rafinesque). Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species shows similar morphological features as the other four valid species of the subgenus Raphidascaris Railliet & Henry, 1915, but it differs from Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) acus (Bloch, 1779), Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) lutjani Olsen, 1952 and Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) mediterraneus Lèbre & Petter, 1983 in the high number of precloacal papillae (23-32) and from Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) gigi Fujita, 1928 in the length of the spicules. Moreover, Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) macrouri n. sp. exhibits a high variability on the number and distribution of caudal papillae, which was not recorded in the other four mentioned species. This is the first species of this subgenus reported from the family Macrouridae. Sequences of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region are analysed and compared with closely related nematode species. Molecular analysis confirmed the uniformity of the R. (R.) macrouri n. sp. between hosts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
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