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1.
Circulation ; 140(18): 1451-1459, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients treated with antithrombotic drugs are at risk of bleeding. Bleeding may be the first manifestation of underlying cancer. METHODS: We examined new cancers diagnosed in relation to gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding among patients enrolled in the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) and determined the hazard of new cancer diagnosis after bleeding at these sites. RESULTS: Of 27 395 patients enrolled (mean age, 68 years; women, 21%), 2678 (9.8%) experienced any (major or minor) bleeding, 713 (2.6%) experienced major bleeding, and 1084 (4.0%) were diagnosed with cancer during a mean follow-up of 23 months. Among 2678 who experienced bleeding, 257 (9.9%) were subsequently diagnosed with cancer. Gastrointestinal bleeding was associated with a 20-fold higher hazard of new gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (7.4% versus 0.5%; hazard ratio [HR], 20.6 [95% CI, 15.2-27.8]) and 1.7-fold higher hazard of new nongastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (3.8% versus 3.1%; HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.20-2.40]). Genitourinary bleeding was associated with a 32-fold higher hazard of new genitourinary cancer diagnosis (15.8% versus 0.8%; HR, 32.5 [95% CI, 24.7-42.9]), and urinary bleeding was associated with a 98-fold higher hazard of new urinary cancer diagnosis (14.2% versus 0.2%; HR, 98.5; 95% CI, 68.0-142.7). Nongastrointestinal, nongenitourinary bleeding was associated with a 3-fold higher hazard of nongastrointestinal, nongenitourinary cancers (4.4% versus 1.9%; HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 2.32-3.91]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atherosclerosis treated with antithrombotic drugs, any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding was associated with higher rates of new cancer diagnosis. Any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding should prompt investigation for cancers at these sites. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(12): 1519-1528, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease, the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily and aspirin 100 mg once daily compared with aspirin 100 mg once daily reduced major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality and increased bleeding. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore the effects of the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin on sites, timing, severity, and management of bleeding in the COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) study. METHODS: This study reports, by treatment group, the number and proportion of patients; hazard rate ratios for bleeding according to site and severity; the timing of bleeding using landmark analyses; and the number and proportion of patients who received blood products and other hemostatic treatments. RESULTS: Of 27,395 patients enrolled (mean age 68 years, 22% women), 18,278 were randomized to the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin or to aspirin alone and followed for a mean of 23 months. Compared with aspirin alone, the combination increased modified International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (288 of 9,152 [3.1%] vs. 170 of 9,126 [1.9%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.40 to 2.05; p < 0.001), International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (206 of 9,152 [2.3%] vs. 116 of 9,126 [1.3%]), (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.41 to 2.23; p < 0.0001), and minor bleeding (838 of 9,152 [9.2%] vs. 503 of 9,126 [5.5%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI 1.52 to 1.90; p < 0.0001); the combination also increased the need for any red cell transfusion (87 of 9,152 [1.0%] vs. 44 of 9,126 [0.5%]), (HR: 1.97; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.83, p = 0.0002). The gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the most common site of increased major bleeding (140 of 9,152 [1.5%] vs. 65 of 9,126 [0.7%]), (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.60 to 2.89; p < 0.001), and the increase in bleeding was predominantly in the first year after randomization. Approximately one-third of major GI bleeding was gastric or duodenal, one-third was colonic or rectal, and one-third was from an unknown GI site. The study investigators reported that approximately three-quarters of major bleeding episodes were of mild or moderate intensity. A similar proportion of patients in each treatment group who experienced major bleeding received platelets, clotting factors, or other hemostatic agents. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone increased major bleeding, mainly from the GI tract. Most excess bleeding occurred during the first year after randomization, was of mild or moderate intensity, and was managed with conventional supportive therapy. (Rivaroxaban for the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Coronary or Peripheral Artery Disease [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(25): 3271-3280, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) trial showed that the combination of low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin reduced major vascular events in patients with stable vascular disease. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify subsets of patients at higher risk of recurrent vascular events, which may help focus the use of rivaroxaban and aspirin therapy. METHODS: COMPASS patients with vascular disease were risk stratified using 2 methods: the REACH (REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health) atherothrombosis risk score and CART (Classification and Regression Tree) analysis. The absolute risk differences for rivaroxaban with aspirin were compared to aspirin alone over 30 months for the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, acute limb ischemia, or vascular amputation; for severe bleeding; and for the net clinical benefit. RESULTS: High-risk patients using the REACH score were those with 2 or more vascular beds affected, history of heart failure (HF), or renal insufficiency, and by CART analysis were those with ≥2 vascular beds affected, history of HF, or diabetes. Rivaroxaban and aspirin combination reduced the serious vascular event incidence by 25% (4.48% vs. 5.95%, hazard ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 0.85), equivalent to 23 events prevented per 1,000 patients treated for 30 months, at the cost of a nonsignificant 34% increase in severe bleeding (1.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.95 to 1.88), or 2 events caused per 1,000 patients treated. Among patients with ≥1 high-risk feature identified from the CART analysis, rivaroxaban and aspirin prevented 33 serious vascular events, whereas in lower-risk patients, rivaroxaban and aspirin treatment led to the avoidance of 10 events per 1,000 patients treated for 30 months. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with vascular disease, further risk stratification can identify higher-risk patients (≥2 vascular beds affected, HF, renal insufficiency, or diabetes). The net clinical benefit remains favorable for most patients treated with rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin.

4.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412.e5, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493018784478, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058959

RESUMO

Background Covert vascular disease of the brain manifests as infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and microbleeds on MRI. Their cumulative effect is often a decline in cognition, motor impairment, and psychiatric disorders. Preventive therapies for covert brain ischemia have not been established but represent a huge unmet clinical need. Aims The MRI substudy examines the effects of the antithrombotic regimens in COMPASS on incident covert brain infarcts (the primary outcome), white matter hyperintensities, and cognitive and functional status in a sample of consenting COMPASS participants without contraindications to MRI. Methods COMPASS is a randomized superiority trial testing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bid plus acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg and rivaroxaban 5 mg bid against acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg per day for the combined endpoint of MI, stroke, and cardiovascular death in individuals with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2*-weighted, and FLAIR images were obtained close to randomization and near the termination of assigned antithrombotic therapy; biomarker and genetic samples at randomization and one month, and cognitive and functional assessment at randomization, after two years and at the end of study. Results Between March 2013 and May 2016, 1905 participants were recruited from 86 centers in 16 countries. Of these participants, 1760 underwent baseline MRI scans that were deemed technically adequate for interpretation. The mean age at entry of participants with interpretable MRI was 71 years and 23.5% were women. Coronary artery disease was present in 90.4% and 28.1% had peripheral artery disease. Brain infarcts were present in 34.8%, 29.3% had cerebral microbleeds, and 93.0% had white matter hyperintensities. The median Montreal Cognitive Assessment score was 26 (interquartile range 23-28). Conclusions The COMPASS MRI substudy will examine the effect of the antithrombotic interventions on MRI-determined covert brain infarcts and cognition. Demonstration of a therapeutic effect of the antithrombotic regimens on brain infarcts would have implications for prevention of cognitive decline and provide insight into the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive decline.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(20): 2306-2315, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and major adverse limb events (MALE). There is limited information on the prognosis of patients who experience MALE. OBJECTIVES: Among participants with lower extremity PAD, this study investigated: 1) if hospitalizations, MACE, amputations, and deaths are higher after the first episode of MALE compared with patients with PAD who do not experience MALE; and 2) the impact of treatment with low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone on the incidence of MALE, peripheral vascular interventions, and all peripheral vascular outcomes over a median follow-up of 21 months. METHODS: We analyzed outcomes in 6,391 patients with lower extremity PAD who were enrolled in the COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) trial. COMPASS was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin combination or rivaroxaban alone compared with aspirin alone. MALE was defined as severe limb ischemia leading to an intervention or major vascular amputation. RESULTS: A total of 128 patients experienced an incident of MALE. After MALE, the 1-year cumulative risk of a subsequent hospitalization was 61.5%; for vascular amputations, it was 20.5%; for death, it was 8.3%; and for MACE, it was 3.7%. The MALE index event significantly increased the risk of experiencing subsequent hospitalizations (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.21; p < 0.0001), subsequent amputations (HR: 197.5; p < 0.0001), and death (HR: 3.23; p < 0.001). Compared with aspirin alone, the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily and aspirin lowered the incidence of MALE by 43% (p = 0.01), total vascular amputations by 58% (p = 0.01), peripheral vascular interventions by 24% (p = 0.03), and all peripheral vascular outcomes by 24% (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with lower extremity PAD, the development of MALE is associated with a poor prognosis, making prevention of this condition of utmost importance. The combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily and aspirin significantly lowered the incidence of MALE and the related complications, and this combination should be considered as an important therapy for patients with PAD. (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).

7.
Lancet ; 391(10117): 205-218, 2018 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is a consequence of acute thrombotic events involving activation of platelets and coagulation proteins. Factor Xa inhibitors and aspirin each reduce thrombotic events but have not yet been tested in combination or against each other in patients with stable coronary artery disease. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, outpatient trial, patients with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease were recruited at 602 hospitals, clinics, or community centres in 33 countries. This paper reports on patients with coronary artery disease. Eligible patients with coronary artery disease had to have had a myocardial infarction in the past 20 years, multi-vessel coronary artery disease, history of stable or unstable angina, previous multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention, or previous multi-vessel coronary artery bypass graft surgery. After a 30-day run in period, patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive rivaroxaban (2·5 mg orally twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban alone (5 mg orally twice a day), or aspirin alone (100 mg orally once a day). Randomisation was computer generated. Each treatment group was double dummy, and the patients, investigators, and central study staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome of the COMPASS trial was the occurrence of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01776424, and is closed to new participants. FINDINGS: Between March 12, 2013, and May 10, 2016, 27 395 patients were enrolled to the COMPASS trial, of whom 24 824 patients had stable coronary artery disease from 558 centres. The combination of rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced the primary outcome more than aspirin alone (347 [4%] of 8313 vs 460 [6%] of 8261; hazard ratio [HR] 0·74, 95% CI 0·65-0·86, p<0·0001). By comparison, treatment with rivaroxaban alone did not significantly improve the primary outcome when compared with treatment with aspirin alone (411 [5%] of 8250 vs 460 [6%] of 8261; HR 0·89, 95% CI 0·78-1·02, p=0·094). Combined rivaroxaban plus aspirin treatment resulted in more major bleeds than treatment with aspirin alone (263 [3%] of 8313 vs 158 [2%] of 8261; HR 1·66, 95% CI 1·37-2·03, p<0·0001), and similarly, more bleeds were seen in the rivaroxaban alone group than in the aspirin alone group (236 [3%] of 8250 vs 158 [2%] of 8261; HR 1·51, 95% CI 1·23-1·84, p<0·0001). The most common site of major bleeding was gastrointestinal, occurring in 130 [2%] patients who received combined rivaroxaban plus aspirin, in 84 [1%] patients who received rivaroxaban alone, and in 61 [1%] patients who received aspirin alone. Rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced mortality when compared with aspirin alone (262 [3%] of 8313 vs 339 [4%] of 8261; HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·65-0·90, p=0·0012). INTERPRETATION: In patients with stable coronary artery disease, addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin lowered major vascular events, but increased major bleeding. There was no significant increase in intracranial bleeding or other critical organ bleeding. There was also a significant net benefit in favour of rivaroxaban plus aspirin and deaths were reduced by 23%. Thus, addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease worldwide. FUNDING: Bayer AG.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
8.
N Engl J Med ; 377(14): 1319-1330, 2017 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after a mean follow-up of 23 months. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group than in the aspirin-alone group (379 patients [4.1%] vs. 496 patients [5.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86; P<0.001; z=-4.126), but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group (288 patients [3.1%] vs. 170 patients [1.9%]; hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.05; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in intracranial or fatal bleeding between these two groups. There were 313 deaths (3.4%) in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group as compared with 378 (4.1%) in the aspirin-alone group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01; threshold P value for significance, 0.0025). The primary outcome did not occur in significantly fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group than in the aspirin-alone group, but major bleeding events occurred in more patients in the rivaroxaban-alone group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease, those assigned to rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin had better cardiovascular outcomes and more major bleeding events than those assigned to aspirin alone. Rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily) alone did not result in better cardiovascular outcomes than aspirin alone and resulted in more major bleeding events. (Funded by Bayer; COMPASS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01776424 .).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos
9.
Clin Trials ; 13(3): 344-51, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential impact of missing data on the results of clinical trials has received heightened attention recently. A National Research Council study provides recommendations for limiting missing data in clinical trial design and conduct, and principles for analysis, including the need for sensitivity analyses to assess robustness of findings to alternative assumptions about the missing data. A Food and Drug Administration advisory committee raised missing data as a serious concern in their review of results from the ATLAS ACS 2 TIMI 51 study, a large clinical trial that assessed rivaroxaban for its ability to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke in patients with acute coronary syndrome. This case study describes a variety of measures that were taken to address concerns about the missing data. METHODS: A range of analyses are described to assess the potential impact of missing data on conclusions. In particular, measures of the amount of missing data are discussed, and the fraction of missing information from multiple imputation is proposed as an alternative measure. The sensitivity analysis in the National Research Council study is modified in the context of survival analysis where some individuals are lost to follow-up. The impact of deviations from ignorable censoring is assessed by differentially increasing the hazard of the primary outcome in the treatment groups and multiply imputing events between dropout and the end of the study. Tipping-point analyses are described, where the deviation from ignorable censoring that results in a reversal of significance of the treatment effect is determined. A study to determine the vital status of participants lost to follow-up was also conducted, and the results of including this additional information are assessed. RESULTS: Sensitivity analyses suggest that findings of the ATLAS ACS 2 TIMI 51 study are robust to missing data; this robustness is reinforced by the follow-up study, since inclusion of data from this study had little impact on the study conclusions. CONCLUSION: Missing data are a serious problem in clinical trials. The methods presented here, namely, the sensitivity analyses, the follow-up study to determine survival of missing cases, and the proposed measurement of missing data via the fraction of missing information, have potential application in other studies involving survival analysis where missing data are a concern.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Perda de Seguimento , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 17(7): 652-64, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26040488

RESUMO

Agents with vasodilator properties (AVDs) are frequently used in the treatment of acute heart failure (AHF). AVDs rapidly reduce preload and afterload, improve left ventricle to aorta and right ventricle to pulmonary artery coupling, and may improve symptoms. Early biomarker changes after AVD administration have suggested potentially beneficial effects on cardiac stretch, vascular tone, and renal function. AVDs that reduce haemodynamic congestion without causing hypoperfusion might be effective in preventing worsening organ dysfunction. Existing AVDs have been associated with different results on outcomes in randomized clinical trials, and observational studies have suggested that AVDs may be associated with a clinical outcome benefit. Lessons have been learned from past AVD trials in AHF regarding preventing hypotension, selecting the optimal endpoint, refining dyspnoea measurements, and achieving early randomization and treatment initiation. These lessons have been applied to the design of ongoing pivotal clinical trials, which aim to ascertain if AVDs improve clinical outcomes. The developing body of evidence suggests that AVDs may be a clinically effective therapy to reduce symptoms, but more importantly to prevent end-organ damage and improve clinical outcomes for specific patients with AHF. The results of ongoing trials will provide more clarity on the role of AVDs in the treatment of AHF.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
11.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1291: 42-55, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23701516

RESUMO

The development of rivaroxaban (XARELTO®) is an important new medical advance in the field of oral anticoagulation. Thrombosis-mediated conditions constitute a major burden for patients, healthcare systems, and society. For more than 60 years, the prevention and treatment of these conditions have been dominated by oral vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin) and the injectable heparins. Thrombosis can lead to several conditions, including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or death. Prevention and treatment of thrombosis with an effective, convenient-to-use oral anticoagulant with a favorable safety profile is critical, especially in an aging society in which the risk of thrombosis, and the potential for bleeding complications, is increasing. Rivaroxaban acts to prevent and treat thrombosis by potently inhibiting coagulation Factor Xa in the blood. Factor Xa converts prothrombin to thrombin, which initiates the formation of blood clots by converting fibrinogen to clot-forming fibrin and leads to platelet activation. After a large and novel clinical development program in over 75,000 patients to date, rivaroxaban has received approval for multiple indications in the United States, European Union, and other countries worldwide to prevent and treat several thrombosis-mediated conditions. This review will highlight some of the unique aspects of the rivaroxaban development program.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Fator Xa/metabolismo , Humanos , Morfolinas/farmacocinética , Rivaroxabana , Tiofenos/farmacocinética , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
N Engl J Med ; 366(1): 9-19, 2012 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22077192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndromes arise from coronary atherosclerosis with superimposed thrombosis. Since factor Xa plays a central role in thrombosis, the inhibition of factor Xa with low-dose rivaroxaban might improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 15,526 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome to receive twice-daily doses of either 2.5 mg or 5 mg of rivaroxaban or placebo for a mean of 13 months and up to 31 months. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. RESULTS: Rivaroxaban significantly reduced the primary efficacy end point, as compared with placebo, with respective rates of 8.9% and 10.7% (hazard ratio in the rivaroxaban group, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.96; P=0.008), with significant improvement for both the twice-daily 2.5-mg dose (9.1% vs. 10.7%, P=0.02) and the twice-daily 5-mg dose (8.8% vs. 10.7%, P=0.03). The twice-daily 2.5-mg dose of rivaroxaban reduced the rates of death from cardiovascular causes (2.7% vs. 4.1%, P=0.002) and from any cause (2.9% vs. 4.5%, P=0.002), a survival benefit that was not seen with the twice-daily 5-mg dose. As compared with placebo, rivaroxaban increased the rates of major bleeding not related to coronary-artery bypass grafting (2.1% vs. 0.6%, P<0.001) and intracranial hemorrhage (0.6% vs. 0.2%, P=0.009), without a significant increase in fatal bleeding (0.3% vs. 0.2%, P=0.66) or other adverse events. The twice-daily 2.5-mg dose resulted in fewer fatal bleeding events than the twice-daily 5-mg dose (0.1% vs. 0.4%, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome, rivaroxaban reduced the risk of the composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Rivaroxaban increased the risk of major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage but not the risk of fatal bleeding. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and Bayer Healthcare; ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00809965.).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Morfolinas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana , Prevenção Secundária , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos
13.
Am Heart J ; 161(5): 815-821.e6, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21570509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although therapy with aspirin or aspirin plus a thienopyridine reduces the incidence of long-term adverse cardiovascular events among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), there remains a significant residual risk of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. In a phase 2 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00402597) in which the addition of the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban was compared with placebo, among ACS patients receiving either aspirin alone or dual-antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine, the end point of death, MI, or stroke compared with placebo was reduced (87/2331 [3.9%] vs 62/1160 [5.5%]; hazard ratio 0.69, [95% CI 0.50-0.96], P = .027). Two candidate doses of rivaroxaban were selected for further evaluation in a pivotal phase 3. DESIGN: The second ATLAS-ACS 2 TIMI 51 Trial is an international, randomized, double-blind, event-driven (n = 983) phase 3 trial involving more than 15,570 patients hospitalized with ACS (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00809965). All patients are treated with a background of standard therapy including low-dose aspirin, and patients are stratified by the administration of a thienopyridine (clopidogrel or ticlopidine; stratum 2) or not (stratum 1). Within each stratum, patients are randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily, or rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or placebo twice daily. The primary efficacy end point is the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke. The primary safety end point is thrombolysis in MI major bleeding not associated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. SUMMARY: The ATLAS-ACS 2 TIMI 51 is testing the hypothesis that anticoagulation with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban reduces cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke among patients with ACS treated with guideline-based therapies for ACS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Angiografia Coronária , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Rivaroxabana , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Circulation ; 108(18): 2244-9, 2003 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14557357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous stent-supported angioplasty is a treatment option for atherosclerotic ostial renal artery stenosis. Improvement of renal function by such intervention, however, is controversial and thought to be limited to specific subsets, such as nondiabetic patients and bilateral stenoses. In this prospective study, we investigated predictors for improvement of renal function and blood pressure after renal artery stent placement. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 215 consecutive patients with ostial renal artery stenosis of > or =70% diameter stenosis undergoing stent-supported angioplasty. The primary end point was decrease in serum creatinine concentration at 1 year; the secondary end point, decrease in average mean arterial blood pressure assessed by 24-hour monitoring. One-year follow-up was complete in 191 surviving patients. In 52% (99/191) of the patients, serum creatinine concentration decreased during 1-year follow-up. Median serum creatinine concentration dropped significantly from 1.21 mg/dL (quartiles: 0.92, 1.60 mg/dL) at baseline to 1.10 mg/dL (quartiles: 0.88, 1.50 mg/dL) at 1 year (P=0.047). On average, mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly, from 102+/-12 mm Hg (mean+/-SD) at baseline to 92+/-10 mm Hg at 1 year (P<0.001). Significant independent predictors of improved renal function were baseline serum creatinine (odds ratio [95% CI], 2.58 [1.35 to 4.94], P=0.004) and left ventricular function (OR 1.51 [1.04 to 2.21], P=0.032). Female sex, high baseline mean blood pressure, and normal renal parenchymal thickness were independent predictors for decreased mean blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Stent-supported angioplasty for severe ostial renal artery stenosis improves renal function and blood pressure in a broader spectrum of patients than previously thought.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão , Arteriosclerose/complicações , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/cirurgia , Artéria Renal/cirurgia , Stents , Idoso , Arteriosclerose/patologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Artéria Renal/patologia , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/complicações , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/patologia , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
15.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 58(4): 510-5, 2003 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12652503

RESUMO

Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) may lead to deterioration of renal function or hypertension. The clinical outcome after stent angioplasty of ARAS on renal function and blood pressure control in patients with diabetes and nephrosclerosis is the subject of some controversy. We have analyzed the results of our single-center experience with stent angioplasty for severe (>/= 70%) ostial ARAS and present here the results of a subgroup analysis of those patients who had diabetes mellitus and nephrosclerosis. From 1996 to 2001, 241 patients underwent stent angioplasty for the treatment of ARAS at our center. Of these, 99 patients had diabetes mellitus (41%) and 176 patients (73%) had nephrosclerosis defined as intrarenal resistance index (RI) >/= 0.7 diagnosed by duplex ultrasound. All lesions (n = 355) were treated successfully. Mean blood pressure at baseline was comparable and significantly improved immediately after the intervention in all groups (nondiabetics: 102 +/- 12 to 93 +/- 10 mm Hg; diabetics: 102 +/- 14 to 93 +/- 11 mm Hg; RI < 0.7: 105 +/- 13 to 95 +/- 10 mm Hg; RI = 0.7-0.8: 100 +/- 12 to 92 +/- 10 mm Hg; RI > 0.8: 102 +/- 15 to 92 +/- 11 mm Hg; P < 0.0001 each). Baseline serum creatinine was not significantly lower in nondiabetics compared to diabetics (1.46 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.62 +/- 1.2 mg %; P < 0.05) and increased in patients with nephrosclerosis (RI < 0.7: 1.18 +/- 0.6 mg %; RI = 0.7-0.8: 1.57 +/- 1.1 mg %; RI > 0.8: 1.96 +/- 1.6 mg %). Except for patients without nephrosclerosis who had a normal baseline creatinine, serum creatinine decreased significantly in all subgroups during follow-up. Stent angioplasty of ARAS offers favorable acute and long-term clinical results for the preservation of the renal function and for blood pressure control in patients with diabetes mellitus and nephrosclerosis.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Arteriosclerose/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Nefroesclerose/complicações , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/terapia , Stents , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Angiografia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/complicações , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
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