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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229512, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163430

RESUMO

Seafood mislabeling occurs in a wide range of seafood products worldwide, resulting in public distrust, economic fraud, and health risks for consumers. We quantified the extent of shrimp mislabeling in coastal and inland North Carolina. We used standard DNA barcoding procedures to determine the species identity of 106 shrimp sold as "local" by 60 vendors across North Carolina. Thirty-four percent of the purchased shrimp was mislabeled, and surprisingly the percentage did not differ significantly between coastal and inland counties. One third of product incorrectly marketed as "local" was in fact whiteleg shrimp: an imported and globally farmed species native to the eastern Pacific, not found in North Carolina waters. In addition to the negative ecosystem consequences of shrimp farming (e.g., the loss of mangrove forests and the coastal buffering they provide), North Carolina fishers-as with local fishers elsewhere-are negatively impacted when vendors label farmed, frozen, and imported shrimp as local, fresh, and wild-caught.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2359, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047189

RESUMO

The effects of vitamin A and/or vitamin D deficiency were studied in an Arf-/- BCR-ABL acute lymphoblastic leukemia murine model. Vitamin D sufficient mice died earlier (p = 0.003) compared to vitamin D deficient (VDD) mice. Vitamin A deficient (VAD) mice fared worst with more rapid disease progression and decreased survival. Mice deficient for vitamins A and D (VADD) had disease progression similar to VAD mice. Regulatory T cells, previously shown to associate with poor BCR-ABL leukemia control, were present at higher frequencies among CD4+ splenocytes of vitamin A deficient vs. sufficient mice. In vitro studies demonstrated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2VD3) increased the number of BCR-ABL ALL cells only when co-cultured with bone marrow stroma. 1,25(OH)2VD3 induced CXCL12 expression in vivo and in vitro in stromal cells and CXCL12 increased stromal migration and the number of BCR-ABL blasts. Vitamin D plus leukemia reprogrammed the marrow increasing production of collagens, potentially trapping ALL blasts. Vitamin A (all trans retinoic acid, ATRA) treated leukemic cells had increased apoptosis, decreased cells in S-phase, and increased cells in G0/G1. ATRA signaled through the retinoid X receptor to decrease BCR-ABL leukemic cell viability. In conclusion, vitamin A and D deficiencies have opposing effects on mouse survival from BCR-ABL ALL.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136553, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982735

RESUMO

There are 70.8 million forcibly displaced people worldwide, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and asylum seekers. Since mortality rates are highest in the first six months of displacement, the provision of adequate services and infrastructure by relief organizations is critical in this "emergency phase." Environmental health provisions such as adequate water supply, excreta management, solid waste management, and vector control measures are among those essential services. We conducted a systematic scoping review of environmental health in the emergency phase of displacement (the six months following first displacement). A total of 122 publications, comprising 104 peer-reviewed and 18 grey literature publications, met the inclusion criteria. We extracted data relating to environmental health conditions and services, associated outcomes, and information concerning obstacles and recommendations for improving these conditions and services. Despite the fact that most displaced people live outside of camps, publications largely report findings for camps (n = 73, 60%). Water supply (n = 57, 47%) and excreta management (n = 47, 39%) dominate the literature. Energy access (n = 7, 6%), exposure to harsh weather from inadequate shelter (n = 5, 4%), food hygiene and safety (n = 4, 3%), indoor air quality (n = 3, 3%), menstrual hygiene management (n = 2, 2%), dental hygiene (n = 2, 2%), and ambient air quality (n = 1, 1%) are relatively understudied. The most common health outcome attributed to inadequate environmental conditions in the included publications is diarrhea (n = 43, 35%). We found that organizations and governments often embrace their own standards, however we call for policymakers to adopt standards no less rigorous than Sphere for the emergency phase of displacement. Although other reviews examine water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in emergencies, this is the first systematic review of environmental health more broadly in the first six months of displacement.

4.
Prev Sci ; 20(8): 1147-1168, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444621

RESUMO

A number of programs, policies, and practices have been tested using rigorous scientific methods and shown to prevent behavioral health problems (Catalano et al., Lancet 379:1653-1664, 2012; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2009). Yet these evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are not widely used in public systems, and they have limited reach (Glasgow et al., American Journal of Public Health 102:1274-1281, 2012; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine 2009; Prinz and Sanders, Clinical Psychology Review 27:739-749, 2007). To address this challenge and improve public health and well-being at a population level, the Society for Prevention Research (SPR) formed the Mapping Advances in Prevention Science (MAPS) IV Translation Research Task Force, which considered ways to scale up EBIs in five public systems: behavioral health, child welfare, education, juvenile justice, and public health. After reviewing other efforts to scale up EBIs in public systems, a common set of factors were identified as affecting scale-up in all five systems. The most important factor was the degree to which these systems enacted public policies (i.e., statutes, regulations, and guidance) requiring or recommending EBIs and provided public funds for EBIs. Across systems, other facilitators of scale-up were creating EBIs that are ready for scale-up, public awareness of and support for EBIs, community engagement and capacity to implement EBIs, leadership support for EBIs, a skilled workforce capable of delivering EBIs, and data monitoring and evaluation capacity. It was concluded that the following actions are needed to significantly increase EBI scale-up in public systems: (1) provide more public policies and funding to support the creation, testing, and scaling up of EBIs; (2) develop and evaluate specific frameworks that address systems level barriers impeding EBI scale-up; and (3) promote public support for EBIs, community capacity to implement EBIs at scale, and partnerships between community stakeholders, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists within and across systems.

5.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 317(3): C502-C512, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241988

RESUMO

Sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is coupled with declines in physical functioning leading to subsequent higher rates of disability, frailty, morbidity, and mortality. Aging and obesity independently contribute to muscle atrophy that is assumed to be a result of the activation of mutual physiological pathways. Understanding mechanisms contributing to the induction of skeletal muscle atrophy with aging and obesity is important for determining targets that may have pivotal roles in muscle loss in these conditions. We find that aging and obesity equally induce an anabolic resistance to acute skeletal muscle contraction as observed with decreases in anabolic signaling activation after contraction. Furthermore, treatment with the sphingosine-1-phosphate analog FTY720 for 4 wk increased lean mass and strength, and the anabolic signaling response to contraction was improved in obese but not older animals. To determine the role of chronic inflammation and different fatty acids on anabolic resistance in skeletal muscle cells, we overexpressed IKKß with and without exposure to saturated fatty acid (SFA; palmitic acid), polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid), and monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid). We found that IKKß overexpression increased inflammation markers in muscle cells, and this chronic inflammation exacerbated anabolic resistance in response to SFA. Pretreatment with FTY720 reversed the inflammatory effects of palmitic acid in the muscle cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate chronic inflammation can induce anabolic resistance, SFA aggravates these effects, and FTY720 can reverse this by decreasing ceramide accumulation in skeletal muscle.

6.
J Prim Prev ; 40(1): 69-87, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671752

RESUMO

The translation and scale-up of evidence-based programs require new methods to guide implementation decisions across varying contexts. As programs are translated to real-world settings, variability is introduced. Some program components may have minor roles to play in producing positive outcomes, and some may have major roles, but only if adapted to meet different contextual demands. While some sources of variability are likely to improve program outcomes, we currently lack methods that allow us to determine the critical components or combinations of components that serve as causal pathways to a desired outcome and then to advise practitioners accordingly. In this paper, we introduce a promising tool for this purpose and illustrate its use in a translational research context. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is often used to examine causality in situations that have complex, multiply-determined outcomes. The basic premise of QCA is that different sets of causal conditions, or causal pathways, may lead to a single outcome (the principle of equifinality). We applied QCA to a selection of the highest- and lowest-performing programs from a multi-year two-state dissemination of The Strengthening Families Program for Parents and Adolescents 10-14 to determine which components or combinations of components at the implementation, program delivery, and participant levels produced desired participant outcomes. In particular, we examined which components were necessary (i.e., in the absence of these factors, the outcome didnot occur), and which were sufficient (i.e., in the presence of these factors, the outcome always occurred). Results demonstrated that certain conditions were necessary for program success. In addition, given those necessary conditions, there were two sets of conditions sufficient to produce success, regardless of the presence or absence of any of the others. QCA, not previously used in prevention science research, helps to illuminate causal pathways, leading to concrete, evidence-based implementation decisions that facilitate generalization and scale-up.

7.
Annu Rev Public Health ; 39: 55-76, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29328872

RESUMO

There is strong interest in implementation science to address the gap between research and practice in public health. Research on the sustainability of evidence-based interventions has been growing rapidly. Sustainability has been defined as the continued use of program components at sufficient intensity for the sustained achievement of desirable program goals and population outcomes. This understudied area has been identified as one of the most significant translational research problems. Adding to this challenge is uncertainty regarding the extent to which intervention adaptation and evolution are necessary to address the needs of populations that differ from those in which interventions were originally tested or implemented. This review critically examines and discusses conceptual and methodological issues in studying sustainability, summarizes the multilevel factors that have been found to influence the sustainability of interventions in a range of public health and health care settings, and highlights key areas for future research.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Ciência da Implementação , Saúde Pública , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Humanos , Prática de Saúde Pública , Pesquisa
8.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 48(7): 453-460.e1, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27373859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine empirically participant and household characteristics associated with Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) graduation and to determine whether they differ across 2 counties. DESIGN: Survey of EFNEP participants from 2011 to 2012. SETTING: Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program sites serving limited-resource families in 1 rural and 1 urban/suburban county in Washington State. PARTICIPANTS: Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program participants (urban/suburban: n = 647; rural: n = 569). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program completion/graduation. ANALYSIS: Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations of participant (ethnicity, race, age, education, pregnancy status, and nutrition knowledge/behavior at baseline) and household (number of people in the house, place of residence, and public assistance services) characteristics with EFNEP graduation. RESULTS: Associations were moderated by county. For the urban/suburban county, participants living with more people (after controlling for the total number of adults) were more likely to graduate. For the rural county, participants living with fewer total adults (after controlling for the total number in the house) and those with better food safety practices at baseline were more likely to graduate. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This study aids in understanding which participants are more or less likely to complete EFNEP successfully, and therefore can inform strategies aimed at increasing graduation rates.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Ciências da Nutrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Humanos , Ciências da Nutrição/organização & administração , Washington/epidemiologia
9.
Prev Sci ; 17(6): 679-88, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27154769

RESUMO

Alcohol use, reasons for use, and consequences of use continue to be a major concern in college student populations. This is especially true for students of legal drinking age who may experience different reasons for and greater negative consequences of alcohol use than students under 21 years old. Although multiple studies have used person-centered approaches to understand motivations for and ultimately prevent alcohol use, few have identified multiple typologies of reasons for alcohol use. The current study used latent class analysis to identify homogeneous subtypes of reasons for alcohol use and how classification was associated with alcohol-related consequences in college students aged 21 years old and older (N = 2300) from the 2013 Indiana College Substance Use Survey. Four profiles of reasons for alcohol use emerged across males and females: social drinkers, feel good drinkers, relaxed escaping drinkers, and emotion coping drinkers. Although the likelihood of consequences differed across gender, the emotion coping drinkers were more likely to experience all negative consequences, suggesting that it was a high-risk class. In general, this pattern of risk continued with the feel good drinkers and female relaxed escaping drinkers. These results can help optimize college substance use prevention and intervention efforts to (1) identify and understand characteristics of high- and low-risk student drinkers and (2) tailor the content of interventions to those specific profiles resulting in more effective approaches to reducing alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Motivação , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adaptação Psicológica , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Indiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Prim Prev ; 37(1): 33-52, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26661413

RESUMO

Although program adaptation is a reality in community-based implementations of evidence-based programs, much of the discussion about adaptation remains theoretical. The primary aim of this study was to replicate two coding systems to examine adaptations in large-scale, community-based disseminations of the Strengthening Families Program for Parents and Youth 10-14, a family-based substance use prevention program. Our second aim was to explore intersections between various dimensions of facilitator-reported adaptations from these two coding systems. Our results indicate that only a few types of adaptations and a few reasons accounted for a majority (over 70 %) of all reported adaptations. We also found that most adaptations were logistical, reactive, and not aligned with program's goals. In many ways, our findings replicate those of the original studies, suggesting the two coding systems are robust even when applied to self-reported data collected from community-based implementations. Our findings on the associations between adaptation dimensions can inform future studies assessing the relationship between adaptations and program outcomes. Studies of local adaptations, like the present one, should help researchers, program developers, and policymakers better understand the issues faced by implementers and guide efforts related to program development, transferability, and sustainability.


Assuntos
Codificação Clínica , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Terapia Familiar , Prevenção Primária , Adolescente , Criança , Codificação Clínica/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Humanos , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Prev Sci ; 16(1): 145-57, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23975240

RESUMO

Over the past four decades, significant strides have been made in the science of preventing youth problem behaviors. Subsequently, policymakers and funders have begun to insist on the use of evidence-based programs (EBPs) as a requirement for funding. However, unless practitioners are able to sustain these programs beyond initial seed funding, they are unlikely to achieve their ultimate goal of broad public health impact. Despite its obvious importance, sustainability has received relatively little attention in prevention science until recently. Moreover, there have been few opportunities to study the correlates of sustainability in large-scale, multi-year initiatives involving multiple programs. The present study examined rates of sustainment of a wide range of proven-effective prevention and intervention programs; identified factors related to organizational support and readiness, program and implementer characteristics, and sustainability planning that distinguished sustained programs; and examined variability in these associations across classroom-based, community/mentoring, family-focused prevention, and family treatment program types within the context of a state-wide EBP dissemination initiative in Pennsylvania over 4 years. The majority of EBPs sustained functioning 2 years or more beyond their initial funding. In general, sustained programs reported greater community coalition functioning, communication to key stakeholders, knowledge of the program's logical model, communication with the trainer or program developer, and sustainability planning. In addition to these universal correlates, important program-specific correlates emerged as well. Implications for the technical assistance and support necessary to promote the sustainability of EBPs in nonresearch contexts are also discussed.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Violência/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Objetivos Organizacionais , Pennsylvania , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
12.
BioData Min ; 7: 21, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25368670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic understanding of complex traits has developed immensely over the past decade but remains hampered by incomplete descriptions of contribution to phenotypic variance. Gene-environment (GxE) interactions are one of these contributors and in the guise of diet and physical activity are important modulators of cardiometabolic phenotypes and ensuing diseases. RESULTS: We mined the scientific literature to collect GxE interactions from 386 publications for blood lipids, glycemic traits, obesity anthropometrics, vascular measures, inflammation and metabolic syndrome, and introduce CardioGxE, a gene-environment interaction resource. We then analyzed the genes and SNPs supporting cardiometabolic GxEs in order to demonstrate utility of GxE SNPs and to discern characteristics of these important genetic variants. We were able to draw many observations from our extensive analysis of GxEs. 1) The CardioGxE SNPs showed little overlap with variants identified by main effect GWAS, indicating the importance of environmental interactions with genetic factors on cardiometabolic traits. 2) These GxE SNPs were enriched in adaptation to climatic and geographical features, with implications on energy homeostasis and response to physical activity. 3) Comparison to gene networks responding to plasma cholesterol-lowering or regression of atherosclerotic plaques showed that GxE genes have a greater role in those responses, particularly through high-energy diets and fat intake, than do GWAS-identified genes for the same traits. Other aspects of the CardioGxE dataset were explored. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we demonstrate that SNPs supporting cardiometabolic GxE interactions often exhibit transcriptional effects or are under positive selection. Still, not all such SNPs can be assigned potential functional or regulatory roles often because data are lacking in specific cell types or from treatments that approximate the environmental factor of the GxE. With research on metabolic related complex disease risk embarking on genome-wide GxE interaction tests, CardioGxE will be a useful resource.

13.
Child Dev ; 85(6): 2317-38, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25132426

RESUMO

Head Start (HS) is the largest federally funded preschool program for disadvantaged children. Research has shown relatively small impacts on cognitive and social skills; therefore, some have questioned its effectiveness. Using data from the Head Start Impact Study (3-year-old cohort; N = 2,449), latent class analysis was used to (a) identify subgroups of children defined by baseline characteristics of their home environment and caregiver and (b) test whether the effects of HS on cognitive, and behavioral and relationship skills over 2 years differed across subgroups. The results suggest that the effectiveness of HS varies quite substantially. For some children there appears to be a significant, and in some cases, long-term, positive impact. For others there is little to no effect.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Financiamento Governamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança/economia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , /normas , Feminino , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Pobreza/economia , Estados Unidos , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
J Adolesc Health ; 54(3): 319-25, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24231260

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present mixture regression analysis as an alternative to more standard regression analysis for predicting adolescent delinquency. We demonstrate how mixture regression analysis allows for the identification of population subgroups defined by the salience of multiple risk factors. METHODS: We identified population subgroups (i.e., latent classes) of individuals based on their coefficients in a regression model predicting adolescent delinquency from eight previously established risk indices drawn from the community, school, family, peer, and individual levels. The study included N = 37,763 10th-grade adolescents who participated in the Communities That Care Youth Survey. Standard, zero-inflated, and mixture Poisson and negative binomial regression models were considered. RESULTS: Standard and mixture negative binomial regression models were selected as optimal. The five-class regression model was interpreted based on the class-specific regression coefficients, indicating that risk factors had varying salience across classes of adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Standard regression showed that all risk factors were significantly associated with delinquency. Mixture regression provided more nuanced information, suggesting a unique set of risk factors that were salient for different subgroups of adolescents. Implications for the design of subgroup-specific interventions are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Prim Prev ; 34(3): 147-61, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23605294

RESUMO

When evidence-based programs (EBPs) are scaled up in natural, or non-research, settings, adaptations are commonly made. Given the fidelity-versus-adaptation debate, theoretical rationales have been provided for the pros and cons of adaptations. Yet the basis of this debate is theoretical; thus, empirical evidence is needed to understand the types of adaptations made in natural settings. In the present study, we introduce a taxonomy for understanding adaptations. This taxonomy addresses several aspects of adaptations made to programs including the fit (philosophical or logistical), timing (proactive or reactive), and valence, or the degree to which the adaptations align with the program's goals and theory, (positive, negative, or neutral). Self-reported qualitative data from communities delivering one of ten state-funded EBPs were coded based on the taxonomy constructs; additionally, quantitative data were used to examine the types and reasons for making adaptations under natural conditions. Forty-four percent of respondents reported making adaptations. Adaptations to the procedures, dosage, and content were cited most often. Lack of time, limited resources, and difficulty retaining participants were listed as the most common reasons for making adaptations. Most adaptations were made reactively, as a result of issues of logistical fit, and were not aligned with, or deviated from, the program's goals and theory.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Coleta de Dados , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/organização & administração , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/prevenção & controle , Pennsylvania , Violência/prevenção & controle
16.
Am J Public Health ; 102(11): 2080-7, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22994172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the independent and combined influence of major risk and protective factors on youths' alcohol use. METHODS: Five large data sets provided similar measures of alcohol use and risk or protective factors. We carried out analyses within each data set, separately for boys and girls in 8th and 10th grades. We included interaction and curvilinear predictive terms in final models if results were robust across data sets. We combined results using meta-analytic techniques. RESULTS: Individual, family, and peer risk factors and a community protective factor moderately predicted youths' alcohol use. Family and school protective factors did not predict alcohol use when combined with other factors. Youths' antisocial attitudes were more strongly associated with alcohol use for those also reporting higher levels of peer or community risk. For certain risk factors, the association with alcohol use varied across different risk levels. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts toward reducing youths' alcohol use should be based on robust estimates of the relative influence of risk and protective factors across adolescent environment domains. Public health advocates should focus on context (e.g., community factors) as a strategy for curbing underage alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Razão de Chances , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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