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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical research is a collaborative enterprise; researchers benefit from the expertise, experience, and resources of their collaborators. We sought to describe the extent and patterns of collaboration among pediatric critical care trialists, and to identify the most influential individuals, centers, and countries. DESIGN: Social network analysis of coauthorship. DATA SOURCES: Publications of pediatric critical care randomized controlled trials (1986-2018). DATA EXTRACTION: We manually extracted the names of all authors and their affiliations. We used productivity (number of randomized controlled trials), influence (number of citations), and four measures of prominence in the social network (degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvector centrality) to identify the most influential individuals. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: From 415 randomized controlled trials in pediatric critical care, we identified 2,176 trialists from 377 centers in 43 countries. The coauthorship network is highly disconnected and dominated by a single large cluster of trialists publishing 142 (34%) of the randomized controlled trials. However, 119 (29%) of the randomized controlled trials were published by 28 smaller clusters-a median (interquartile range) of 3 (2-4) randomized controlled trials each. The remaining 154 (37%) randomized controlled trials were coauthored by researchers publishing a single randomized controlled trial each. This overall structure has remained constant with the publication of new randomized controlled trials over 33 years. The most influential trialists and centers varied according to the metric we used; only one trialist and three centers ranked in the top 10 for all measures of influence. Thirty-five of the 40 trialists (88%) ranking in the top 10 of any of the measures were from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric critical care has made considerable progress in the number of trialists and randomized controlled trials, but the research enterprise remains highly clustered and fragmented, particularly geographically. Efforts to further increase the quantity and quality of research in the field should include steps to increase the level and range of collaboration.

2.
Intensive Care Med ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595352

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Invasive mechanical ventilation is a common form of life support provided to critically ill patients. Frailty is an emerging prognostic factor for poor outcome in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU); however, its association with adverse outcomes following invasive mechanical ventilation is unknown. We sought to evaluate the association between frailty, defined by the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), and outcomes of ICU patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis (2011-2016) of a prospectively collected registry from two hospitals of consecutive ICU patients ≥ 18 years of age receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. CFS scores were based on recorded pre-admission function at the time of hospital admission. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included discharge to long-term care, extubation failure at time of first liberation attempt, and tracheostomy. RESULTS: We included 8110 patients, and 2529 (31.2%) had frailty (CFS ≥ 5). Frailty was associated with increased odds of hospital death (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.24 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.40) and discharge to long-term care (aOR 1.21 [95% CI 1.13-1.35]). As compared to patients without frailty, patients with frailty had increased odds of extubation failure (aOR 1.17 [95% CI 1.04-1.37]), hospital death following extubation failure (aOR 1.18 [95% CI 1.07-1.28]), tracheostomy (aOR 1.17 [95% CI 1.01-1.36]), and hospital death following tracheostomy (aOR 1.14 [95% CI 1.03-1.25]). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of frailty among patients receiving mechanical ventilation is associated with increased odds of hospital mortality, discharge to long-term care, extubation failure, and need for tracheostomy.

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4.
Trials ; 20(1): 587, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604480

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In critically ill patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), research supports the use of daily screening to identify patients who are ready to undergo a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) followed by conduct of an SBT. However, once daily (OD) screening is poorly aligned with the continuous care provided in most intensive care units (ICUs) and the best SBT technique for clinicians to use remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To identify the optimal screening frequency and SBT technique to wean critically ill adults in the ICU. METHODS: We aim to conduct a multicenter, factorial design randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation, comparing the effect of both screening frequency (once versus at least twice daily [ALTD]) and SBT technique (Pressure Support [PS] + Positive End-Expiratory Pressure [PEEP] vs T-piece) on the time to successful extubation (primary outcome) in 760 critically ill adults who are invasively ventilated for at least 24 h in 20 North American ICUs. In the OD arm, respiratory therapists (RTs) will screen study patients between 06:00 and 08:00 h. In the ALTD arm, patients will be screened at least twice daily between 06:00 and 08:00 h and between 13:00 and 15:00 h with additional screens permitted at the clinician's discretion. When the SBT screen is passed, an SBT will be conducted using the assigned technique (PS + PEEP or T-piece). We will follow patients until successful extubation, death, ICU discharge, or until day 60 after randomization. We will contact patients or their surrogates six months after randomization to assess health-related quality of life and functional status. RELEVANCE: The around-the-clock availability of RTs in North American ICUs presents an important opportunity to identify the optimal SBT screening frequency and SBT technique to minimize patients' exposure to invasive ventilation and ventilator-related complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov, NCT02399267 . Registered on Nov 21, 2016 first registered.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e031775, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501132

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research supports the use of specific strategies to discontinue mechanical ventilation (MV) in critically ill patients. Little is known about how clinicians actually wean and discontinue MV in practice or the association between different discontinuation strategies and outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to describe international practices in the use of (1) daily screening for readiness to discontinue MV, (2) modes of MV used before initial discontinuation attempts, (3) weaning and spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) protocols, (4) SBT techniques and (5) sedation and mobilisation practices to facilitate weaning and discontinuation. The secondary objectives are to identify patient characteristics and time-dependent factors associated with use of selected strategies, investigate associations between SBT outcome (failure vs success) and outcomes, explore differences between patients who undergo an SBT early versus later in their intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and investigate the associations between different SBT techniques and humidification strategies on outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct an international, prospective, observational study of MV discontinuation practices among critically ill adults who receive invasive MV for at least 24 hours at approximately 150 ICUs in six geographic regions (Canada, USA, UK, Europe, India and Australia/New Zealand). Research personnel at participating ICUs will collect demographic data, data to characterise the initial strategy or event that facilitated discontinuation of MV (direct extubation, direct tracheostomy, initial successful SBT, initial failed SBT or death before any attempt could be made), clinical outcomes and site information. We aim to collect data on at least 10 non-death discontinuation events in each ICU (at least 1500 non-death discontinuation events). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study received Research Ethics Approval from St. Michael's Hospital (11-024) Research ethics approval will be sought from all participating sites. The results will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03955874.

7.
Trials ; 20(1): 532, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials management can be studied using project management theory. The CYCLE pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to determine the feasibility of a future rehabilitation trial of early in-bed cycling in the intensive care unit (ICU). In-bed cycling is a novel intervention, not typically available in ICUs. Implementation of this intervention requires personnel with specialized clinical expertise caring for critically ill patients and use of the in-bed cycle. Our objective was to describe the implementation and conduct of our pilot RCT using a project management approach. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed activities, timelines, and personnel involved in the trial. We organized activities into four project management phases: initiation, planning, execution, and monitoring and controlling. Data sources included Methods Centre documents used for trial coordination and conduct, and the trial data set. We report descriptive statistics as counts and proportions and also medians and quartiles, and we summarize the lessons learned. RESULTS: Seven ICUs in Canada participated in the trial. Time from research ethics board and contracts submission to first enrolment was a median (first quartile, third quartile) of 185 (146, 209) and 162 (114, 181) days, respectively. We trained 128 personnel on the CYCLE pilot RCT protocol, and 80 (63%) completed trial-related activities. Four sites required additional training after start-up due to staff turnover and leaves of absence. Over 15 months, we screened 864 patients: 256 were eligible and 66 were enrolled. Despite an 85% consent rate, 74% (190/256) of eligible patients were not randomized, largely (80% [152/190]) due to physiotherapist availability. Thirteen percent of recruitment weeks were lost due to physiotherapist staffing shortages. We highlight five key lessons learned: (1) prepare and anticipate site needs; (2) communicate regularly; (3) proactively analyse and act on process measure data; (4) develop contingency plans; (5) express appreciation to participating sites. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis highlights the scope of relevant activities, rigorous training and monitoring, number and types of required personnel, and time required to conduct a multicentre ICU rehabilitation intervention trial. Our lessons learned can help others interested in implementing complex intervention trials, such as rehabilitation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02377830 . Registered prospectively on 4 March 2015.

8.
J Palliat Med ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274366

RESUMO

Background: End-of-life (EOL) care is an important aspect of practice in the intensive care unit (ICU), where approximately one of every five patients may die. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe clinicians' experiences with the 3 Wishes Project (3WP) and understand the influence of the project on care in the ICU. Design: The 3WP is a palliative care intervention in which clinicians elicit and implement final wishes for patients dying in the ICU; it had been implemented for seven months at the time of this study. This mixed-methods study includes quantitative data from clinician surveys and qualitative data from clinician focus groups. Setting: A 24-bed medical ICU in a tertiary academic center. Subjects: Perspectives of 97 clinicians working in the ICU during the study period were obtained by self-administered surveys. Five focus groups with 25 nurses and 5 physicians were held, digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Measurements and Results: During the 7-month period, 67 decedents and their families participated in the 3WP. The overarching concept identified through analysis of the survey and focus group data is that the 3WP improves EOL care in the ICU, which was supported by three main themes: (1) The 3WP facilitates meaningful EOL care; (2) The 3WP has a positive impact on nurses and physicians; and (3) clinicians observe a positive influence of the 3WP on families. Conclusions: This patient-centered and family-partnered intervention facilitates meaningful EOL care, favorably impacting the ICU team and positively influencing family members.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e025228, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common healthcare-associated infection in critically ill patients. Prior studies suggest that probiotics may reduce VAP and other infections in critically ill patients; however, most previous randomised trials were small, single centre studies. The Probiotics: Prevention of Severe Pneumonia and Endotracheal Colonization Trial (PROSPECT) aims to determine the impact of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on VAP and other clinically important outcomes in critically ill adults. METHODS: PROSPECT is a multicentre, concealed, randomised, stratified, blinded, controlled trial in patients ≥18 years old, anticipated to be mechanically ventilated ≥72 hours, in intensive care units (ICUs) in Canada, the USA and Saudi Arabia. Patients receive either 1×1010 colony forming units of L. rhamnosus GG twice daily or an identical appearing placebo. Those at increased risk of probiotic infection are excluded. The primary outcome is VAP. Secondary outcomes are other ICU-acquired infections including Clostridioides difficile infection, diarrhoea (including antibiotic-associated diarrhoea), antimicrobial use, ICU and hospital length of stay and mortality. The planned sample size of 2650 patients is based on an estimated 15% VAP rate and will provide 80% power to detect a 25% relative risk reduction. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol and statistical analysis plan outlines the methodology, primary and secondary analyses, sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses. PROSPECT is approved by Health Canada (#9427-M1133-45C), the research ethics boards of all participating hospitals and Public Health Ontario. Results will be disseminated via academic channels (peer reviewed journal publications, professional healthcare fora including international conferences) and conventional and social media. The results of PROSPECT will inform practice guidelines worldwide. TRIALREGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02462590; Pre-results.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e028237, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea is a frequent concern in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, increased length of ICU stay, skin breakdown and renal dysfunction. However, its prevalence, aetiology and prognosis in the critically ill have been poorly studied. The primary objectives of this study are to determine the incidence, risk factors and consequences of diarrhoea in critically ill adults. The secondary objectives are to estimate the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in ICU patients and to validate the Bristol Stool Chart and Bliss Stool Classification System characterising bowel movements in the ICU. Our primary outcome is the incidence of diarrhoea . Our secondary outcomes include: CDAD, ICU and hospital mortality and ICU and hospital length of stay. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This international prospective cohort study will enrol patients over 10 weeks in 12 ICUs in Canada, the USA, Poland and Saudi Arabia. We will include all patients 18 years of age and older who are admitted to the ICU for at least 24 hours and follow them daily until ICU discharge. Our primary outcome is the incidence of diarrhoea based on the WHO definition, during the ICU stay. Our secondary outcomes include: CDAD, ICU and hospital mortality and ICU and hospital length of stay. We will use logistic regression to identify factors associated with diarrhoea (as defined using WHO criteria) and the kappa statistic to measure agreement on diarrhoea rates between the WHO definition and the Bristol Stool Chart and Bliss Stool Classification System. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol has been approved by the research ethics board of all participating centres. The diarrhoea interventions, consequences and epidemiology in the intensive care unit (DICE-ICU) study will generate evidence about diarrhoea and its frequency, predisposing factors and consequences, to inform critical care practice and future research. LAY SUMMARY: Diarrhoea is a frequent clinical problem for hospitalised patients including those who are critically ill in the ICU. Diarrhoea can cause complications such as skin damage, dehydration and kidney problems. It is not clear how common diarrhoea is in the ICU, the factors that cause it or the best way for clinicians to assess it. The DICE-ICU study is an international prospective observational study to examine the frequency, risk factors and outcomes of diarrhoea during critical illness.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using data from the CORONARY trial (n = 4752), we evaluated the incidence and prognostic significance of myocardial infarction (MI) applying different definitions based on peak postoperative creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme and cardiac troponin levels. We then aimed to identify the peak cardiac troponin during the first 3 postoperative days that was independently associated with a 2-fold increase in 30-day mortality. METHODS: To combine different assays, we analysed cardiac troponins in multiples of their respective upper limit of normal (ULN). We identified the lowest threshold with a hazard ratio (HR) >2 for 30-day mortality independent of EuroSCORE and on- versus off-pump surgery. RESULTS: Depending on the definition used based on creatine kinase-MB, the incidence of MI after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) ranged from 0.6% to 19% and the associated HRs for 30-day mortality ranged from 2.7 to 6.9. Using cardiac troponin (1528 patients), the incidence of MI ranged from 1.7% to 13% depending on the definition used with HRs for 30-day mortality ranging from 5.1 to 7.2. The first cardiac troponin threshold we evaluated, 180xULN, was associated with an adjusted HR for 30-day mortality of 7.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-17.1] when compared to <130xULN. The next independent threshold was 130xULN with an adjusted HR for 30-day mortality of 7.8 (95% CI 2.3-26.1). The next cardiac troponin tested threshold (70xULN) did not meet criteria for significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate that the incidence and prognosis of a post-CABG MI varies based on the definition used. Validated post-CABG MI diagnostic criteria formulated from their independent association with important clinical outcomes are needed.

12.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(6): 648-657, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Elevated cardiac troponin concentrations in people with critical illness are associated with an increased risk of death. We aimed to assess the feasibility of a larger study to ascertain the utility of cardiac troponin as a prognostic tool for mortality in critically ill patients. METHODS: Patients admitted to participating intensive care units during the one-month enrolment period were eligible. We excluded cardiac surgical patients and patients who were admitted and either died or were discharged within 12 hr. In enrolled patients, we measured high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and obtained electrocardiograms to ascertain the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and isolated troponin elevation. Our feasibility objectives were to measure recruitment rate, the proportion of patients who consented under a deferred consent model, and time required for data collection and study procedures. RESULTS: Over a four-week enrolment period, 280 patients were enrolled using a deferred consent model. We obtained subsequent consent from 81% of patients. Study procedures and data collection required 1.7 hr per participant. Overall, 86 (38%) suffered a MI, 23 (10%) had an isolated hs-cTnI elevation, and 117 (52%) had no hs-cTnI elevation. The crude hospital mortality rate was 10% without an hs-cTnI elevation, 29% with an isolated hs-cTnl elevation (relative risk [RR]) 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 6.0) and 29% with an MI (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.1). CONCLUSION: Myocardial injury with elevated hs-cTnI concentrations and MIs occur frequently during critical illness. This pilot study has established the feasibility of conducting a large-scale investigation addressing this issue.

13.
Cutis ; 103(3): E18-E20, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039237
15.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e024159, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare and contrast illustrative examples of the adoption of high value practices and the de-adoption of low value practices. DESIGN: (1) Retrospective, population-based audit of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis (high value practice) and albumin for fluid resuscitation (low value practice) and (2) cross-sectional survey of healthcare providers. SETTING: Data were collected from nine adult medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in two large Canadian cities. Patients are managed in these ICUs by a group of multiprofessional and multidisciplinary healthcare providers. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 6946 ICU admissions and 309 healthcare providers from the same ICUs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) The use of LMWH for VTE prophylaxis (per cent ICU days) and albumin for fluid resuscitation (per cent of patients); and (2) provider knowledge of evidence underpinning these practices, and barriers and facilitators to adopt and de-adopt these practices. RESULTS: LMWH was administered on 38.7% of ICU days, and 20.0% of patients received albumin.Most participants had knowledge of evidence underpinning VTE prophylaxis and fluid resuscitation (59.1% and 84.2%, respectively). Providers perceived these practices to be followed. The most commonly reported barrier to adoption was insufficient knowledge/understanding (32.8%), and to de-adoption was clinical leader preferences (33.2%). On-site education was the most commonly identified facilitator for adoption and de-adoption (67.8% and 68.6%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Despite knowledge of and self-reported adherence to best practices, the audit demonstrated opportunity to improve. Provider-reported barriers and facilitators to adoption and de-adoption are broadly similar.

16.
Prog Transplant ; 29(2): 179-184, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895847

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rates of successful organ donation vary between otherwise comparable intensive care units (ICUs). The ICU staff have a unique perspective into the facilitators and barriers underlying this variation in successful deceased organ donation. RESEARCH QUESTION: What do ICU staff perceive to be the most meaningful facilitators and barriers to deceased organ donation? DESIGN: We designed and conducted a survey of all disciplines working in the ICU to ascertain the perceived facilitators and barriers to donation in an academic tertiary care hospital. Survey reliability was assessed using Cronbach α. Factor analysis was used to assess construct validity and identify potentially redundant survey items. RESULTS: We had responses from 108 ICU staff, including nurses (n = 75), respiratory therapists (n = 14), physicians (n = 12), chaplains (n = 2), as well as social work, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy (n = 1 each). Perceived facilitators included availability of organ donation organization coordinators, explicit institutional support for donation, ICU staff culture toward donation, standardized order sets for donation, presence of ICU staff with donation experience, and bedside nurse presence at discussions about donation. Perceived barriers included ICU staff ruling out potentially suitable donors before consulting a donor coordinator, physician communication skills, low priority for organ donation among operating room staff, limited family understanding of patient prognosis and organ donation, and limited emotional readiness of families to discuss donation. DISCUSSION: Several staff-perceived facilitators and barriers to deceased organ donation were identified in the ICU. Future research could identify strategies to promote these facilitators and overcome barriers.

17.
Crit Care Med ; 47(6): 817-825, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It is unknown whether more frequent screening of invasively ventilated patients, identifies patients earlier for a spontaneous breathing trial, and shortens the duration of ventilation. We assessed the feasibility of conducting a large trial to evaluate screening frequency in critically ill adults in the North American context. DESIGN: We conducted two contemporaneous, multicenter, pilot, randomized controlled trials (the LibeRation from MEchanicaL VEntilAtion and ScrEening Frequency [RELEASE] and Screening Elderly PatieNts For InclusiOn in a Weaning [SENIOR] trials) to address concerns regarding the potential for higher enrollment, fewer adverse events, and better outcomes in younger patients. SETTING: Ten and 11 ICUs in Canada, respectively. PATIENTS: Parallel trials of younger (RELEASE < 65 yr) and older (SENIOR ≥ 65 yr) critically ill adults invasively ventilated for at least 24 hours. INTERVENTIONS: Each trial compared once daily screening to "at least twice daily" screening led by respiratory therapists. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In both trials, we evaluated recruitment (aim: 1-2 patients/month/ICU) and consent rates, reasons for trial exclusion, protocol adherence (target: ≥ 80%), crossovers (aim: ≤ 10%), and the effect of the alternative screening frequencies on adverse events and clinical outcomes. We included 155 patients (53 patients [23 once daily, 30 at least twice daily] in RELEASE and 102 patients [54 once daily, 48 at least twice daily] in SENIOR). Between trials, we found similar recruitment rates (1.32 and 1.26 patients/month/ICU) and reasons for trial exclusion, high consent and protocol adherence rates (> 92%), infrequent crossovers, and few adverse events. Although underpowered, at least twice daily screening was associated with a nonsignificantly faster time to successful extubation and more successful extubations but significantly increased use of noninvasive ventilation in both trials combined. CONCLUSIONS: Similar recruitment and consent rates, few adverse events, and comparable outcomes in younger and older patients support conduct of a single large trial in North American ICUs assessing the net clinical benefits associated with more frequent screening.

18.
JAMA ; 321(7): 654-664, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772908

RESUMO

Importance: Abnormal peripheral perfusion after septic shock resuscitation has been associated with organ dysfunction and mortality. The potential role of the clinical assessment of peripheral perfusion as a target during resuscitation in early septic shock has not been established. Objective: To determine if a peripheral perfusion-targeted resuscitation during early septic shock in adults is more effective than a lactate level-targeted resuscitation for reducing mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, randomized trial conducted at 28 intensive care units in 5 countries. Four-hundred twenty-four patients with septic shock were included between March 2017 and March 2018. The last date of follow-up was June 12, 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomized to a step-by-step resuscitation protocol aimed at either normalizing capillary refill time (n = 212) or normalizing or decreasing lactate levels at rates greater than 20% per 2 hours (n = 212), during an 8-hour intervention period. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 28 days. Secondary outcomes were organ dysfunction at 72 hours after randomization, as assessed by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range, 0 [best] to 24 [worst]); death within 90 days; mechanical ventilation-, renal replacement therapy-, and vasopressor-free days within 28 days; intensive care unit and hospital length of stay. Results: Among 424 patients randomized (mean age, 63 years; 226 [53%] women), 416 (98%) completed the trial. By day 28, 74 patients (34.9%) in the peripheral perfusion group and 92 patients (43.4%) in the lactate group had died (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.55 to 1.02]; P = .06; risk difference, -8.5% [95% CI, -18.2% to 1.2%]). Peripheral perfusion-targeted resuscitation was associated with less organ dysfunction at 72 hours (mean SOFA score, 5.6 [SD, 4.3] vs 6.6 [SD, 4.7]; mean difference, -1.00 [95% CI, -1.97 to -0.02]; P = .045). There were no significant differences in the other 6 secondary outcomes. No protocol-related serious adverse reactions were confirmed. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with septic shock, a resuscitation strategy targeting normalization of capillary refill time, compared with a strategy targeting serum lactate levels, did not reduce all-cause 28-day mortality. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03078712.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/terapia , Idoso , Capilares/fisiopatologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Respiração Artificial , Choque Séptico/sangue , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
19.
JAMA ; 321(9): 846-857, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776290

RESUMO

Importance: Adjusting positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to offset pleural pressure might attenuate lung injury and improve patient outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Objective: To determine whether PEEP titration guided by esophageal pressure (PES), an estimate of pleural pressure, was more effective than empirical high PEEP-fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) in moderate to severe ARDS. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 2 randomized clinical trial conducted at 14 hospitals in North America. Two hundred mechanically ventilated patients aged 16 years and older with moderate to severe ARDS (Pao2:Fio2 ≤200 mm Hg) were enrolled between October 31, 2012, and September 14, 2017; long-term follow-up was completed July 30, 2018. Interventions: Participants were randomized to PES-guided PEEP (n = 102) or empirical high PEEP-Fio2 (n = 98). All participants received low tidal volumes. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a ranked composite score incorporating death and days free from mechanical ventilation among survivors through day 28. Prespecified secondary outcomes included 28-day mortality, days free from mechanical ventilation among survivors, and need for rescue therapy. Results: Two hundred patients were enrolled (mean [SD] age, 56 [16] years; 46% female) and completed 28-day follow-up. The primary composite end point was not significantly different between treatment groups (probability of more favorable outcome with PES-guided PEEP: 49.6% [95% CI, 41.7% to 57.5%]; P = .92). At 28 days, 33 of 102 patients (32.4%) assigned to PES-guided PEEP and 30 of 98 patients (30.6%) assigned to empirical PEEP-Fio2 died (risk difference, 1.7% [95% CI, -11.1% to 14.6%]; P = .88). Days free from mechanical ventilation among survivors was not significantly different (median [interquartile range]: 22 [15-24] vs 21 [16.5-24] days; median difference, 0 [95% CI, -1 to 2] days; P = .85). Patients assigned to PES-guided PEEP were significantly less likely to receive rescue therapy (4/102 [3.9%] vs 12/98 [12.2%]; risk difference, -8.3% [95% CI, -15.8% to -0.8%]; P = .04). None of the 7 other prespecified secondary clinical end points were significantly different. Adverse events included gross barotrauma, which occurred in 6 patients with PES-guided PEEP and 5 patients with empirical PEEP-Fio2. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with moderate to severe ARDS, PES-guided PEEP, compared with empirical high PEEP-Fio2, resulted in no significant difference in death and days free from mechanical ventilation. These findings do not support PES-guided PEEP titration in ARDS. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01681225.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios
20.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(6): 686-695, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rates of organ donation vary between otherwise comparable intensive care units (ICUs) suggesting that the process of donation must vary between ICUs. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of organ donation from the perspective of ICU staff, identify important drivers of successful donation, and develop strategies to improve the process of donation. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 32 ICU staff, including physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists, using an interview guide developed from previous studies on organ donation. Using a qualitative descriptive approach, we coded interviews using qualitative content analysis. We integrated findings from the interviews in a mixed-methods analysis with previously published data from a document analysis and cross-sectional survey to identify practices that may enhance organ donation in the ICU. RESULTS: Five major themes important to the organ donation process emerged from the interviews: i) staff relationship with organ donation coordinators; ii) standardized processes; iii) ICU staff beliefs; iv) integration of donation and high quality end-of-life care; v) feedback and staff support. In the mixed-methods analysis, we identified 22 actionable practices to enhance the process of organ donation in the ICU. CONCLUSION: Incorporating the perspectives of ICU staff, we were able to identify 22 practice changes that may have a significant cumulative impact on donation outcomes. Future research is required to evaluate whether these findings account for the variability of donation rates between otherwise comparable ICUs.

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