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PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543290


Habitat loss from land-use change is one of the top causes of declines in wildlife species of concern. As such, it is critical to assess and reassess habitat suitability as land cover and anthropogenic features change for both monitoring and developing current information to inform management decisions. However, there are obstacles that must be overcome to develop consistent assessments through time. A range-wide lek habitat suitability model for the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), currently under review by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for potential listing under the Endangered Species Act, was published in 2016. This model was based on lek data from 2002 to 2012, land cover data ranging from 2001 to 2013, and anthropogenic features from circa 2011, and has been used to help guide lesser prairie-chicken management and anthropogenic development actions. We created a second iteration model based on new lek surveys (2015 to 2019) and updated predictors (2016 land cover and cleaned/updated anthropogenic data) to evaluate changes in lek suitability and to quantify current range-wide habitat suitability. Only three of 11 predictor variables were directly comparable between the iterations, making it difficult to directly assess what predicted changes resulted from changes in model inputs versus actual landscape change. The second iteration model showed a similar positive relationship with land cover and negative relationship with anthropogenic features to the first iteration, but exhibited more variation among candidate models. Range-wide, more suitable habitat was predicted in the second iteration. The Shinnery Oak Ecoregion, however, exhibited a loss in predicted suitable habitat that could be due to predictor source changes. Iterated models such as this are important to ensure current information is being used in conservation and development decisions.

Galinhas/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Humanos , Codorniz/fisiologia
J Pharm Sci ; 92(9): 1919-29, 2003 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12950009


The subambient behavior of aqueous mannitol solutions is of considerable relevance to the preparation of freeze dried formulations. In this investigation the properties of 3% w/v mannitol solutions were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cold stage microscopy (CSM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the thermal transitions and structural transformations undergone by this system. It was found that on cooling from ambient the system formed ice at circa -20 degrees C while a further exotherm was seen at approximately -30 degrees C. Upon reheating an endotherm was seen at circa -30 degrees C followed immediately by an exotherm at circa -25 degrees C. Temperature cycling indicated that the thermal transitions observed upon reheating were not reversible. Modulated temperature DSC (MTDSC) indicated that the transitions observed upon reheating corresponded to a glass transition immediately followed by recrystallization, XRD data showed that recrystallization was into the beta form. Annealing at -35 degrees C for 40 min prior to cooling and reheating resulted in a maximum enthalpy being observed for the reheating exotherm. It is concluded that on cooling 3% w/v aqueous mannitol solutions an amorphous phase is formed that subsequently recrystallises into the beta form. The study has also shown that DSC, CSM, and XRD are useful complementary techniques for the study of frozen systems.

Manitol/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria/métodos , Química Farmacêutica , Cristalização , Liofilização/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Soluções Farmacêuticas , Tecnologia Farmacêutica , Difração de Raios X/métodos