Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443466

RESUMO

Bees and their products are useful bioindicators of anthropogenic activities and could overcome the deficiencies of air quality networks. Among the environmental contaminants, mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that can accumulate in living organisms. The first aim of this study was to develop a simple analytical method to determine Hg in small mass samples of bees and beehive products by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The proposed method was optimized for about 0.02 g bee, pollen, propolis, and royal jelly, 0.05 g beeswax and honey, or 0.1 g honeydew with 0.5 mL HCl, 0.2 mL HNO3, and 0.1 mL H2O2 in a water bath (95 °C, 30 min); samples were made up to a final volume of 5 mL deionized water. The method limits sample manipulation and the reagent mixture volume used. Detection limits were lower than 3 µg kg-1 for a sample mass of 0.02 g, and recoveries and precision were within 20% of the expected value and less than 10%, respectively, for many matrices. The second aim of the present study was to evaluate the proposed method's performances on real samples collected in six areas of the Lazio region in Italy.


Assuntos
Abelhas/química , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Cucumis melo/química , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Mel/análise , Itália , Pólen/química , Própole/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Ceras/análise
2.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957599

RESUMO

Bee health and beehive products' quality are compromised by complex interactions between multiple stressors, among which toxic elements play an important role. The aim of this study is to optimize and validate sensible and reliable analytical methods for biomonitoring studies and the quality control of beehive products. Four digestion procedures, including two systems (microwave oven and water bath) and different mixture reagents, were evaluated for the determination of the total content of 40 elements in bees and five beehive products (beeswax, honey, pollen, propolis and royal jelly) by using inductively coupled plasma mass and optical emission spectrometry. Method validation was performed by measuring a standard reference material and the recoveries for each selected matrix. The water bath-assisted digestion of bees and beehive products is proposed as a fast alternative to microwave-assisted digestion for all elements in biomonitoring studies. The present study highlights the possible drawbacks that may be encountered during the elemental analysis of these biological matrices and aims to be a valuable aid for the analytical chemist. Total elemental concentrations, determined in commercially available beehive products, are presented.


Assuntos
Metais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Abelhas , Ácidos Graxos/química , Mel , Espectrometria de Massas , Micro-Ondas , Pólen/química , Própole/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Temperatura , Ceras/química
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38819-38834, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632679

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the airborne elements' deposition by using native Usnea barbata lichens as biomonitors in the forested areas of Tierra del Fuego (TdF, southern Patagonia), an apparently pristine environment. The present study is linked to the volcanic eruption of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle which started in north Patagonia in June 2011, which gives rise to long-distance transport of pollutants through the atmosphere at 1700 km from our sampling sites. The monitoring breakdown structure (MBS) was applied to three sampling campaigns in 2006 (baseline) âž” 2011-2012 (3 and 15 months after the volcanic event, respectively). We have on purpose enhanced the information variety endowment: (i) Seventy-one referenced sites were double sampled; (ii) up to 426 composite lichen samples were collected; (iii) twenty-six elements were measured by neutron activation analysis (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn) for samples of 2011 and 2012 campaigns; (iv) thirteen common elements (As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Sb, Se, U, Zn) were determined in 2006 for the baseline comparison. The natural contamination by tephras is reflected by lichens more clearly in the 2011 campaign, where Ba, Cr, Na, Ca, Cs, and U showed higher median levels compared with the baseline campaign (2006). Ca, K, and Na were the most accumulated elements after the volcano event and could be associated with the volcanic ashes' deposition. Rare earth elements (REEs) showed no significant bioaccumulation levels between 2011 and 2012, indicating their association with higher lithogenic inputs than volcanic ashes. Using the Earth's crust as reference, nine elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, K, Na, Sb, Se, and Zn) presented moderate/significant mean enrichment factor (EF) values (> 5). The usefulness of Usnea barbata as test species for direct biomonitoring oriented kinetic studies in areas characterized by a low human impact is confirmed. Eventually, our results confirm that TdF is not an actual pristine environment as earlier supposed.


Assuntos
Líquens , Oligoelementos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Humanos , Cinética , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140590, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629268

RESUMO

The ability of transplanted lichen Evernia (E.) prunastri (L.) to act as a high spatial biomonitoring tool for 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was evaluated at 23 monitoring sites in a very polluted area in central Italy. The selected area is characterized by the presence of numerous emission sources, such as waste-to-energy plant, steel plant, vehicular traffic, and domestic heating. Transplanted E. prunastri proved to be a useful tool to biomonitor PBDEs, due to its ability to bioaccumulate individual congeners in varying concentrations in relation to the strength of the emission sources present over the territory. PBDEs levels widely ranged from 132 to 24,237 ng kg-1 dry weight, according to the sources of emission located around the monitoring sites. The highest concentrations were detected at the sites close to the municipal solid waste incinerator, steel plant, and high busy roads, confirming their important role as PBDEs emissions sources.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Líquens , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Itália , Resíduos Sólidos
5.
Food Res Int ; 128: 108777, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955751

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the trace metal content in edible biomonitors (i.e., mollusks) in the Beagle Channel (southern Patagonia) and to assess the human health risks associated with their consumption. Rationale: The monitoring breakdown structure (MBS) conceptual model was applied to four sampling campaigns (2005 → 2012) that collected 729 samples of Mytilus chilensis and Nacella magellanica. The composition of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the mollusks was determined using graphite furnace (GFAAS) or flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). We compared the mean obtained values with the maximum levels (MLs) of each element established by international organizations. Then, based on semi-structured interviews, we calculated the estimated daily intake (EDI) of local residents and compared it with safety reference doses, i.e., the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI), provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI), and tolerable daily intake (TDI), as well as the benchmark dose level lower confidence limit for Pb (BMDL01, a reference point (RP)/point of departure (POD). Moreover, to obtain information about the potential health risks of ingesting heavy metals (HMs) through mollusk consumption, we evaluated the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the hazard index (HI). Findings: For Cd and Pb, 65% and 40% of bivalves exceeded the MLs established by the Mercado Común del Sur (Mercosur), respectively. Except for Cd in N. magellanica (i.e., 1.20 µg/kg/bw/day), EDI values were clearly lower than the safety reference doses. For Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, mussels were safe for consumption and did not raise concerns for public health. Likewise, THQ values were well below one for most of the studied metals, indicating that the exposed human population is assumed to be safe. Occasional high consumers of mollusks from the most contaminated sites may be at some health risk. Originality: The food production system and the environment are complex systems; this is crucial to understand when we consider ecosystems as a food source (i.e., marine ecosystems). Here we consider edible biomonitors, that are organisms that can have a dual function. They are food, and at the same time, if properly calibrated, they can act as indicators of environmental quality. This study is the first to investigate relevant essential and non-essential trace metal content in two edible mollusks from the Beagle Channel in a long-term survey (2005 → 2012). The information variety was high; approximately thirteen thousand determinations were conducted to support the risk assessment for mollusk consumption. Other aspects connected with the health risks and the uncertainty factors related to the presence of essential and non-essential minerals in edible mollusks as well as the use of the MBS are also discussed.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Gastrópodes/química , Metais Pesados/química , Mytilus/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Animais , Argentina , Ecossistema , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Medição de Risco
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(9): 8852-8865, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28214938

RESUMO

In this study, we tested the aptitude of the gastropod mollusk Patella caerulea as biomonitor of elemental pollution in seawater of a central Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Pontine Islands archipelago and Lazio region coastal sites, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured in 120 individuals collected in six strategic locations in two sampling campaigns during 2011 and 2012. Samples of surrounding seawater were also collected in the same sites and tested for the same metals in order to obtain the respective concentration factors (CFs). Then, we analyzed the evolution of contamination in the selected sites and compared our results with the baseline levels (control charts) previously established for Tyrrhenian seas (Conti et al. Environ Sci Pollut R 22:3640-3651,2015). With this purpose, we defined six new variables (one for each metal) and then we applied multivariate statistics, i.e., cluster analysis and discriminant analysis on the principal component analysis factors in order to obtain more reliable results. Patella resulted to be a strong bioaccumulator of Cd (CFs = 8990) and a good accumulator of Cr, Pb, and Zn. The levels of the majority of metals (i.e., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Patella decreased in the range from -13.06% of Zn to -42.51% of Ni in Fiumicino harbor, Anzio beach, and Ponza Harbor from 2011 to 2012. In general, the metal levels in these marine areas are low and within the previously established baseline ranges for Tyrrhenian Sea (control charts). Here, we found a not univocal trend of metal bioaccumulation patterns between the two sampling campaigns (2011-2012) in the selected sites. No one site resulted to be clearly more contaminated than another (i.e., harbor sites as expected). For instance, for Cd, we detected a relevant increase of its levels (+118%) in the harbors and Anzio beach sites from 2011 to 2012; however, they remained at lower levels of the lower limit (Q 2.5) of the control chart. Higher Pb levels with respect to the baseline values were observed for the majority of samples in the Ponza Cala Fonte site. Patella confirmed its usefulness as a cosmopolitan trace metal biomonitor in marine Mediterranean areas. The possibility of employing these results as a baseline level for comparative purposes in other marine areas is fully debated.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gastrópodes/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Água do Mar/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Ilhas , Itália
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(7): 6574-83, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26637301

RESUMO

Lichen Usnea barbata transplants were tested as a biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in an apparently pristine environment that is Tierra del Fuego region (Patagonia, Argentina). The present survey is connected with the volcanic eruption that started in north Patagonia on June 4, 2011 from the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcano, Chile (north Patagonia, at 1700 km of distance of our sampling sites). Lichens were collected in September 2011 (one month of exposure) and September 2012 (1 year of exposure) in 27 sites covering the northern region of the province where trees are not present. The atmospheric deposition of 27 elements by using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was determined in the collected samples. The first aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the volcanic eruption on the regional atmospheric deposition comparing our results with baseline data we determined in U. barbata in 2006 in the same sites. The second aim was to test possible patterns of bioaccumulation between the two sampling campaigns after the volcanic eruption. With respect to 2006 baseline levels, we found significant higher levels for As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Na, Sb and U in lichens collected after 1 month of exposure (first sampling campaign--2011). Between the two sampling campaigns (2011-2012) after the eruption, lichens reflected the natural contamination by volcanic ashes with significantly higher median levels of Br, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Sc, and Se. Results confirmed the very good aptitude of U. barbata to reflect the levels of elements in the environment at global scale and to reflect the volcanic emissions at distant places. Volcanic eruptions cause the emission in the atmosphere of elevated levels of particulate matter. In this regard, our findings demonstrate the importance to evaluate the metal composition of the particles to avoid possible health effects.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Líquens/química , Material Particulado/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Erupções Vulcânicas , Argentina , Atmosfera , Chile , Líquens/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(5): 3640-51, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25253055

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves and in the brown algae Cystoseira sp. sampled along a 280-km transect in the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the Ustica to Linosa Islands (Sicily, Italy) with the aim to determine their control charts (baseline levels). By applying the Johnson's (Biometrika 36:149-175, 1949) probabilistic method, we determined the metal concentration overlap ranges in a group of five biomonitors. Here, we propose the use of the indexes of bioaccumulation with respect to the lowest (L'i) and the highest (L i) extreme values of the overlap metal concentration ranges. These indexes allow the identification of the most opportune organism (or a suite of them) to better managing particular environmental conditions. Posidonia leaves have generally high L i indexes for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and this suggests its use as biomonitor for baseline marine areas. Our results confirm the high aptitude of Patella as a good biomonitor for Cd levels in seawater. From this study, Ustica resulted with higher levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the other Sicilian Islands.


Assuntos
Alismatales/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Feófitas/química , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Controle de Qualidade , Sicília
9.
Chem Cent J ; 8: 44, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25057287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The levels of 19 elements (As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn) from sixteen different Argentine production sites of unifloral [eucalyptus (Eucaliptus rostrata), chilca (Baccharis salicifolia), Algarrobo (Prosopis sp.), mistol (Ziziphus mistol) and citric] and multifloral honeys were measured with the aim to test the quality of the selected samples. Typical quality parameters of honeys were also determined (pH, sugar content, moisture). Mineral elements were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS DRC). We also evaluated the suitability of honey as a possible biomonitor of environmental pollution. Thus, the sites were classified through cluster analysis (CA) and then pattern recognition methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied. RESULTS: MEAN VALUES FOR QUALITY PARAMETERS WERE: pH, 4.12 and 3.81; sugar 82.1 and 82.0 °brix; moisture, 16.90 and 17.00% for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. The water content showed good maturity. Likewise, the other parameters confirmed the good quality of the honeys analysed. Potassium was quantitatively the most abundant metal, accounting for 92,5% of the total metal contents with an average concentration of 832.0 and 816.2 µg g(-1) for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. Sodium was the second most abundant major metal in honeys with a mean value of 32.16 and 33.19 µg g(-1) for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were present at low-intermediate concentrations. For the other 11 trace elements determined in this study (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, U and V), the mean concentrations were very low or below of the LODs. The sites were classified through CA by using elements' and physicochemical parameters data, then DA on the PCA factors was applied. Dendrograms identified three main groups. PCA explained 52.03% of the total variability with the first two factors. CONCLUSIONS: In general, there are no evidences of pollution for the analysed honeys. The analytical results obtained for the Argentine honeys indicate the products' high quality. In fact, most of the toxic elements were below LODs. The chemometric analysis combining CA, DA and PCA showed their aptness as useful tools for honey's classification. Eventually, this study confirms that the use of honey as biomonitor of environmental contamination is not reliable for sites with low levels of contamination.

11.
Dose Response ; 10(3): 405-14, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22942873

RESUMO

Iridium tissue distribution and excretion in female Wistar rats following oral exposure to iridium (III) chloride hydrate in drinking water (from 1 to 1000 ng/ml) in a sub-chronic oral study were determined. Samples of urine, feces, blood and organs (kidneys, liver, lung, spleen and brain) were collected at the end of exposure. The most prominent fractions of iridium were retained in kidney and spleen; smaller amounts were found in lungs, liver and brain. Iridium brain levels were lower than those observed in other tissues but this finding can support the hypothesis of iridium capability to cross the blood brain barrier. The iridium kidney levels rose significantly with the administered dose. At the highest dose, important amounts of the metal were found in serum, urine and feces. Iridium was predominantly excreted via feces with a significant linear correlation with the ingested dose, which is likely due to low intestinal absorption of the metal. However, at the higher doses iridium was also eliminated through urine. These findings may be useful to help in the understanding of the adverse health effects, particularly on the immune system, of iridium dispersed in the environment as well as in identifying appropriate biological indices of iridium exposure.

12.
Ecotoxicology ; 21(4): 1112-25, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22350107

RESUMO

With the aim to evaluate the mollusk Nacella (P)magellanica as biomonitor of elemental pollution in seawater of the Beagle Channel, more than one hundred individuals of the gastropod were sampled, separated in viscera and muscle, and then examined with respect to the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Collection was performed in seven strategic locations along 170 km of the coastal area of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) in two campaigns during 2005 and 2007. Samples of surrounding seawater in the different sites were obtained and tested for the same metals as well. The accumulation capacity of Nacella (P)magellanica and thus its aptitude as biomonitor, was evaluated through the calculus of the preconcentration factors of the metals assayed. A discussion involving the comparison with other mollusks previously tested will be given. Several statistical approaches able to analyze data with environmental purposes were applied. Non parametric univariate tests such as Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were carried out to assess the changes of the metal concentrations with time (2005 and 2007) in each location. Multivariate methods (linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors) were also applied to obtain a more reliable site classification. Johnson's probabilistic method was carried out for comparison between different geographical areas. The possibility of employing these results as heavy metals' background levels of seawater from the Beagle Channel will be debated.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gastrópodes/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Argentina , Ecossistema , Metais Pesados/análise , Água do Mar
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 184(1): 527-38, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21409357

RESUMO

Lichen, Usnea barbata, transplants taken from Tierra del Fuego (south Patagonia, Argentina) were tested as potential biomonitors of atmospheric airborne deposition in an apparently pristine environment. In 2005, lichens were sampled in a reference site (n = 31) and transplanted in the northern Region of Tierra del Fuego. After, respectively, 1 month and 1 year of exposure, we collected them. The aim of the study was to determine the bioaccumulation of 26 elements in order to evaluate the background levels in the selected area. Samples were analyzed by the sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Discriminant analysis on principal component analysis factors was applied in order to explore the relationship among the different elements as far as time and spatial variation in transplants regards. The analysis was tested by Monte Carlo test based on 999 replicates. The most important contamination source resulted to be the atmospheric soil particle deposition. Furthermore, the results were compared with those obtained from the lichens collected in central and southern Tierra del Fuego. This study confirms the ability of U. barbata to reflect the background levels of the 26 elements in that environment. Compared with other background sites in the world, we did confirm that Tierra del Fuego lichens have a low content of the studied elements. Tierra del Fuego turned out not to be a pristine environment as supposed, but it can be considered as a reference basal ecosystem for useful comparisons among different geographical areas. These findings can be very relevant and useful for environmental conservation programs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oligoelementos/química , Usnea/metabolismo , Argentina , Atmosfera
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 184(10): 6025-36, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22020392

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to present and to discuss some characteristics of recalcitrant organic matter mechanism and formation. These aggregates called mucilages that are produced by the degradation reactions of several algae, have been investigated by infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectra of macroaggregates produced by different algal samples have been daily collected in order to investigate the steps of aggregation. Afterwards, they have been elaborated by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). ICA investigation of FTIR spectra showed that the global aggregation process of marine mucilage always consisted of two different phases or independent components (ICs). One IC is related to the first degradation step of algal cells leading to the production of mono and oligosaccharides with aminoacids and oligopeptides. The second IC is related to the polymerization of oligosaccharides with aminoacids and oligopeptides and to their interaction with less polar compounds such as lipids thus producing supramolecular structures. The emerging mechanisms of anomalous size aggregates of organic matter match those of natural organic matter aggregation. The approach we suggest is to use synthetic mucilages which allows to monitor the macroaggregates formation because it can hardly be performed by means of natural marine macroaggregates.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água do Mar/química , Adesivos/análise , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microalgas/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Ecotoxicology ; 20(6): 1341-53, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21544557

RESUMO

In order to test the aptitude of individuals of Mytilus chilensis as biomonitors of heavy metals pollution in seawater, several samples of this mollusk together with surrounding seawater samples were collected along 170 km of the coastal area of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) in 2005 and 2007. The study, performed in seven locations strategically selected, involved the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in seawaters and mollusks by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and the calculation of the respective concentration factors (CFs). Obtained data were standardized and analyzed by multivariate techniques in order to establish differences between sampling sites and periods. Obtained results will be shown and the bioaccumulation ability of M. chilensis will be evaluated by comparison with results obtained for Mytilus species in different geographical marine areas. A fully discussion on the possibility of employing the results as background levels for comparative purposes in other marine waters of the world will be provided. The possible harm derived from human consumption of these mollusks will be also assessed.


Assuntos
Metais/metabolismo , Mytilus/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Argentina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água do Mar/química , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
J Environ Monit ; 12(10): 1857-63, 2010 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20830409

RESUMO

Lichen samples of Usnea barbata were used as possible biomonitors of the atmospheric background level of iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh) in the remote region of Tierra del Fuego (South Patagonia, Argentina). Lichens were collected in 2006 at 53 sites covering 7 different areas of the region (24 transplanted lichens of the northern region and 29 native lichen samples of the central-southern region). A microwave acidic digestion procedure was used to mineralize the samples and a sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify the elements. The study of the influence of interferences on analyte signals and a quality control procedure were carried out. The analytical protocol was further applied to evaluate Ir, Pt and Rh bioaccumulation in lichens. The detection limits obtained were 0.010 ng g⁻¹, 0.013 ng g⁻¹ and 0.030 ng g⁻¹ for Ir, Pt and Rh, respectively. Recoveries at different fortification levels were between 96.3% and 106% and precision was 3.3% on average. The metals concentration (as dry weight) spanned the following ranges: Ir, <0.010-1.011 ng g⁻¹; Pt, 0.016-2.734 ng g⁻¹; and Rh, 0.063-1.298 ng g⁻¹. Data on 7 areas were similar suggesting that no specific source, for example traffic or anthropogenic activity, influenced directly the metal concentrations in Tierra del Fuego. Values detected are more likely influenced by the long-range atmospheric transport of these pollutants and, in comparison with densely populated areas in the world, they can represent the baseline for low impacted areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Irídio/análise , Líquens/química , Platina/análise , Ródio/análise , Argentina , Monitoramento Ambiental
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 181(1-3): 388-92, 2010 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20605327

RESUMO

We develop a 800 km long relative baseline of metal pollution for the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the north of Naples to south of Sicily (Italy), based on spatio-temporal (1997-2004) concentrations of trace metals in marine organisms and on the bioaccumulative properties of those organisms. The study concerns sites in the gulf of Gaeta-Formia, near Naples, and three islands north, west, and south of Sicily: Ustica, Favignana and Linosa. The five metals are: cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc; the species include: Monodonta turbinata (n=161), Patella caerulea (n=244) and the algae Padina pavonica (n=84). We use Johnson's (1949) [15] probabilistic method to determine the type of distribution that accounts for our data. It is a system of frequency curves that represents the transformation of the standard normal curves. We find an N-S pollution gradient in molluscs considered: the lowest metal pollution occurs around the Sicilian islands. Our method can accurately characterize marine pollution by contributing to: policy-making, coastal resources management, the assessments of environmental damages from marine accidents and other events. The method here presented is a useful tool for pollution comparisons purposes among ecosystems (i.e., risk monitoring) and it is an ideal starting point for its application on a global scale.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Eucariotos/química , Metais/análise , Moluscos/química , Poluição da Água/análise , Animais , Itália , Biologia Marinha , Água do Mar
18.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 58(1): 79-95, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19458990

RESUMO

Trace elements were analyzed in organisms collected at five sampling stations along coastal areas of Linosa Island, Sicily (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in Posidonia oceanica L. Delile tissues, the two brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and Cystoseira sp., and the two gastropod mollusks Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella caerulea L. Seawater samples were also collected at each site to assess soluble metal concentrations and to gain relevant information on their bioaccumulation ability. Data were processed by multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors. The scoreplots obtained showed that the pollutant distribution is more significantly correlated with species than with sites. For seaweeds, P. oceanica was associated with higher Cd, Cu, and Zn levels; Padina species had higher Cr concentrations, and Cystoseira had higher Pb levels. For mollusks, Monodonta species had high concentrations of Cu and Cr and Patella species were associated with Cd. Some general metal bioaccumulation patterns are described but no one sampling site was more contaminated than the others. The hypothesis of Linosa island serving as a reference ecosystem for baseline trace metal levels in southern Tyrrhenian areas is indeed supported by the statistical comparison among other southern Tyrrhenian ecosystems performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. For P. oceanica leaves, P. pavonica, M. turbinata, and P. caerulea, this study confirms their usefulness as possible cosmopolitan biomonitors of trace metals in marine Mediterranean areas.


Assuntos
Alismatales/química , Ecossistema , Eucariotos/química , Moluscos/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Alismatales/metabolismo , Animais , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Moluscos/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Água do Mar/análise , Oligoelementos/farmacocinética
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 72(4): 1082-9, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19232724

RESUMO

Lichen Usnea barbata was tested as a possible biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in a supposedly pristine environment Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). Lichen samples were collected in 2005 and again in 2006 in 71 sites covering almost the entire region. The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioaccumulation of 26 elements in order to define the background levels in the region. The quantification was carried out by the sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No relevant temporal accumulation patterns between 2005 and 2006 sampling campaigns were observed. Then, the results were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster and principal component analyses). Cluster analysis produced a dendrogram where the 71 sites were divided into four clusters at (Dlink/Dmax)100<30. The areas and the elements were correlated according to the element concentrations by principal component analysis. Four significant components that accounted for 67% were obtained. Cluster 1 was mainly composed of sites of Ushuaia-Road 3 (E area) and it was characterized by high levels of Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Sb, and W in lichens. The present study has revealed the good capacity of U. barbata to reflect the baseline levels of elements in the environment at a regional scale level. The presence of certain level of elements in lichens agrees with the hypothesis that Tierra del Fuego is not a relatively pristine environment as occasionally supposed. However, when comparing our results with other countries, Tierra del Fuego lichens have a very low content of the measured elements.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Líquens/fisiologia , Argentina , Análise por Conglomerados , Elementos Químicos , Líquens/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Controle de Qualidade , Manejo de Espécimes
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 141(1-3): 27-34, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17705022

RESUMO

Fifty seven samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) collected along the breakwater barriers of Fano (station 1) and Pesaro (station 2), Adriatic Sea, Marche Region, central Italy, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry and Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the soft tissues were measured. The aims of this work were the statistical analysis of Cd-weight, Cu-weight, Pb-weight, Zn-weight relationships, and the building of a tendency function that allows assessing with a good approximation the concentrations of a metal in different weight organisms. In Mytilus galloprovincialis the content of Cd proportionally grew with the weight and therefore its concentration was independent from this factor; while the concentration of Pb decreased as the weight increased. In both cases the accuracy of multiple regression models improved considering the variable 'site', while the same approach appeared not reliable for Cu and Zn, that were two essential metals. Our results showed that a tendency function was reliable, solid and able to predict to a very satisfying extent the concentration of non-physiological metals, like Cd and Pb; while it did not show a good approximation with real Cu and Zn contents.


Assuntos
Metais/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Mytilus/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Previsões , Itália , Espectrofotometria Atômica
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...