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2.
Dev Psychol ; 55(11): 2440-2450, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535895

RESUMO

This study investigated children's and adolescents' predictions of inclusion and evaluations of exclusion in interracial and same-race peer contexts. The sample (N = 246) consisted of African American (n = 115) and European American (n = 131) children and adolescents who judged the likelihood of including a new peer, evaluated the group's decision to exclude the new peer, and provided reasons for their judgments. European American participants, particularly adolescents, viewed same-race inclusion as more likely than interracial inclusion. In contrast, African American participants viewed interracial and same-race inclusion to be just as likely, and evaluated all forms of exclusion to be more wrong than did their European American counterparts. The findings are discussed with respect to peer messages about interracial peer encounters and the conditions that are necessary for prejudice reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Processos Grupais , Relações Interpessoais , Princípios Morais , Grupo Associado , Distância Psicológica , Racismo , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/etnologia
3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 165: 19-36, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645542

RESUMO

Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm. Groups held either moral (equal or unequal resource allocation) or social-conventional (traditional or nontraditional) norms. In the moral contexts, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the moral concern for equality regardless of the peer's group membership or their group's specific norm. In the social-conventional contexts, however, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the conventional concern for maintaining traditions but only at the group-specific level. Furthermore, with age children increasingly based their inclusion decisions on normative concerns, rather than on group membership concerns, and differed in their inclusion decisions for ingroups and outgroups. Finally, children reasoned about their decisions by referencing concerns for fairness, group norms, and group membership, suggesting that preschool children weigh multiple concerns when deciding whom to include in their groups. Overall, the current study revealed differences in how preschool children weigh moral and social-conventional concerns in intergroup contexts.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Moral , Grupo Associado , Distância Psicológica , Identificação Social , Isolamento Social , Normas Sociais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança
4.
Cognition ; 155: 176-187, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27423813

RESUMO

To investigate whether children rectify social inequalities in a resource allocation task, participants (N=185 African-American and European-American 5-6year-olds and 10-11year-olds) witnessed an inequality of school supplies between peers of different racial backgrounds. Assessments were conducted on how children judged the wrongfulness of the inequality, allocated new resources to racial ingroup and outgroup recipients, evaluated alternative allocation strategies, and reasoned about their decisions. Younger children showed ingroup favorability; their responses differed depending on whether they had witnessed their ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. With age, children increasingly reasoned about the importance of equal access to school supplies and correcting past disparities. Older children judged the resource inequality negatively, allocated more resources to the disadvantaged group, and positively evaluated the actions of others who did the same, regardless of whether they had seen their racial ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. Thus, balancing moral and social group concerns enabled individuals to rectify inequalities and ensure fair access to important resources regardless of racial group membership.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Alocação de Recursos , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Identificação Social
5.
Dev Psychol ; 52(8): 1307-17, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455189

RESUMO

The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns, children were asked to allocate, judge, and reason about allocations of necessary (needed to avoid harm) and luxury (enjoyable to have) resources to a hardworking and a lazy character. While 3- to 5-year-olds did not differentiate between distributing luxury and necessary resources, 6- to 8-year-olds allocated luxury resources more meritoriously than necessary resources. Further, children based their allocations of necessary resources on concerns for others' welfare, rather than merit, even when one character was described as working harder. The findings revealed that, with age, children incorporated the concerns for others' welfare and merit into their conceptions of fairness in a resource allocation context, and prioritized these concerns differently depending on whether they were allocating luxury or necessary resources. Further, with age, children weighed multiple moral concerns including equality, merit, and others' welfare, when determining the fair allocation of resources. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento Cooperativo , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Testes Psicológicos , Alocação de Recursos , Recompensa , Pensamento
6.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 51: 103-29, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27474424

RESUMO

Children around the world are affected by bias, prejudice, and discrimination. In this chapter, we argue that intergroup social exclusion-exclusion of peers on the basis of group membership-is a form of prejudice. As such, research efforts should be directed at uncovering the negative intergroup attitudes that sustain these behaviors, and encouraging the development of children's capacity to resist biases in favor of inclusion and just treatment of others. In order to interpret what is known about intergroup social exclusion in childhood, as well as identify compelling issues for current investigation, we introduce our integrative social reasoning developmental model, which emphasizes how children weigh moral and social concerns in everyday peer contexts. This chapter emphasizes three areas of research that have contributed to understanding social inclusion and exclusion decisions in childhood which include the roles of: (1) intergroup contact and friendship, (2) peer group norms, and (3) messages from parents and teachers. While providing a background on the state of research to date, this chapter also pinpoints recent work, shedding new light on the complex interplay of moral reasoning and intergroup attitudes in children's inclusion and exclusion decisions.


Assuntos
Pais , Grupo Associado , Preconceito , Distância Psicológica , Professores Escolares , Normas Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Amigos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Identificação Social
7.
Dev Psychol ; 51(4): 554-63, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25664833

RESUMO

This study investigated children's evaluations of peer group members who deviated from group norms about equal and unequal allocation of resources. Children, ages 3.5 to 4 years and 5 to 6 years (N = 73), were asked to evaluate a peer group member who deviated from 1 of 2 group allocation norms: (a) equal allocation of resources, or (b) unequal allocation of resources. Most children negatively evaluated deviant group members who espoused an unequal allocation, even when it benefitted the group, and explained their evaluation with reference to fairness. However, participants who liked unequal deviants (who advocated for an unequal allocation of resources) reasoned about group functioning and the benefits that an unequal allocation would have for the group. With age, children displayed social acumen by differentiating their own evaluation of the deviant act from their expectations of the group's favorability toward that deviant member. Findings revealed age-related increases for social acumen about group norms, as well as the use of fairness reasoning regarding resource allocation.


Assuntos
Alocação de Recursos , Identificação Social , Normas Sociais , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Percepção Social
8.
New Dir Youth Dev ; 2012(136): 41-57, 8-9, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23359443

RESUMO

This article examines children's moral judgments and emotional evaluations in the context of social exclusion. As they age, children and adolescents face increasingly complex situations in which group membership and allegiance are in opposition with morally relevant decisions, such as the exclusion of an individual from a group. While adolescents are often characterized as being conformists to group norms, research demonstrates that their judgments about fairness, justice, and rights can supersede negative or exclusive norms espoused by groups. Additionally, young people's emotional evaluations of members who do not conform to a group norm are in concert with these fairness judgments. Implications for social and moral development will be discussed in the context of empirical findings.


Assuntos
Emoções , Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Grupo Associado , Meio Social , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Modelos Teóricos , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicologia do Adolescente , Relações Raciais , Identificação Social , Justiça Social
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