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1.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-14, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124710

RESUMO

We investigate how early exposure to parental externalizing behaviors (EB) may contribute to development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in young adulthood, testing a developmental cascade model focused on competencies in three domains (academic, conduct, and work) in adolescence and emerging adulthood, and examining whether high parental education can buffer negative effects of parental EB and other early risk factors. We use data from 451,054 Swedish-born men included in the national conscript register. Structural equation models showed parental EB was associated with academic and behavioral problems during adolescence, as well as with lower resilience, more criminal behavior, and reduced social integration during emerging adulthood. These pathways led to elevated rates of AUD in emerging and young adulthood. Multiple groups analysis showed most of the indirect pathways from parental EB to AUD were present but buffered by higher parental education, suggesting early life experiences and competencies matter more for young men from lower socioeconomic status (SES) families than from higher SES families. Developmental competencies in school, conduct, and work are important precursors to the development of AUD by young adulthood that are predicted by parental EB. Occupational success may be an overlooked source of resilience for young men from low-SES families.

2.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(1): e21-e29, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol misuse, cigarette smoking, poor diet, and physical inactivity, known as the "big four" contributors to chronic conditions and mortality, typically co-occur or cluster together, with their synergistic effect more detrimental to health than their cumulative individual effects. Little research has been reported on race/ethnicity-specific analyses of the clustering of these behaviors in the U.S. This study identified clustered risk behaviors among whites, blacks, and Hispanics and examined whether unhealthy clusters were associated with lower SES (assessed by education level and family income) and poor health status. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged 30-69 years (n=9,761) from the 2010 and 2015 National Alcohol Surveys was used to perform latent class analysis and multinomial and logistic regression modeling in 2018-2019. Obesity was used as a proxy for unhealthy diet. RESULTS: Three lifestyle classes were identified in each group. The relatively healthy lifestyle class was identified among whites and Hispanics. The nonsmoking and low risky drinking class among blacks, though showing a healthier lifestyle than the other 2 classes, still had relatively high prevalence of inactivity and obesity. The inactive and obese class was found in all 3 groups. Also identified were the smoking and risky drinking class among whites; the smoking and inactive class among blacks; and the smoking, inactive, and risky drinking class among Hispanics. For all 3 groups, unhealthy lifestyle classes mostly were associated with lower SES. Unhealthy lifestyle classes were also associated with poorer health status. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-behavior interventions are warranted to address inactivity and obesity in all 3 groups and unhealthy clusters involving smoking in each group.

3.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(6): 1234-1243, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although restrictive state alcohol policy environments are protective for individuals' binge drinking, research is sparse on the effect of alcohol policies on alcohol's harms to others (AHTO). We examined the lagged associations between efficacy of U.S. state alcohol policies and number of harms from others' drinking 1 year later. METHODS: Individuals with AHTO data in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (analytic sample n = 26,744) that pooled the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Alcohol Surveys and a 2015 National Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey were linked with prior-year state policy measures. We used 2 measures from the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS)-effectiveness in reducing (i) binge drinking and (ii) impaired driving, based on experts' efficacy judgments regarding 29 state alcohol policies. Three 12-month AHTO measures (due to another drinker) were experiencing: (i) either family/marriage difficulties or financial troubles; (ii) being assaulted or vandalized; and (iii) passenger with drunk driver or traffic accident. Multilevel models accounting for clustering within states and stratified by age-groups (<40 vs. ≥40) examined associations between the APS and AHTO measures, controlling for individual covariates (gender, race, education, employment and marital status, family problem-drinking history) of the victim. RESULTS: Only for those aged <40, the lagged APS-Binge drinking and APS-Impaired driving scores were each inversely associated with aggression-related harms and, separately, with drunk driving-related harm from someone else's drinking (ps < 0.05 to < 0.01). Family/financial harms were not associated with APS scores for either age-group. Composite AHTO measures (any of 3 harm-types) also were inversely associated with stronger state alcohol policy environments (ps < 0.05 to <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: State alcohol policies may be effective in reducing, to a meaningful degree, aggression-related harms and vehicular hazards due to other drinkers, but mainly in those under 40.

4.
Health Place ; 50: 16-26, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334617

RESUMO

Our goal was to test a cascade model to identify developmental pathways, or chains of risk, from neighborhood deprivation in childhood to alcohol use disorder (AUD) in young adulthood. Using Swedish general population data, we examined whether exposure to neighborhood deprivation during early and middle childhood was associated with indicators of social functioning in adolescence and emerging adulthood, and whether these were predictive of AUD. Structural equation models showed exposure to neighborhood deprivation was associated with lower school achievement during adolescence, poor social functioning during emerging adulthood, and the development of AUD for both males and females. Understanding longitudinal pathways from early exposure to adverse environments to later AUD can inform prevention and intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 38(12): 3043-51, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity in drinking across national groups is well documented, but what explains such heterogeneity is less clear. To improve understanding of the underlying cultural conditions that may lead to diverse drinking outcomes, we investigate whether 3 dimensions of ethnic drinking culture (EDC)-alcohol consumption level, drinking prevalence, and detrimental drinking pattern (DDP) in the country of origin (COO)-are significantly associated with alcohol consumption in Asian Americans and Latina/os, and whether the associations vary by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) as assessed by educational level. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,012 Asian American and 4,831 Latino adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data was used. A series of multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted separately for Asian Americans and for Latinos. Analyses were also stratified by gender and educational level. RESULTS: Overall, the associations between EDC variables and drinking outcomes were more pronounced for all Asian Americans than for all Latina/os, for males than for females among Asian Americans, and for Latinas than for Latinos. In analyses simultaneously stratifying on gender and education level, however, there was a clear pattern of COO DDP associated with heavier drinking and alcohol consumption volume only for Latinos without a college degree. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic drinking cultures may influence drinking in Asian American and Latino subgroups, albeit to a varying degree. Low-SES Latinos may be at disproportionate risk of harmful drinking patterns pervasive in their COO. Future research might investigate the complex interplay between socioeconomic disadvantage and cultural conditions to inform targeted interventions for subgroups at high risk of alcohol-related harms.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Americanos Asiáticos/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/etnologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
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