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1.
J Exp Med ; 216(12): 2778-2799, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601675

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by immune dysregulation due to inadequate restraint of overactivated immune cells and is associated with a variable clinical spectrum having overlap with more common pathophysiologies. HLH is difficult to diagnose and can be part of inflammatory syndromes. Here, we identify a novel hematological/autoinflammatory condition (NOCARH syndrome) in four unrelated patients with superimposable features, including neonatal-onset cytopenia with dyshematopoiesis, autoinflammation, rash, and HLH. Patients shared the same de novo CDC42 mutation (Chr1:22417990C>T, p.R186C) and altered hematopoietic compartment, immune dysregulation, and inflammation. CDC42 mutations had been associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders. In vitro and in vivo assays documented unique effects of p.R186C on CDC42 localization and function, correlating with the distinctiveness of the trait. Emapalumab was critical to the survival of one patient, who underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. Early recognition of the disorder and establishment of treatment followed by bone marrow transplant are important to survival.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 447, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949166

RESUMO

The thymus plays a fundamental role in establishing and maintaining central and peripheral tolerance and defects in thymic architecture or AIRE expression result in the development of autoreactive lymphocytes. Patients with partial DiGeorge Syndrome (pDGS) and Down Syndrome (DS) present alterations in size and architecture of the thymus and higher risk to develop autoimmunity. We sought to evaluate thymic architecture and thymocyte development in DGS and DS patients and to determine the extent to which thymic defects result in immune dysregulation and T cell homeostasis perturbation in these patients. Thymi from pediatric patients and age-matched controls were obtained to evaluate cortex and medullary compartments, AIRE expression and thymocyte development. In the same patients we also characterized immunophenotype of peripheral T cells. Phenotypic and functional characterization of thymic and peripheral regulatory T (Treg) cells was finally assessed. Histologic analysis revealed peculiar alterations in thymic medulla size and maturation in DGS and DS patients. Perturbed distribution of thymocytes and altered thymic output was also observed. DGS patients showed lower mature CD4+ and CD8+ T cell frequency, associated with reduced proportion and function of Tregs both in thymus and peripheral blood. DS patients showed increased frequency of single positive (SP) thymocytes and thymic Treg cells. However, Tregs isolated both from thymus and peripheral blood of DS patients showed reduced suppressive ability. Our results provide novel insights on thymic defects associated with DGS and DS and their impact on peripheral immune dysregulation. Indeed, thymic abnormalities and defect in thymocyte development, in particular in Treg cell number and function could contribute in the pathogenesis of the immunodysregulation present in pDGS and in DS patients.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031743

RESUMO

Background: Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic immune disorders. While some PIDs can manifest with more than one phenotype, signs, and symptoms of various PIDs overlap considerably. Recently, novel defects in immune-related genes and additional variants in previously reported genes responsible for PIDs have been successfully identified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), allowing the recognition of a broad spectrum of disorders. Objective: To evaluate the strength and weakness of targeted NGS sequencing using custom-made Ion Torrent and Haloplex (Agilent) panels for diagnostics and research purposes. Methods: Five different panels including known and candidate genes were used to screen 105 patients with distinct PID features divided in three main PID categories: T cell defects, Humoral defects and Other PIDs. The Ion Torrent sequencing platform was used in 73 patients. Among these, 18 selected patients without a molecular diagnosis and 32 additional patients were analyzed by Haloplex enrichment technology. Results: The complementary use of the two custom-made targeted sequencing approaches allowed the identification of causative variants in 28.6% (n = 30) of patients. Twenty-two out of 73 (34.6%) patients were diagnosed by Ion Torrent. In this group 20 were included in the SCID/CID category. Eight out of 50 (16%) patients were diagnosed by Haloplex workflow. Ion Torrent method was highly successful for those cases with well-defined phenotypes for immunological and clinical presentation. The Haloplex approach was able to diagnose 4 SCID/CID patients and 4 additional patients with complex and extended phenotypes, embracing all three PID categories in which this approach was more efficient. Both technologies showed good gene coverage. Conclusions: NGS technology represents a powerful approach in the complex field of rare disorders but its different application should be weighted. A relatively small NGS target panel can be successfully applied for a robust diagnostic suspicion, while when the spectrum of clinical phenotypes overlaps more than one PID an in-depth NGS analysis is required, including also whole exome/genome sequencing to identify the causative gene.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(7): 2369-2376, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) may develop severe thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia. There are no reliable predictors for the development of hematologic autoimmunity (HA) in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe the peculiar B and T subpopulation defects in patients with 22q11DS who have developed HA and test if these defects precede the development of HA. METHODS: We performed a case-control multicenter study. Patients with HA were compared with a control population of 22q11.2DS without HA (non-HA). A complete immunological evaluation was performed at diagnosis and at the last follow-up including extensive T and B phenotypes. RESULTS: Immunophenotype at the last follow-up was available in 23 HA and 45 non-HA patients. HA patients had significantly decreased percentage of naïve CD4+ cells (26.8% vs 43.2%, P = .003) and recent thymic emigrants (48.6% vs 80.5%, P = .046); decreased class-switched B cells (2.0% vs 5.9%, P = .04) and increased naive B cells (83.5% vs 71.4%, P = .02); increased CD16+/56+ both in absolute number (312 vs 199, P = .009) and percentage (20.0% vs 13.0%, P = .03). Immunophenotype was performed in 36 patients (11 HA and 25 non-HA) at diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) of immune cytopenia were estimated for both CD4 naïve ≤30% (OR 14.0, P = .002) and switched memory B cells ≤2% (OR 44.0, P = .01). The estimated survival curves reached statistical significance, respectively, P = .0001 and P = .002. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with 22q11.2DS, those with HA have characteristic lymphocyte anomalies that appear considerably before HA onset. Systematic immunophenotyping of patients with 22q11.2DS at diagnosis is advisable for early identification of patients at risk for this severe complication.

7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837984

RESUMO

We described for the first time a female patient with the simultaneous presence of two homozygous mutations in MYD88 and CARD9 genes presenting with pyogenic bacterial infections, elevated IgE, and persistent EBV viremia. In addition to defective TLR/IL1R-signaling, we described novel functional alterations into the myeloid compartment. In particular, we demonstrated a defective production of reactive oxygen species exclusively in monocytes upon E. coli stimulation, the inability of immature mono-derived DCs (iDCs) to differentiate into mature DCs (mDCs) and the incapacity of mono-derived macrophages (MDMs) to resolve BCG infection in vitro. Our data do not provide any evidence for digenic inheritance in our patient, but rather for the association of two monogenic disorders. This case illustrates the importance of using next generation sequencing (NGS) to determine the most accurate and early diagnosis in atypical clinical and immunological phenotypes, and with particular concern in consanguineous families. Indeed, besides the increased susceptibility to recurrent invasive pyogenic bacterial infections due to MYD88 deficiency, the identification of CARD9 mutations underline the risk of developing invasive fungal infections emphasizing the careful monitoring for the occurrence of fungal infection and the opportunity of long-term antifungal prophylaxis.

8.
Front Immunol ; 9: 543, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599784

RESUMO

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) δ Syndrome (APDS), caused by autosomal dominant mutations in PIK3CD (APDS1) or PIK3R1 (APDS2), is a heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency. While initial cohort-descriptions summarized the spectrum of clinical and immunological manifestations, questions about long-term disease evolution and response to therapy remain. The prospective European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID)-APDS registry aims to characterize the disease course, identify outcome predictors, and evaluate treatment responses. So far, 77 patients have been recruited (51 APDS1, 26 APDS2). Analysis of disease evolution in the first 68 patients pinpoints the early occurrence of recurrent respiratory infections followed by chronic lymphoproliferation, gastrointestinal manifestations, and cytopenias. Although most manifestations occur by age 15, adult-onset and asymptomatic courses were documented. Bronchiectasis was observed in 24/40 APDS1 patients who received a CT-scan compared with 4/15 APDS2 patients. By age 20, half of the patients had received at least one immunosuppressant, but 2-3 lines of immunosuppressive therapy were not unusual before age 10. Response to rapamycin was rated by physician visual analog scale as good in 10, moderate in 9, and poor in 7. Lymphoproliferation showed the best response (8 complete, 11 partial, 6 no remission), while bowel inflammation (3 complete, 3 partial, 9 no remission) and cytopenia (3 complete, 2 partial, 9 no remission) responded less well. Hence, non-lymphoproliferative manifestations should be a key target for novel therapies. This report from the ESID-APDS registry provides comprehensive baseline documentation for a growing cohort that will be followed prospectively to establish prognostic factors and identify patients for treatment studies.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sociedades Médicas , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Cell Physiol ; 233(3): 2313-2323, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710865

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in a cohort of 213 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients treated in real-world practice at eight Italian cancer centers. We computed descriptive statistics for all the variable of interest. Factors testing significant in univariate analysis were included in multivariate models. Survival data were compared by Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test. The median follow-up was 45 months. We observed 60 (28.2%) pathological complete response (pCR). The sequential anthracyclines-taxanes-based regimens produced the highest rate of pCR (42.6%), followed by concomitant anthracycline-taxane (24.2%), and other regimens (15.6%) (p = 0.008). When analyzing the role of baseline Ki-67, a 50% cut-off was the optimal threshold value for pCR prediction (p = 0.0005). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 57.3% and the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 70.8%. In patients not achieving pCR, the optimal Ki-67 variation between biopsy and surgical specimen with prognostic relevance on long-term outcomes was 13% (p = 0.04). Patients with a Ki-67 reduction (rKi-67)<13% had worse outcomes compared to those who experienced pCR or a rKi-67≥13%. The number of NACT cycles also affected long-term outcomes (5-year DFS 65.7% vs 51.6% in patients having received >6 cycles compared with their counterparts, p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, node status, grading, and bio-pathological treatment response (including pCR and rKi-67) impacted DFS and OS. Our results confirmed the advantage conferred by more than 6 cycles of a sequential antracycline-taxane-based NACT. Higher baseline Ki-67 values shows greater predictive significance on pathogical response, while the rKi-67 plays a prognostic role on long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Gradação de Tumores , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
11.
Rev Med Suisse ; 13(557): 739-742, 2017 Apr 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722362

RESUMO

Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy is characterized as a reduction of one or more classes of immunoglobulins with a response to vaccines and normal subpopulations of lymphocytes B presenting in the first years of life. The diagnosis is made a posteriori, once the levels of immunoglobulins are normalized, in general between 2 and 4 years of age. Clinical presentation varies : the child may be either asymptomatic or present with recurrent infections, atopy and / or auto-immunity. There are no clinical or immunological features that distinguish this condition from a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Because of the risk of severe infections, it is necessary a follow up by a paediatric immunologist. Depending on the presentation and evolution, a prophylaxis with antibiotics or a substitution with immunoglobulins might be indicated.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/terapia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente
12.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 35(1): 6-15, 2016.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27183420

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: . Burnout and risk of burnout in the Italian teams of bone marrow transplant: a multicentre survey. INTRODUCTION: The term burnout is used to describe a state of work-related psychological distress in healthcare employees characterized by three related, but independent, components: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of burnout and stress symptoms in physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals in Italian Bone Marrow Transplantation Units. METHODS: All personnel of a multidisciplinary group of the Italian Group of Bone Marrow Transplantation were asked to answer two different validated questionnaires: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for the assessment of general wellbeing. Logistic regression was used to investigate possible risk factors for burnout. RESULTS: This study showed a relatively low burnout prevalence (3.7%), however about 43.5% of health workers were at risk for developing a burnout syndrome. No personal or center characteristics seemed related to burnout risk, but there was a strong correlation between higher scores from the general health questionnaire and burnout risk. CONCLUSIONS: Results from our survey suggest that burnout is a relevant problem in transplant teams and as such strategies should be implemented to prevent it.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 138(1): 241-248.e3, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26936803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by inborn errors of the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex. From the first year of life onward, most affected patients display multiple, severe, and recurrent infections caused by bacteria and fungi. Mycobacterial infections have also been reported in some patients. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the effect of mycobacterial disease in patients with CGD. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively the clinical features of mycobacterial disease in 71 patients with CGD. Tuberculosis and BCG disease were diagnosed on the basis of microbiological, pathological, and/or clinical criteria. RESULTS: Thirty-one (44%) patients had tuberculosis, and 53 (75%) presented with adverse effects of BCG vaccination; 13 (18%) had both tuberculosis and BCG infections. None of these patients displayed clinical disease caused by environmental mycobacteria, Mycobacterium leprae, or Mycobacterium ulcerans. Most patients (76%) also had other pyogenic and fungal infections, but 24% presented solely with mycobacterial disease. Most patients presented a single localized episode of mycobacterial disease (37%), but recurrence (18%), disseminated disease (27%), and even death (18%) were also observed. One common feature in these patients was an early age at presentation for BCG disease. Mycobacterial disease was the first clinical manifestation of CGD in 60% of these patients. CONCLUSION: Mycobacterial disease is relatively common in patients with CGD living in countries in which tuberculosis is endemic, BCG vaccine is mandatory, or both. Adverse reactions to BCG and severe forms of tuberculosis should lead to a suspicion of CGD. BCG vaccine is contraindicated in patients with CGD.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Infecções por Mycobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/etiologia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/mortalidade , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/etiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/etiologia
14.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 41(2): 69-76, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25554445

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and within the HER-2 positive subtype this is highly exemplified by the presence of substantial phenotypical and clinical heterogeneity, mostly related to hormonal receptor (HR) expression. It is well known how HER-2 positivity is commonly associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype and decreased overall survival and, moreover, with a reduced benefit from endocrine treatment. Preclinical studies corroborate the role played by functional crosstalks between HER-2 and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling in endocrine resistance and, more recently, the activation of ER signaling is emerging as a possible mechanism of resistance to HER-2 blocking agents. Indeed, HER-2 positive breast cancer heterogeneity has been suggested to underlie the variability of response not only to endocrine treatments, but also to HER-2 blocking agents. Among HER-2 positive tumors, HR status probably defines two distinct subtypes, with dissimilar clinical behavior and different sensitivity to anticancer agents. The triple positive subtype, namely, ER/PgR/Her-2 positive tumors, could be considered the subset which most closely resembles the HER-2 negative/HR positive tumors, with substantial differences in biology and clinical outcome. We argue on whether in this subgroup the "standard" treatment may be considered, in selected cases, i.e., small tumors, low tumor burden, high expression of both hormonal receptors, an overtreatment. This article review the existing literature on biologic and clinical data concerning the HER-2/ER/PgR positive tumors, in an attempt to better define the HER-2 subtypes and to optimize the use of HER-2 targeted agents, chemotherapy and endocrine treatments in the various subsets.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 34(8): 904-9, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25135595

RESUMO

Interferon-γ receptor 2 (IFN-γR2) deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by predisposition to infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as environmental mycobacteria and BCG vaccines. We describe here two children with IFN-γR2 deficiency, from unrelated, consanguineous kindreds of Arab and Israeli descent. The first patient was a boy who died at the age of 4.5 years, from recurrent, disseminated disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae. His IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and complete. The second patient was a girl with multiple disseminated mycobacterial infections, including infection with M. simiae. She died at the age of 5 years, a short time after the transplantation of umbilical cord blood cells from an unrelated donor. Her IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and partial. Autosomal recessive IFN-γR2 deficiency is life-threatening, even in its partial form, and genetic diagnosis and familial counseling are therefore particularly important for this condition. These two cases are the first of IFN-γR2 deficiency associated with M. simiae infection to be described.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/complicações , Infecções por Mycobacterium/patologia , Receptores de Interferon/deficiência , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/mortalidade
17.
J Cancer ; 5(6): 398-405, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24847380

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chemotherapy regimens containing anthracyclines and taxanes represent the landmark of neoadjuvant systemic therapy of breast cancer. In advanced breast cancer patients liposomal anthracyclines (LA) have shown similar efficacy and less cardiac toxicity when compared to conventional anthracyclines. We performed this retrospective analysis in order to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of neoadjuvant regimens including LA outside of clinical trials in routine clinical practice. METHODS: Fifty operable or locally advanced, HER2 negative, breast cancer patients were retrospectively identified in 5 Italian cancer centres. Nineteen patients had received 4 cycles of non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (NPLD) and cyclophosphamide, followed by 4 cycles of docetaxel, every 3 weeks. In 25 patients the reverse sequence was employed, and a third subgroup of 6 patients received 4 cycles of NPLD/cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks followed by 4 cycles of weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel. RESULTS: We observed 10 pathological complete responses (pCR) (20.0%, 95%CI, 9% to 31%), and 35 (70%, 95%CI, 57.3% to 82.7%) partial responses (pPR), whereas no patients progressed onto therapy. In the small subset of triple negative tumors the pCR rate was 37.5%, and in tumors expressing ER and/or PgR it was 16.7%. A pCR rate of 26.5% was observed in tumors with high Ki-67, whereas in tumors with low Ki-67 only one (6.2%) pCR was observed (p=0.14). Treatments were well tolerated. The most common toxicities were myelosuppression and palmar-plantar erytrodysesthesia; 4 asymptomatic and transient LVEF decrease have been recorded, without any case of clinical cardiotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: NPLD-cyclophosphamide and taxanes sequential regimens were proven effective and well tolerated in breast cancer patients with contra-indication to conventional anthracyclines undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, even outside of clinical trials in everyday clinical practice.

18.
J Clin Immunol ; 34(4): 452-8, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24596025

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by an inability of phagocytes to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are required to kill some microorganisms. CGD patients are known to suffer from recurrent bacterial and/or fungal infections from the first year of life onwards. From 2009 to 2013, 12 cases of CGD were diagnosed in Morocco. We describe here these Moroccan cases of CGD. METHODS: We investigated the genetic, immunological and clinical features of 12 Moroccan patients with CGD from 10 unrelated kindreds. RESULTS: All patients were children suffering from recurrent bacterial and/or fungal infections. All cases displayed impaired NADPH oxidase activity in nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), dihydrorhodamine (DHR) or 2',7' dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assays. Mutation analysis revealed the presence of four different mutations of CYBB in four kindreds, a recurrent mutation of NCF1 in three kindreds, and a new mutation of NCF2 in three patients from a single kindred. A large deletion of CYBB gene has detected in a patient. The causal mutation in the remaining one kindred was not identified. CONCLUSION: The clinical features and infectious agents found in these patients were similar to those in CGD patients from elsewhere. The results of mutation analysis differed between kindreds, revealing a high level of genetic and allelic heterogeneity among Moroccan CGD patients. The small number of patients in our cohort probably reflects a lack of awareness of physicians. Further studies on a large cohort are required to determine the incidence and prevalence of the disease, and to improve the description of the genetic and clinical features of CGD patients in Morocco.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/genética , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Aspergilose/complicações , Aspergilose/imunologia , Aspergilose/patologia , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/imunologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , NADPH Oxidase 2 , Linhagem
19.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 14(2): 185-98, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24313623

RESUMO

Although not life-threatening, vasomotor symptoms might have a detrimental effect on quality of life and represent a major determinant of poor therapeutic compliance in breast cancer patients. Limitations of hormonal therapies have fostered the use of non-estrogenic pharmacological agents, which mainly include centrally acting compounds, antidepressant drugs, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Integrating therapeutic tools have recently come from a wide range of heterogeneous approaches varying from phytoestrogens use to ganglion block. We herein critically review the most updated evidence on the available treatment options for management of vasomotor symptoms. The need for a patient-oriented approach following systematic evaluation of the presence and degree of vasomotor disturbances is also discussed and future perspectives in therapeutics are summarized.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Fogachos/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Animais , Feminino , Fogachos/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação
20.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 67(3): 687-93, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20512334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Paclitaxel (PACL) plus gemcitabine (GEM) is an effective regimen for advanced breast cancer patients pretreated with anthracyclines. A prolonged GEM infusion at a fixed dose rate (FDR) of 10 mg/m²/min produces higher levels of intracellular active metabolites of GEM when compared with a standard 30-min infusion. In the present phase I/II trial, we investigated the association of FDR GEM plus PACL. METHODS: 1,200 mg/m² was the dose of GEM recommended for the phase II study, in which patients received PACL at 150 mg/m², followed by FDR GEM at 1,200 mg/m² (total GEM infusion time = 120 min), both drugs administered biweekly. RESULTS: Forty-two anthracycline-pretreated advanced breast cancer patients with disease recurrence following at least one line of chemotherapy were enrolled. Two (4.8%) and 12 (33.3%) patients experienced a complete and partial response, respectively, for an overall response rate of 38.1% (95% CI 23.4-52.8%). Median progression free survival and overall survival were 5 and 19.9 months, respectively. No statistically significant association was noted between in situ protein expression of RRM1 and BRCA1 (as assessed by immunofluorescence combined with automated quantitative analysis) and response to treatment in 15 patients with tissue available for analysis. Toxicity was mostly mild to moderate, mainly consisting of G3-G4 neutropenia (9.6%) and hypertransaminasemia (9.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Biweekly FDR GEM in combination with PACL is an active and safe regimen for advanced breast cancer patients pretreated with anthracyclines. A prolonged infusion regimen of GEM does not seem to improve the efficacy of a standard 30-min infusion.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
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