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1.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop an evidence-based definition of sarcopenia that can facilitate identification of older adults at risk for clinically relevant outcomes (eg, self-reported mobility limitation, falls, fractures, and mortality), the Sarcopenia Definition and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC) crafted a set of position statements informed by a literature review and SDOC's analyses of eight epidemiologic studies, six randomized clinical trials, four cohort studies of special populations, and two nationally representative population-based studies. METHODS: Thirteen position statements related to the putative components of a sarcopenia definition, informed by the SDOC analyses and literature synthesis, were reviewed by an independent international expert panel (panel) iteratively and voted on by the panel during the Sarcopenia Position Statement Conference. Four position statements related to grip strength, three to lean mass derived from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and four to gait speed; two were summary statements. RESULTS: The SDOC analyses identified grip strength, either absolute or scaled to measures of body size, as an important discriminator of slowness. Both low grip strength and low usual gait speed independently predicted falls, self-reported mobility limitation, hip fractures, and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. Lean mass measured by DXA was not associated with incident adverse health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults with or without adjustment for body size. CONCLUSION: The panel agreed that both weakness defined by low grip strength and slowness defined by low usual gait speed should be included in the definition of sarcopenia. These position statements offer a rational basis for an evidence-based definition of sarcopenia. The analyses that informed these position statements are summarized in this article and discussed in accompanying articles in this issue of the journal.

2.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 20(1): 4-11, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131365

RESUMO

The Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis (MAVIDOS) trial reported higher total body bone mineral content in winter-born infants of mothers receiving vitamin D supplementation [1000 IU/day cholecalciferol] compared with placebo from 14 weeks gestation until delivery. This sub-study aimed to determine whether antenatal vitamin D supplementation altered postnatal bone formation in response to mechanical stimulation. Thirty-one children born to MAVIDOS participants randomised to either placebo (n=19) or cholecalciferol (n=12) were recruited at age 4-5 years. Children received whole body vibration (WBV) for 10 minutes on 5 consecutive days. Fasting blood samples for bone homeostasis, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and bone turnover markers (Pro-collagen Type 1 N-terminal propeptide, P1NP; Cross-linked C-telopeptide of Type I Collagen, CTX) were collected pre-WBV and on day 8 (D8). Mean changes (D) in P1NP (ng/ml) between baseline and D8 in the vitamin-D intervention and placebo groups were 40.6 and -92.6 respectively and mean changes (Δ) in CTX (ng/ml) were 0.034 (intervention) and -0.084 (placebo) respectively. Between-group DP1NP difference was 133.2ng/ml [95% CI 0.4, 266.0; p=0.049] and ΔCTX 0.05ng/ml (95% CI -0.159, 0.26ng/mL; p=0.62). Antenatal vitamin-D supplementation resulted in increased P1NP in response to WBV, suggesting early life vitamin D supplementation increases the anabolic response of bone to mechanical loading in children.

3.
Inj Prev ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Falls in older aged adults are an important public health problem. Insight into differences in fall-related injury rates between countries can serve as important input for identifying and evaluating prevention strategies. The objectives of this study were to compare Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates on incidence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to fall-related injury in older adults across 22 countries in the Western European region and to examine changes over a 28-year period. METHODS: We performed a secondary database descriptive study using the GBD 2017 results on age-standardised fall-related injury in older adults aged 70 years and older in 22 countries from 1990 to 2017. RESULTS: In 2017, in the Western European region, 13 840 per 100 000 (uncertainty interval (UI) 11 837-16 113) older adults sought medical treatment for fall-related injury, ranging from 7594 per 100 000 (UI 6326-9032) in Greece to 19 796 per 100 000 (UI 15 536-24 233) in Norway. Since 1990, fall-related injury DALY rates showed little change for the whole region, but patterns varied widely between countries. Some countries (eg, Belgium and Netherlands) have lost their favourable positions due to an increasing fall-related injury burden of disease since 1990. CONCLUSIONS: From 1990 to 2017, there was considerable variation in fall-related injury incidence, mortality, DALY rates and its composites in the 22 countries in the Western European region. It may be useful to assess which fall prevention measures have been taken in countries that showed continuous low or decreasing incidence, death and DALY rates despite ageing of the population.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138365

RESUMO

This study explores associations between BMI and prolonged sickness absence; cutting down at work; and health-related job loss (HRJL) over two years of follow-up among workers aged ≥50 years. A cohort of 2299 men and 2425 women (aged 50-64 years) self-reported height and weight at baseline and provided information about work ability at 12 and 24 months for the Health and Employment after Fifty (HEAF) Study. Associations between BMI and work ability were assessed by logistic regression and HRJL by multiple-record Cox's proportional hazards models, with adjustment for other risk factors. The prevalence of obesity/severe obesity was 22.6%/1.2% amongst men and 21.4%/2.6% amongst women, respectively. In men and women, obesity and severe obesity predicted having to cut down at work for health over two years. In women, severe obesity predicted prolonged sickness absence, and also HRJL even after adjustment for age, proximity to retirement, financial difficulties, and lifestyle factors (hazard ratio [HR] 2.93, 95% CI 1.38, 6.23), and additional adjustment for health conditions (HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.12, 5.67). Obesity, and particularly severe obesity, negatively impacts work ability amongst people aged 50-64 years, with greatest effects in women. Obesity can be expected to hinder attempts to encourage work to older ages.

5.
RMD Open ; 6(1)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic literature review (SLR) about the effect of non-pharmacological interventions delivered by non-physician health professionals to prevent and manage osteoporotic fractures. METHODS: Eight clinical questions based on two criteria guided the SLR: (1) adults≥50 years at high risk of osteoporotic fracture and (2) interventions delivered by non-physician health professionals to prevent and manage osteoporotic fractures. Interventions focused on diagnostic procedures to identify risk of falling, therapeutic approaches and implementation strategies. Outcomes included fractures, falls, risk of falling and change in bone mineral density. Systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials were preferentially selected. Data were synthesised using a qualitative descriptive approach. RESULTS: Of 15 917 records, 43 articles were included. Studies were clinically and methodologically diverse. We identified sufficient evidence that structured exercise, incorporating progressive resistance training delivered to people who had undergone hip fracture surgery, and multicomponent exercise, delivered to people at risk of primary fracture, reduced risk of falling. The effectiveness of multidisciplinary fracture liaison services in reducing refracture rate was confirmed. There was insufficient evidence found to support the effectiveness of nutrients and falls prevention programmes in this patient population. CONCLUSION: Despite study heterogeneity, our SLR showed beneficial effects of some interventions delivered by non-physician health professionals and the positive impact of multidisciplinary team working and patient educational approaches to prevent and manage osteoporotic fractures. These results informed a EULAR taskforce that developed points to consider for non-physician health professionals to prevent and manage osteoporotic fractures.

6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 158, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MRI scanning has revolutionized the clinical diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). However, there is currently no consensus as to how best to classify MRI findings which has hampered the development of robust longitudinal epidemiological studies of the condition. We developed and tested an automated system for grading lumbar spine MRI scans for central LSS for use in epidemiological research. METHODS: Using MRI scans from the large population-based cohort study (the Wakayama Spine Study), all graded by a spinal surgeon, we trained an automated system to grade central LSS in four gradings of the bone and soft tissue margins: none, mild, moderate, severe. Subsequently, we tested the automated grading against the independent readings of our observer in a test set to investigate reliability and agreement. RESULTS: Complete axial views were available for 4855 lumbar intervertebral levels from 971 participants. The machine used 4365 axial views to learn (training set) and graded the remaining 490 axial views (testing set). The agreement rate for gradings was 65.7% (322/490) and the reliability (Lin's correlation coefficient) was 0.73. In 2.2% of scans (11/490) there was a difference in classification of 2 and in only 0.2% (1/490) was there a difference of 3. When classified into 2 groups as 'severe' vs 'no/mild/moderate'. The agreement rate was 94.1% (461/490) with a kappa of 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that an automated system can "learn" to grade central LSS with excellent performance against the reference standard. Thus SpineNet offers potential to grade LSS in large-scale epidemiological studies involving a high volume of MRI spine data with a high level of consistency and objectivity.

7.
J Orthop Trauma ; 34(4): e125-e141, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195892

RESUMO

Osteoporosis-related fractures are undertreated, due in part to misinformation about recommended approaches to patient care and discrepancies among treatment guidelines. To help bridge this gap and improve patient outcomes, the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research assembled a multistakeholder coalition to develop clinical recommendations for the optimal prevention of secondary fractureamong people aged 65 years and older with a hip or vertebral fracture. The coalition developed 13 recommendations (7 primary and 6 secondary) strongly supported by the empirical literature. The coalition recommends increased communication with patients regarding fracture risk, mortality and morbidity outcomes, and fracture risk reduction. Risk assessment (including fall history) should occur at regular intervals with referral to physical and/or occupational therapy as appropriate. Oral, intravenous, andsubcutaneous pharmacotherapies are efficaciousandcanreduce risk of future fracture.Patientsneededucation,however, about thebenefitsandrisks of both treatment and not receiving treatment. Oral bisphosphonates alendronate and risedronate are first-line options and are generally well tolerated; otherwise, intravenous zoledronic acid and subcutaneous denosumab can be considered. Anabolic agents are expensive butmay be beneficial for selected patients at high risk.Optimal duration of pharmacotherapy is unknown but because the risk for second fractures is highest in the earlypost-fractureperiod,prompt treatment is recommended.Adequate dietary or supplemental vitaminDand calciumintake shouldbe assured. Individuals beingtreatedfor osteoporosis shouldbe reevaluated for fracture risk routinely, includingvia patienteducationabout osteoporosisandfracturesandmonitoringfor adverse treatment effects.Patients shouldbestronglyencouraged to avoid tobacco, consume alcohol inmoderation atmost, and engage in regular exercise and fall prevention strategies. Finally, referral to endocrinologists or other osteoporosis specialists may be warranted for individuals who experience repeated fracture or bone loss and those with complicating comorbidities (eg, hyperparathyroidism, chronic kidney disease).

8.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125471

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal disorders are common among older people. Preventive strategies require understanding of age-related changes in strength, function and body composition, including how they interrelate. We have described, and examined associations between, 9-year changes in these parameters among 2917 Health, Aging and Body Composition Study participants (aged 70-79 years). Appendicular lean mass (ALM), whole body fat mass and total hip BMD were ascertained using DXA; muscle strength by grip dynamometry; and muscle function by gait speed. For each characteristic annualised percentage changes were calculated; measures of conditional change (independent of baseline) were derived and their interrelationships were examined using Pearson correlations; proportion of variance at 9-year follow-up explained by baseline level was estimated; and mean trajectories in relation to age were estimated using linear mixed models. Analyses were stratified by sex. Median [lower quartile, upper quartile] annual percentage declines were grip strength (1.5 [0.0, 2.9]), gait speed (2.0 [0.6, 3.7]), ALM (0.7 [0.1, 1.4]), fat mass (0.4 [- 1.1, 1.9]) and hip BMD (0.5 [0.0, 1.1]). Declines were linear for ALM and accelerated over time for other characteristics. Most conditional change measures were positively correlated, most strongly between ALM, fat mass and hip BMD (r > 0.28). Proportion of variation at follow-up explained by baseline was lower for grip strength and gait speed (39-52%) than other characteristics (69-86%). Strength and function declined more rapidly, and were less correlated between baseline and follow-up, than measures of body composition. Therefore, broader intervention strategies to prevent loss of strength and function in later life are required as those targeting body composition alone may be insufficient.

9.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity has been shown in several studies to relate to impaired physical function in later life. AIMS: To examine if self-report of multimorbidity predicts impaired physical functioning, as assessed by formal physical function testing, in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were self-reported by 443 older community-dwelling UK adults via questionnaire, asking the question: 'Have you been told by a doctor that you have any of the following conditions?' Assessments of walking speed, chair stands and balance allowed us to create a composite score (0-12) on which impaired physical functioning was defined as ≤ 9. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 75.5 ± 2.5 years for men and 75.8 ± 2.6 for women. The proportion of individuals with impaired physical functioning was 71.2% in women and 56.9% in men. Having four or more NCDs was associated with an increased risk of poor physical function in men and women (p < 0.05). The number of medications and medicated systems was associated with gait speed (p < 0.03 and < 0.02, respectively) and timed up-and-go tests (p < 0.03 and < 0.02, respectively) in women but not men. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Self-report of 4 or more NCDs was associated with an increased risk of poor physical function, an outcome which has previously been associated with adverse clinical sequelae. This observation may inform development of a simple screening tool to look for poor physical function in older adults.

10.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e036758, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047023

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor diet is a leading risk factor for non-communicable diseases and costs the National Health Service £5.8 billion annually. Product placement strategies used extensively in food outlets, like supermarkets, can influence customers' preferences. Policy-makers, including the UK Government, are considering legislation to ensure placement strategies promote healthier food purchasing and dietary habits. High-quality scientific evidence is needed to inform future policy action. This study will assess whether healthier placement strategies in supermarkets improve household purchasing patterns and the diets of more than one household member. METHODS AND ANALYSES: This natural experiment, with a prospective matched controlled cluster design, is set in discount supermarkets across England. The primary objective is to investigate whether enhanced placement of fresh fruit and vegetables improves household-level purchasing of these products after 6 months. Secondary objectives will examine: (1) differences in intervention effects on purchasing by level of educational attainment, (2) intervention effects on the dietary quality of women and their young children, (3) intervention effects on store-level sales of fruit and vegetables and (4) cost-effectiveness of the intervention from individual, retailer and societal perspectives. Up to 810 intervention and 810 control participants will be recruited from 18 intervention and 18 matched control stores. Eligible participants will be women aged 18-45 years, who hold a loyalty card and shop in a study store. Each control store will be matched to an intervention store on: (1) sales profile, (2) neighbourhood deprivation and (3) customer profile. A detailed process evaluation will assess intervention implementation, mechanisms of impact and, social and environmental contexts. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine Ethics Committee (ID 20986.A5). Primary, secondary and process evaluation results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals and shared with policy-makers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03573973; Pre-results.

11.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 18(1): 38-46, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103393

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The assessment of fracture risk and use of antiosteoporosis medications have increased greatly over the last 20-30 years. However, despite this, osteoporosis care remains suboptimal worldwide. Even in patients who have sustained a fragility fracture, fewer than 20% actually receive appropriate antiosteoporosis therapy in the year following the fracture. There is also evidence that treatment rates have declined substantially in the last 5-10 years, in many countries. The goal of this article is to consider the causes for this decline and consider how this situation could be remedied. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of possible reasons, including the lack of prioritisation of osteoporosis therapy in ageing populations with multimorbidity, disproportionate concerns regarding the rare side effects of anti-resorptives and adverse changes in reimbursement in the USA, have been identified as contributing factors in poor osteoporosis care. Improved secondary prevention strategies; screening measures (primary prevention) and appropriate, cost-effective guideline and treatment threshold development could support the optimisation of osteoporosis care and prevention of future fractures.

12.
Inj Prev ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls can lead to severe health loss including death. Past research has shown that falls are an important cause of death and disability worldwide. The Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017) provides a comprehensive assessment of morbidity and mortality from falls. METHODS: Estimates for mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were produced for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017 for all ages using the GBD 2017 framework. Distributions of the bodily injury (eg, hip fracture) were estimated using hospital records. RESULTS: Globally, the age-standardised incidence of falls was 2238 (1990-2532) per 100 000 in 2017, representing a decline of 3.7% (7.4 to 0.3) from 1990 to 2017. Age-standardised prevalence was 5186 (4622-5849) per 100 000 in 2017, representing a decline of 6.5% (7.6 to 5.4) from 1990 to 2017. Age-standardised mortality rate was 9.2 (8.5-9.8) per 100 000 which equated to 695 771 (644 927-741 720) deaths in 2017. Globally, falls resulted in 16 688 088 (15 101 897-17 636 830) YLLs, 19 252 699 (13 725 429-26 140 433) YLDs and 35 940 787 (30 185 695-42 903 289) DALYs across all ages. The most common injury sustained by fall victims is fracture of patella, tibia or fibula, or ankle. Globally, age-specific YLD rates increased with age. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the burden of falls is substantial. Investing in further research, fall prevention strategies and access to care is critical.

13.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955228

RESUMO

Sleep duration may be associated with risk of osteoporosis, with suggestions that too little or indeed too much sleep may be detrimental to bone health. In this study, we considered whether perceived sleep quality is also associated with bone health in older adults. We explored this association in a cohort of 443 older community-dwelling UK adults. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); poor sleep quality was defined as > 5 on this score system. Bone density, shape and microarchitecture were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and high-resolution pQCT (HRpQCT). Thirty-seven percent of men and 43% of women had a PSQI score greater than 5, indicative of poor perceived sleep. We found that quality of sleep was associated with altered bone microarchitecture. In men, poor sleep quality was associated with lower radial trabecular (4% slice, p < 0.04) and cortical (66% slice, p = 0.02) bone mineral density, as well as decreased tibial cortical density (p < 0.02) and increased porosity (p < 0.04), but increased size of the tibia (p < 0.04). In women, poor perceived sleep quality was associated with thinner (p < 0.03) and less dense (p < 0.04) cortices of the radius, but greater tibial trabecular number (p < 0.02) and lower separation (p < 0.04). Relationships with DXA parameters were non-significant after adjustment for confounders. Taking sleep medications was associated with decreased tibial size (38% and 66% slices) and strength in women (all p < 0.05), but not in men. Perceived sleep quality was associated with altered bone density and microarchitecture in older adults, and these differences varied according to biological sex and site. Further work is indicated to investigate possible mechanisms underlying these observations.

14.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 34(1): 29-35, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous intergenerational (parent to child) and transgenerational (grandparent to grandchild) studies have shown there is a link between parental and offspring birthweight. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to explore the association between the early-life weight gain of an individual and the adult height of their children and grandchildren. METHODS: Study participants across three generations of the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS) were included in this study. Health visitors recorded the birthweight (kg) and weight at 1 year (kg) of the original (F0 generation) HCS participants when they were born in Hertfordshire between 1931 and 1939. A conditional infant weight gain score for F0 participants was calculated using birthweight and weight at 1 year, and self-reported height (cm) of their children (F1 generation) and their grandchildren (F2 generation) was obtained from postal questionnaires. Due to the lack of clustering within family lines, linear regression analysis was used to compare intergenerational relationships. RESULTS: Data were available from 139 F0, 148 F1, and 198 F2 participants. A positive association was found between parental birthweight (F0) and offspring adult height; on average, a 1 kg increase in F0 birthweight was associated with a 2.04 cm increase in F1 adult height (beta 2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.03, 4.10). A positive association was found between F0 conditional weight gain during the first year of life and offspring (beta 1.53, 95% CI 0.45, 2.62) and grandchild height (beta 1.06, 95% CI 0.03, 2.10). Positive associations were also found between F0 weight at 1 year and offspring (beta 1.83, 95% CI 0.79, 2.87) and grandchild height (beta 0.91, 95% CI -0.10, 1.91). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an association between grandparental weight gain in early life and the heights of their children and grandchildren. The results of these analyses highlight the importance of early-life weight gain on the adult stature of subsequent offspring.

15.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968134

RESUMO

Oral bisphosphonates (oBPs) have been associated with reduced fractures and mortality. However, their risks and benefits are unclear in patients with moderate-severe CKD. This study examined the association between oBPs and all-cause mortality in G3B-5D CKD. This is a population-based cohort study including all subjects with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <45/mL/min/1.73 m2 (G3B: eGFR <45/mL/min/1.73 m2 G4: eGFR 15-29/mL/min/1.73 m2 G5: eGFR <15/mL/min/1.73 m2 G5D: hemodialysis) aged 40+ years from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and the Catalan Information System for Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP). Previous and current users of other anti-osteoporosis drugs were excluded. oBP use was modeled as a time-varying exposure to avoid immortal time bias. Treatment episodes in oBP users were created by concatenating prescriptions until patients switched or stopped therapy or were censored or died. A washout period of 180 days was added to (date of last prescription +180 days). Propensity scores (PSs) were calculated using prespecified predictors of mortality including age, gender, baseline eGFR, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, previous fracture, co-medications, and number of hospital admissions in the previous year. Cox models were used for PS adjustment before and after PS trimming (the first and last quintiles). In the CPRD, of 19,351 oBP users and 210,954 non-oBP users, 5234 (27%) and 85,105 (40%) deaths were recorded over 45,690 and 915,867 person-years of follow-up, respectively. oBP users had 8% lower mortality risk compared to non-oBP users (hazard ratio [HR] 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89 to 0.95). Following PS trimming, this became nonsignificant (HR 0.98; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.04). In the SIDIAP, of 4146 oBP users and 86,127 non-oBP users, 1330 (32%) and 36,513 (42%) died, respectively. oBPs were not associated with mortality in PS adjustment and trimming (HR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.1 and HR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.01). In this observational, patient-based cohort study, oBPs were not associated with increased mortality among patients with moderate-severe CKD. However, further studies are needed on other effects of oBPs in CKD patients. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

16.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 199: 105576, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904414

RESUMO

Transfer and metabolism of vitamin D across the human placenta is required for fetal development. However, these fundamental mechanisms are not well understood and model systems are required to help understand them. The BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line is derived from extravillous trophoblast but is used as a model for villous syncytiotrophoblast and the placental barrier. Questions have been raised about the suitability of the BeWo cell line as a model for villous trophoblast. This study compares the expression of amino acid transporters and vitamin D related genes in human term placenta with the BeWo and human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cell lines. HEK293 cells, as transporting epithelium may be more similar to placenta. Gene expression in term placenta was much more similar to HEK293 than BeWo. This study provides further evidence that the BeWo cell line is not an appropriate model for villous trophoblast and a model that more closely represents the human placenta is now required to investigate the effects of vitamin D on the placenta ex-vivo.

18.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16(1): e12900, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736283

RESUMO

Pregnancy provides motivation for women to improve their diets and increase their physical activity. Opportunistic brief interventions delivered as part of routine primary care have produced improvements in patients' health behaviour. Consequently, there have been calls for midwives to use contacts during pregnancy in this way. This study explored the experiences of pregnant women and research midwives/nurses of a brief intervention called Healthy Conversation Skills (HCS) being delivered as part of a randomised control trial, assessing the acceptability and feasibility of including this intervention in routine maternity care. Three research questions were addressed using mixed methods to produce four datasets: face-to-face interviews with participants, a focus group with the HCS-trained midwives/nurses, case reports of participants receiving HCS and audio-recordings of mid-pregnancy telephone calls to the women which produced midwife/nurse HCS competency scores. Midwives/nurses used their HCS to support women to make plans for change and set goals. Women welcomed the opportunity to address their own health and well-being as distinct from that of their baby. Midwives/nurses were competent in using the skills and saw healthy conversations as an effective means of raising issues of diet and physical activity. Recent extension of maternity appointment times provides ideal opportunities to incorporate a brief intervention to support behaviour change. Incorporating HCS training into midwifery education and continuing professional development would facilitate this. HCS is a scalable, brief intervention with the potential to improve the diets and physical activity levels of women during pregnancy, and hence the health of themselves and their babies.

19.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(1): 87-95, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between osteoarthritis (OA) and incident social isolation using data from the European Project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA) study. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study with 12 to 18 months of follow-up. SETTING: Community dwelling. PARTICIPANTS: Older people living in six European countries. MEASUREMENTS: Social isolation was assessed using the Lubben Social Network Scale and the Maastricht Social Participation Profile. Clinical OA of the hip, knee, and hand was assessed according to American College of Rheumatology criteria. Demographic characteristics, including age, sex, multijoint pain, and medical comorbidities, were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 1967 individuals with complete baseline and follow-up data, 382 (19%) were socially isolated and 1585 were nonsocially isolated at baseline; of these individuals, 222 (13.9%) experienced social isolation during follow-up. Using logistic regression analyses, after adjustment for age, sex, and country, four factors were significantly associated with incident social isolation: clinical OA, cognitive impairment, depression, and worse walking time. Compared to those without OA at any site or with only hand OA, clinical OA of the hip and/or knee, combined or not with hand OA, led to a 1.47 times increased risk of social isolation (95% confidence interval = 1.03-2.09). CONCLUSION: Clinical OA, present in one or two sites of the hip and knee, or in two or three sites of the hip, knee, and hand, increased the risk of social isolation, adjusting for cognitive impairment and depression and worse walking times. Clinicians should be aware that individuals with OA may be at greater risk of social isolation. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:87-95, 2019.

20.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(1): 36-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538675

RESUMO

Osteoporosis-related fractures are undertreated, due in part to misinformation about recommended approaches to patient care and discrepancies among treatment guidelines. To help bridge this gap and improve patient outcomes, the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research assembled a multistakeholder coalition to develop clinical recommendations for the optimal prevention of secondary fracture among people aged 65 years and older with a hip or vertebral fracture. The coalition developed 13 recommendations (7 primary and 6 secondary) strongly supported by the empirical literature. The coalition recommends increased communication with patients regarding fracture risk, mortality and morbidity outcomes, and fracture risk reduction. Risk assessment (including fall history) should occur at regular intervals with referral to physical and/or occupational therapy as appropriate. Oral, intravenous, and subcutaneous pharmacotherapies are efficacious and can reduce risk of future fracture. Patients need education, however, about the benefits and risks of both treatment and not receiving treatment. Oral bisphosphonates alendronate and risedronate are first-line options and are generally well tolerated; otherwise, intravenous zoledronic acid and subcutaneous denosumab can be considered. Anabolic agents are expensive but may be beneficial for selected patients at high risk. Optimal duration of pharmacotherapy is unknown but because the risk for second fractures is highest in the early post-fracture period, prompt treatment is recommended. Adequate dietary or supplemental vitamin D and calcium intake should be assured. Individuals being treated for osteoporosis should be reevaluated for fracture risk routinely, including via patient education about osteoporosis and fractures and monitoring for adverse treatment effects. Patients should be strongly encouraged to avoid tobacco, consume alcohol in moderation at most, and engage in regular exercise and fall prevention strategies. Finally, referral to endocrinologists or other osteoporosis specialists may be warranted for individuals who experience repeated fracture or bone loss and those with complicating comorbidities (eg, hyperparathyroidism, chronic kidney disease). © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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