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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited susceptibility is an important contributor to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and rare variants in key genes or pathways could account in part for the missing proportion of CRC heritability. METHODS: We conducted an exome-wide association study including 2,327 cases and 2,966 controls of European ancestry from three large epidemiologic studies. Single variant associations were tested using logistic regression models adjusting for appropriate study-specific covariates. In addition, we examined the aggregate effects of rare coding variation at the gene and pathway levels using Bayesian model uncertainty techniques. RESULTS: In an exome-wide gene-level analysis, we identified ST6GALNAC2 as the top associated gene based on the Bayesian Risk Index (BRI) method (summary Bayes Factor[BF]BRI= 2604.23). A rare coding variant in this gene, rs139401613, was the top associated variant (P=1.01x10-6) in an exome-wide single variant analysis. Pathway-level association analyses based on the integrative Bayesian Risk Index (iBRI) method found extreme evidence of association with the DNA repair pathway (BFiBRI=17852.4), specifically with the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ, BFiBRI=437.95) and nucleotide excision repair (NER, BFiBRI=36.96) subpathways. The iBRI method also identified RPA2, PRKDC, ERCC5, ERCC8 as the top associated DNA repair genes (summary BFiBRI{greater than or equal to}10), with rs28988897, rs8178232, rs141369732, rs201642761 being the most likely associated variants in these genes, respectively. CONCLUSION: We identified novel variants and genes associated with CRC risk and provided additional evidence for a role of DNA repair in CRC tumorigenesis. IMPACT: This study provides new insights into the genetic predisposition to CRC which has potential for translation into improved risk prediction.

2.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined. DESIGN: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling. RESULTS: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.

3.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 1, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child blood pressure (BP) is predictive of future cardiovascular risk. Prenatal exposure to metals has been associated with higher BP in childhood, but most studies have evaluated elements individually and measured BP at a single time point. We investigated impacts of prenatal metal mixture exposures on longitudinal changes in BP during childhood and elevated BP at 11 years of age. METHODS: The current study included 176 mother-child pairs from the Rhea Study in Heraklion, Greece and focused on eight elements (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, lead, magnesium, molybdenum, selenium) measured in maternal urine samples collected during pregnancy (median gestational age at collection: 12 weeks). BP was measured at approximately 4, 6, and 11 years of age. Covariate-adjusted Bayesian Varying Coefficient Kernel Machine Regression and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) were used to evaluate metal mixture impacts on baseline and longitudinal changes in BP (from ages 4 to 11) and the development of elevated BP at age 11, respectively. BKMR results were compared using static versus percentile-based cutoffs to define elevated BP. RESULTS: Molybdenum and lead were the mixture components most consistently associated with BP. J-shaped relationships were observed between molybdenum and both systolic and diastolic BP at age 4. Similar associations were identified for both molybdenum and lead in relation to elevated BP at age 11. For molybdenum concentrations above the inflection points (~ 40-80 µg/L), positive associations with BP at age 4 were stronger at high levels of lead. Lead was positively associated with BP measures at age 4, but only at high levels of molybdenum. Potential interactions between molybdenum and lead were also identified for BP at age 11, but were sensitive to the cutoffs used to define elevated BP. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to high levels of molybdenum and lead, particularly in combination, may contribute to higher BP at age 4. These early effects appear to persist throughout childhood, contributing to elevated BP in adolescence. Future studies are needed to identify the major sources of molybdenum and lead in this population.

4.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 65-75, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398198

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404048

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated the usefulness of hierarchical modeling for incorporating a flexible array of prior information in genetic association studies. When this prior information consists of estimates from association analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-intermediate or SNP-gene expression, a hierarchical model is equivalent to a two-stage instrumental or transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) analysis, respectively. We propose to extend our previous approach for the joint analysis of marginal summary statistics to incorporate prior information via a hierarchical model (hJAM). In this framework, the use of appropriate estimates as prior information yields an analysis similar to Mendelian Randomization (MR) and TWAS approaches. hJAM is applicable to multiple correlated SNPs and intermediates to yield conditional estimates for the intermediates on the outcome, thus providing advantages over alternative approaches. We investigate the performance of hJAM in comparison to existing MR and TWAS approaches and demonstrate that hJAM yields an unbiased estimate, maintains correct type-I error and has increased power across extensive simulations. We apply hJAM to two examples: estimating the causal effects of body mass index (GIANT consortium) and type 2 diabetes (DIAGRAM, GERA, and UKB) on myocardial infarction (UK Biobank) and estimating the causal effects of the expressions of gene NUCKS1 and PM20D1 on the risk of prostate cancer (PRACTICAL and GTEx).

7.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020410, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110573

RESUMO

Background: Cleft is one of the most common birth defects globally and the lack of access to surgery means millions are living untreated. Smoke exposure from cooking occurs infrequently in developed countries but represents a high-proportion of smoke exposure in less-developed regions. We aimed to study if smoke exposure from cooking is associated with an increased risk in cleft, while accounting for other smoke sources. Methods: We conducted a population-sampled case-control study of children with cleft lip and/or palate and healthy newborns from Vietnam, Philippines, Honduras, Nicaragua, Morocco, Congo, and Madagascar. Multivariable regression models were used to assess associations between maternal cooking during pregnancy, parental smoking, and household tobacco smoke with cleft. Results: 2137 cases and 2014 controls recruited between 2012-2017 were included. While maternal smoking was uncommon (<1%), 58.3% case and 36.1% control mothers cooked over an open fire inside. Children whose mothers reported cook smoke exposure were 49% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-1.8) more likely to have a child with a cleft. This was consistent in five of seven countries. No significant associations were found for any other smoke exposure. Conclusions: Our finding of maternal cook smoke and cleft in low-resource countries, similar to maternal tobacco smoke in high-resource countries, may reflect a common etiology. This relationship was present across geographically diverse countries with variable socioeconomic statuses and access to care. Exposures specific to low-resource settings must be considered to develop public health strategies that address the populations at increased risk of living with cleft and inform the mechanisms leading to cleft development.

8.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2686-2692, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several SNPs associated with pancreatic cancer. No studies yet have attempted to replicate these SNPs in US minority populations. We aimed to replicate the associations of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs with pancreatic cancer and build and test a polygenic risk score (PRS) for pancreatic cancer in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS: We evaluated 31 risk variants in the Multiethnic Cohort and the Southern Community Cohort Study. We included 691 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cases and 13,778 controls from African-American, Japanese-American, Latino, Native Hawaiian, and white participants. We tested the association between each SNP and PDAC, established a PRS using the 31 SNPs, and tested the association between the score and PDAC risk. RESULTS: Eleven of the 31 SNPs were replicated in the multiethnic sample. The PRS was associated with PDAC risk [OR top vs. middle quintile = 2.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.73-2.92)]. Notably, the PRS was associated with PDAC risk in all ethnic groups except Native Hawaiian (OR per risk allele ranged from 1.33 in Native Hawaiians to 1.91 in African Americans; P heterogeneity = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to replicate 11 of the 31 GWAS-identified risk variants for pancreatic cancer in multiethnic populations, including African Americans, Japanese Americans, and Latinos. Our results also suggest a potential utility of PRS with GWAS-identified risk variants for the identification of individuals at increased risk for PDAC across multiple ethnic groups. IMPACT: PRS can potentially be used to stratify pancreatic cancer risk across multiple ethnic groups.

10.
Environ Int ; 145: 106091, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exposure is ubiquitous among the US population and has been linked to adverse health outcomes including cardiometabolic diseases, immune dysregulation and endocrine disruption. However, the metabolic mechanism underlying the adverse health effect of PFASs exposure is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this project is to investigate the association between PFASs exposure and altered metabolic pathways linked to increased cardiometabolic risk in young adults. METHODS: A total of 102 young adults with 82% overweight or obese participants were enrolled from Southern California between 2014 and 2017. Cardiometabolic outcomes were assessed including oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measures, body fat and lipid profiles. High-resolution metabolomics was used to quantify plasma exposure levels of three PFAS congeners and intensity profiles of the untargeted metabolome. Fasting concentrations of 45 targeted metabolites involved in fatty acid and lipid metabolism were used to verify untargeted metabolomics findings. Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) was used to examine the associations between PFAS exposure mixture and cardiometabolic outcomes adjusting for covariates. Mummichog pathway enrichment analysis was used to explore PFAS-associated metabolic pathways. Moreover, the effect of PFAS exposure on the metabolic network, including metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic outcomes, was investigated. RESULTS: Higher exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was associated with higher 30-minute glucose levels and glucose area under the curve (AUC) during the OGTT (p < 0.001). PFAS exposure was also associated with altered lipid pathways, which contributed to the metabolic network connecting PFOA and higher glucose levels following the OGTT. Targeted metabolomics analysis indicated that higher PFOA exposure was associated with higher levels of glycerol (p = 0.006), which itself was associated with higher 30-minute glucose (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Increased lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation could contribute to the biological mechanisms linking PFAS exposure and impaired glucose metabolism among young adults. Findings of this study warrants future experimental studies and epidemiological studies with larger sample size to replicate.

11.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 4: 32-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832836

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In studies of men of European ancestry, rare pathogenic variants in DNA repair pathway genes have been shown to be associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. The contribution of rare coding variation to prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry has not been established. METHODS: We sequenced a panel of 19 DNA repair and cancer predisposition genes in 2,453 African American and 1,151 Ugandan prostate cancer cases and controls. Rare variants were classified as pathogenic or putatively functionally disruptive and examined in association with prostate cancer risk and disease aggressiveness in gene and pathway-level association analyses. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants were found in 75 out of 2,098 cases (3.6%) and 31 out of 1,481 controls (2.1%) (OR=1.82, 95% CI=1.19 to 2.79, P=0.0044) with the association being stronger for more aggressive disease phenotypes (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.54 to 6.23, P=0.0022). The highest risks for aggressive disease were observed with pathogenic variants in the ATM, BRCA2, PALB2 and NBN genes, with odds ratios ranging from ~4 to 15 in the combined study sample of African American and Ugandan men. Rare, non-pathogenic, non-synonymous variants did not have a major impact on risk of overall prostate cancer or disease aggressiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Rare pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes have appreciable effects on risk of aggressive prostate cancer in men of African ancestry. These findings have potential implications for panel testing and risk stratification in this high-risk population.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to identify factors specifically associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We investigated whether rare pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or deleterious (P/LP/D) germline variants in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive PCa risk in a case-case study of aggressive versus non-aggressive disease. METHODS: Participants were 5,545 European-ancestry men, including 2,775 non-aggressive and 2,770 aggressive PCa cases, which included 467 metastatic cases (16.9%). Samples were assembled from 12 international studies and germline sequenced together. Rare (minor allele frequency<0.01) P/LP/D variants were analyzed for 155 DNA repair genes. We compared single variant, gene-based, and DNA repair pathway-based burdens by disease aggressiveness. All statistical tests are two-sided. RESULTS: BRCA2 and PALB2 had the most statistically significant gene-based associations, with 2.5% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D BRCA2 alleles (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.94 to 5.25, P = 8.58x10-7) and 0.65% of aggressive and 0.11% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D PALB2 alleles (OR = 6.31, 95% CI = 1.83 to 21.68, P = 4.79x10-4). ATM had a nominal association, with 1.6% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D ATM alleles (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.22, P=.02). In aggregate, P/LP/D alleles within 24 literature-curated candidate PCa DNA repair genes were more common in aggressive than non-aggressive cases (carrier frequencies=14.2% versus 10.6%, respectively; P = 5.56x10-5). However, this difference was statistically non-significant (P=.18) upon excluding BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. Among these 24 genes, P/LP/D carriers had a 1.06-year younger diagnosis age (95% CI=-1,65 to 0.48, P = 3.71x10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Risk conveyed by DNA repair genes is largely driven by rare P/LP/D alleles within BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. These findings support the importance of these genes in both screening and disease management considerations.

13.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(10): e1169-e1180, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469686

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multiple myeloma (MM) treatment has changed tremendously, with significant improvement in patient out-comes. One group with a suboptimal benefit is patients with high-risk cytogenetics, as tested by conventional karyotyping or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Methodology for these tests has been published, but not necessarily standardized. METHODS: We address variability in the testing and reporting methodology for MM cytogenetics in the United States using the ongoing African American Multiple Myeloma Study (AAMMS). We evaluated clinical and cytogenetic data from 1,221 patients (1,161 with conventional karyotyping and 976 with FISH) tested between 1998 and 2016 across 58 laboratories nationwide. RESULTS: Interlab and intralab variability was noted for the number of cells analyzed for karyotyping, with a significantly higher number of cells analyzed in patients in whom cytogenetics were normal (P 5.0025). For FISH testing, CD138-positive cell enrichment was used in 29.7% of patients and no enrichment in 50% of patients, whereas the remainder had unknown status. A significantly smaller number of cells was analyzed for patients in which CD138 cell enrichment was used compared with those without such enrichment (median, 50 v 200; P, .0001). A median of 7 loci probes (range, 1-16) were used for FISH testing across all laboratories, with variability in the loci probed even within a given laboratory. Chromosome 13-related abnormalities were the most frequently tested abnormality (n5956; 97.9%), and t(14;16) was the least frequently tested abnormality (n 5 119; 12.2%). CONCLUSIONS: We report significant variability in cytogenetic testing across the United States for MM, potentially leading to variability in risk stratification, with possible clinical implications and personalized treatment approaches.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1381-1388, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The four-kallikrein (4K) panel has been demonstrated to improve prediction of aggressive prostate cancer compared with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) among men with moderately elevated PSA levels. However, the development and testing of the 4K panel has been conducted primarily in White men, with limited data in African Americans and no studies in other racial and ethnic groups. METHODS: We evaluated the 4K panel in a nested case-control study among African American, Latino, Japanese, Native Hawaiian, and White men in the Multiethnic Cohort. Prediagnostic blood levels of free, intact, and total PSA and human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 were measured among 1,667 incident prostate cancer cases and 691 controls with PSA ≥2 ng/mL. We evaluated the discriminative ability of the 4K panel within and across all racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: The 4K panel enhanced discrimination of overall prostate cancer compared with free plus total PSA and total PSA alone (AUC 0.748 vs. 0.711 and 0.669, respectively). Discrimination was further enhanced for Gleason 8+ prostate cancer, aggressive prostate cancer, and death due to prostate cancer, and to a lesser degree for nonaggressive prostate cancer. Improvement of the 4K panel over PSA was observed in each population. Adding a prostate cancer polygenic risk score slightly improved upon the discriminative ability of the 4K panel. CONCLUSIONS: The superior discriminative ability of the 4K panel over PSA for overall and aggressive prostate cancer across multiethnic populations indicates the broad clinical applicability of the 4K panel. IMPACT: Our multiethnic investigation suggests potential for the 4K panel to improve current prostate cancer screening practices.

15.
Cancer Med ; 9(10): 3563-3573, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and diabetes are established risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), likely through perturbations in metabolic traits (e.g. insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis). Identification of interactions between variation in genes and these metabolic risk factors may identify novel biologic insights into CRC etiology. METHODS: To improve statistical power and interpretation for gene-environment interaction (G × E) testing, we tested genetic variants that regulate expression of a gene together for interaction with BMI (kg/m2 ) and diabetes on CRC risk among 26 017 cases and 20 692 controls. Each variant was weighted based on PrediXcan analysis of gene expression data from colon tissue generated in the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project for all genes with heritability ≥1%. We used a mixed-effects model to jointly measure the G × E interaction in a gene by partitioning the interactions into the predicted gene expression levels (fixed effects), and residual G × E effects (random effects). G × BMI analyses were stratified by sex as BMI-CRC associations differ by sex. We used false discovery rates to account for multiple comparisons and reported all results with FDR <0.2. RESULTS: Among 4839 genes tested, genetically predicted expressions of FOXA1 (P = 3.15 × 10-5 ), PSMC5 (P = 4.51 × 10-4 ) and CD33 (P = 2.71 × 10-4 ) modified the association of BMI on CRC risk for men; KIAA0753 (P = 2.29 × 10-5 ) and SCN1B (P = 2.76 × 10-4 ) modified the association of BMI on CRC risk for women; and PTPN2 modified the association between diabetes and CRC risk in both sexes (P = 2.31 × 10-5 ). CONCLUSIONS: Aggregating G × E interactions and incorporating functional information, we discovered novel genes that may interact with BMI and diabetes on CRC risk.

16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e201007, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176304

RESUMO

Importance: The balance of mercury risk and nutritional benefit from fish intake during pregnancy for the metabolic health of offspring to date is unknown. Objective: To assess the associations of fish intake and mercury exposure during pregnancy with metabolic syndrome in children and alterations in biomarkers of inflammation in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based prospective birth cohort study used data from studies performed in 5 European countries (France, Greece, Norway, Spain, and the UK) between April 1, 2003, and February 26, 2016, as part of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) project. Mothers and their singleton offspring were followed up until the children were aged 6 to 12 years. Data were analyzed between March 1 and August 2, 2019. Exposures: Maternal fish intake during pregnancy (measured in times per week) was assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires, and maternal mercury concentration (measured in micrograms per liter) was assessed using maternal whole blood and cord blood samples. Main Outcomes and Measures: An aggregate metabolic syndrome score for children was calculated using the z scores of waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin. A higher metabolic syndrome score (score range, -4.9 to 7.5) indicated a poorer metabolic profile. Three protein panels were used to measure several cytokines and adipokines in the plasma of children. Results: The study included 805 mothers and their singleton children. Among mothers, the mean (SD) age at cohort inclusion or delivery of their infant was 31.3 (4.6) years. A total of 400 women (49.7%) had a high educational level, and 432 women (53.7%) were multiparous. Among children, the mean (SD) age was 8.4 (1.5) years (age range, 6-12 years). A total of 453 children (56.3%) were boys, and 734 children (91.2%) were of white race/ethnicity. Fish intake consistent with health recommendations (1 to 3 times per week) during pregnancy was associated with a 1-U decrease in metabolic syndrome score in children (ß = -0.96; 95% CI, -1.49 to -0.42) compared with low fish consumption (<1 time per week) after adjusting for maternal mercury levels and other covariates. No further benefit was observed with fish intake of more than 3 times per week. A higher maternal mercury concentration was independently associated with an increase in the metabolic syndrome score of their offspring (ß per 2-fold increase in mercury concentration = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.01-0.34). Compared with low fish intake, moderate and high fish intake during pregnancy were associated with reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines in children. An integrated analysis identified a cluster of children with increased susceptibility to metabolic disease, which was characterized by low fish consumption during pregnancy, high maternal mercury levels, decreased levels of adiponectin in children, and increased levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor α, and the cytokines interleukin 6 and interleukin 1ß in children. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that moderate fish intake consistent with current health recommendations during pregnancy was associated with improvements in the metabolic health of children, while high maternal mercury exposure was associated with an unfavorable metabolic profile in children.


Assuntos
Peixes , Inflamação/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/metabolismo , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 860-870, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 748, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937870

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

19.
Bioinformatics ; 36(3): 842-850, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504184

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Epidemiologic, clinical and translational studies are increasingly generating multiplatform omics data. Methods that can integrate across multiple high-dimensional data types while accounting for differential patterns are critical for uncovering novel associations and underlying relevant subgroups. RESULTS: We propose an integrative model to estimate latent unknown clusters (LUCID) aiming to both distinguish unique genomic, exposure and informative biomarkers/omic effects while jointly estimating subgroups relevant to the outcome of interest. Simulation studies indicate that we can obtain consistent estimates reflective of the true simulated values, accurately estimate subgroups and recapitulate subgroup-specific effects. We also demonstrate the use of the integrated model for future prediction of risk subgroups and phenotypes. We apply this approach to two real data applications to highlight the integration of genomic, exposure and metabolomic data. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The LUCID method is implemented through the LUCIDus R package available on CRAN (https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=LUCIDus). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Genômica , Software , Biomarcadores , Análise por Conglomerados , Fenótipo
20.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1819-1826, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226226

RESUMO

Latinos represent <1% of samples analyzed to date in genome-wide association studies of cancer. The clinical value of genetic information in guiding personalized medicine in populations of non-European ancestry will require additional discovery and risk locus characterization efforts across populations. In the present study, we performed a GWAS of prostate cancer (PrCa) in 2,820 Latino PrCa cases and 5,293 controls to search for novel PrCa risk loci and to examine the generalizability of known PrCa risk loci in Latino men. We also conducted a genetic admixture-mapping scan to identify PrCa risk alleles associated with local ancestry. Genome-wide significant associations were observed with 84 variants all located at the known PrCa risk regions at 8q24 (128.484-128.548) and 10q11.22 (MSMB gene). In admixture mapping, we observed genome-wide significant associations with local African ancestry at 8q24. Of the 162 established PrCa risk variants that are common in Latino men, 135 (83.3%) had effects that were directionally consistent as previously reported, among which 55 (34.0%) were statistically significant with p < 0.05. A polygenic risk model of the known PrCa risk variants showed that, compared to men with average risk (25th-75th percentile of the polygenic risk score distribution), men in the top 10% had a 3.19-fold (95% CI: 2.65, 3.84) increased PrCa risk. In conclusion, we found that the known PrCa risk variants can effectively stratify PrCa risk in Latino men. Larger studies in Latino populations will be required to discover and characterize genetic risk variants for PrCa and improve risk stratification for this population.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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