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1.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 83(1): e13193, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585483

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) have emerged as key players in regulating immune tolerance. Preeclampsia is associated with maladaptation of immune tolerance during pregnancy. This study aimed to determine if maternal soluble PD-1 (sPD-1) and soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) levels are altered in preeclampsia. METHOD OF STUDY: Maternal sPD-1 and sPD-L1 levels were measured by ELISA in 172 pregnant women (86 normotensive and 86 preeclampsia). The differences in sPD-1 and sPD-L1 levels between normotensive and preeclamptic pregnant women, <34 vs >34 weeks, and fetal gender differences were assessed. Data were analyzed by unpaired t test or chi-square. A probability level of <.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Maternal sPD-1 levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic than in normotensive pregnant women, 6262 ± 1860 vs 1134 ± 349 pg/mL, P < .01. sPD-1 levels were not statistically different between <34 and >34 weeks of gestation in both normotensive and preeclamptic groups. sPD-1 levels were relatively higher in mothers with female fetus than with male fetus in the preeclamptic group: 8104 ± 3054 vs 3802 ± 2177 pg/mL, but relatively lower in mothers with female fetus than with male fetus in the normotensive group: 425 ± 134 vs 625 ± 182 pg/mL. Maternal sPD-L1 levels were relatively higher in preeclamptic than in normotensive pregnant women: 143 ± 52 vs 69 ± 13 pg/mL. CONCLUSION: Aberrant sPD-1/sPD-L1 signaling is present in preeclampsia. Whether increased maternal sPD-1 and sPD-L1 levels were associated with fetal gender difference or immune tolerance dissimilarity during pregnancy in women with preeclampsia warrants further investigation.

2.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 82(4): e13172, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323164

RESUMO

PROBLEM: To investigate whether downregulation of miR-126-3p and vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression contributes to increased endothelial inflammatory response in preeclampsia. METHODS OF STUDY: Maternal vessel miR-126-3p expression was assessed by in situ hybridization. VDR expression and VCAM-1 expression were determined by immunostaining. Subcutaneous adipose tissue sections from normotensive and preeclamptic pregnant women were used. HUVECs from normotensive deliveries were used to test anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D and miR-126-3p in endothelial cells (ECs) treated with TNFα in vitro. 1,25(OH)2 D3 was used as bioactive vitamin D. Transient overexpression of miR-126-3p in ECs was induced by transfection of pre-mir-126 precursor. Endothelial VCAM-1 and SOCS-3 expression or production was determined by Western blotting or by ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Reduced VDR and miR-126-3p expression, but increased VCAM-1 expression, was observed in maternal vessel endothelium in tissue sections from women with preeclampsia compared to normotensive pregnant controls. Transient overexpression of miR-126-3p not only attenuated upregulation of VCAM-1 expression and production, but also preserved downregulation of SOCS-3 expression, induced by TNFα in ECs. VDR expression and miR-126-3p expression were significantly upregulated in cells treated with 1,25(OH)2 D3 , but not in cells transfected with VDR siRNA. CONCLUSION: Downregulation of VDR and miR-126-3p expression was associated with upregulation of VCAM-1 expression in systemic vessel endothelium in preeclampsia. The finding of increased anti-inflammatory property by 1,25(OH)2 D3 through promotion of VDR and miR-126-3p expression in ECs provide plausible evidence that vitamin D deficiency and downregulation of VDR expression could contribute to increased inflammatory phenotypic changes in maternal vasculature in preeclampsia.

3.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 56(10): 1287-1294, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate attrition rates prior to expected completion of team care for children with complete cleft lip and palate (cleft) or nonsyndromic single-suture craniosynostosis (synostosis). DESIGN: A single-institution retrospective review of attendance data from 2002 to 2016. SETTING: Single cleft and craniofacial center in the United States. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 983 patients with either cleft or synostosis. Patients who were more than 2 to 3 years from their last visit were considered lost to follow-up. Patients with cleft older than 16 years or synostosis over 11 years were considered graduated from team care. RESULTS: Survival analysis shows that in our patients with cleft, 25% leave before age 8 and over 60% are lost from team by age 16. In patients with synostosis, 25% leave before age 6 and 45% are lost by age 11. Cox regression showed underrepresented minorities being 1.7 times more likely to become lost in the cleft group (hazard ratio: 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.74). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, attrition rates were high at our institution. Many patients are lost to follow-up prior to receiving key medical interventions. Improved family education and personalized care are needed to help ensure continuity of care.

4.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 65: 101489, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns, the fear of observable anxiety symptoms is posited as a risk factor for social anxiety by increasing fear reactivity in social situations when observable anxiety symptoms are present. Experimental evaluation of AS social concerns is limited. The current study utilized several manipulations designed to be relevant to AS social concerns or fear of negative evaluation (FNE), a distinct social anxiety risk factor. The effects of these manipulations on fear reactivity to a speech were examined. METHODS: Participants (N = 124 students; M age = 19.44, SD = 2.45; 64.5% female) were randomized to one of four conditions in a 2 (100 mg niacin vs 100 mg sugar pill) X 2 (instructional set) design. For the instructional set manipulation, participants were told their speech performance would be evaluated by a judge based on their performance (i.e., FNE-relevant) or their observable anxiety symptoms (i.e., AS social concerns-relevant). RESULTS: There was a main effect for vitamin condition with participants in the niacin condition reporting higher panic symptoms post-speech relative to those in the placebo condition. There was no main effect for speech instructions. As hypothesized, these effects were qualified by an interaction indicating that AS social concerns significantly predicted panic symptoms for those receiving niacin. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the reliance on self-reports of outcome variables and the use of an undergraduate student sample. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight a distinct role of AS social concerns in fear responding to socially evaluative situations in the context of physically observable arousal.

5.
J Pers Assess ; 101(1): 64-72, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980830

RESUMO

Although social anxiety disorder is defined by anxiety-related symptoms, little research has focused on the interpersonal features of social anxiety. Prior studies (Cain, Pincus, & Grosse Holtforth, 2010; Kachin, Newman, & Pincus, 2001) identified distinct subgroups of socially anxious individuals' interpersonal circumplex problems that were blends of agency and communion, and yet inconsistencies remain. We predicted 2 distinct interpersonal subtypes would exist for individuals with high social anxiety, and that these social anxiety subtypes would differ on empathetic concern, paranoia, received peer victimization, perspective taking, and emotional suppression. From a sample of 175 undergraduate participants, 51 participants with high social anxiety were selected as above a clinical cutoff on the social phobia scale. Cluster analyses identified 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially anxious individuals: low hostility-high submissiveness (Cluster 1) and high hostility-high submissiveness (Cluster 2). Cluster 1 reported higher levels of empathetic concern, lower paranoia, less peer victimization, and lower emotional suppression compared to Cluster 2. There were no differences between subtypes on perspective taking or cognitive reappraisal. Findings are consistent with an interpersonal conceptualization of social anxiety, and provide evidence of distinct social features between these subtypes. Findings have implications for the etiology, classification, and treatment of social anxiety.

6.
Arch Sex Behav ; 48(2): 619-630, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987544

RESUMO

Technology has shifted some human interactions to the virtual world. For many young adults, sexual encounters now occur through virtual means, as social media, picture exchanges, sexually explicit Web sites, and video chatting have become popular alternative outlets for these activities to occur. This study used the self-report responses of 812 undergraduate students (282 men and 530 women), collected from an online survey. In addition to using 10 personal demographic control variables, this study used five sexual activity/relationship characteristics (number of sexual partners, relationship status, age to first use pornography, frequency of sexual activity/intercourse, and frequency of masturbation), and the four constructs of Akers' social learning theory (identified as differential association, differential reinforcement, imitation/modeling, and definitions favorable) to predict a seven-item count of deviant cyber-sexual activities, and two measures of "sexting" behaviors. Gender, self-esteem, sexual orientation, race, and religion were strongly significant predictors in the models, but Akers' four elements of social learning performed the strongest in predicting the two measures of sexting and the overall deviant cyber-sexual activities scale. This finding indicates that peer associations and peer reinforcements have a strong influence on individuals' willingness to engage in deviant cyber-sexual activities. This study explored different avenues for young adults' engagement in sexual deviancy and the results suggest that sexual behaviors performed in-person may not be the strongest predictors of online sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Internet , Transtornos Parafílicos/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Literatura Erótica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 11: 1-6, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Corin is a serine protease that converts pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a cardiac hormone that regulates salt-water balance and blood pressure. ANP is degraded by natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR). This study was to determine if aberrant pro-ANP/corin/NPR signaling is present in maternal vascular system in preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal venous blood was obtained from 197 pregnant women (84 normotensive, 16 complicated with chronic hypertension (CHT), 11 mild and 86 severe preeclampsia). Plasma corin and pro-ANP concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Maternal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained from 12 pregnant women with cesarean section delivery (6 normotensive and 6 preeclampsia). Vascular ANP and its receptors NPR-A, NPR-B, and NPR-C expression were examined by immunostaining of paraffin embedded subcutaneous fat tissue sections. RESULTS: Corin concentrations were significantly higher in mild (2.78 ±â€¯0.67 ng/ml, p < .05) and severe (2.53 ±â€¯0.18 ng/ml, p < .01) preeclampsia than in normotensive (1.58 ±â€¯0.08 ng/ml) and CHT (1.55 ±â€¯0.20 ng/ml) groups. Pro-ANP concentrations were significantly higher in CHT (1.59 ±â€¯0.53 ng/ml, p < .05) and severe preeclampsia (1.42 ±â€¯0.24 ng/ml, p < .01) than in normotensive (0.48 ±â€¯0.06 ng/ml) and mild preeclampsia (0.52 ±â€¯0.09 ng/ml) groups. ANP and NPR-B expression was undetectable in maternal vessels from normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies, but reduced NPR-A expression and increased NPR-C expression was found in maternal vessel endothelium in preeclampsia. CONCLUSIONS: ANP is a vasodilator and NPR-C is a clearance receptor for ANP. The finding of upregulation of NPR-C expression suggests that circulating ANP clearance or degradation is increased in preeclampsia. These results also suggest that pro-ANP/corin/NPR signaling is dominant in the vascular system in preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/química , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Receptores do Fator Natriurético Atrial/análise , Serina Endopeptidases/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Anxiety Disord ; 53: 91-99, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807519

RESUMO

Within a hierarchical framework for depressive and anxiety disorders, negative affect (NA) is posited to be indirectly related to social anxiety and depression through cognitive vulnerabilities, including intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and anxiety sensitivity (AS). However, few prior studies have considered whether the lower-order dimensions of IU (i.e., prospective and inhibitory IU) and AS (i.e., physical, cognitive, and social concerns) better explain the indirect relation between NA and social anxiety and depression. The indirect relations between NA and social anxiety and depression through these cognitive vulnerabilities were examined using structural equation modeling in a clinical sample (N=298). NA and social anxiety symptoms were indirectly related through AS social concerns and inhibitory IU, although a direct effect of NA was also found. Only AS social concerns explained the relation between NA and a social anxiety disorder diagnosis. AS cognitive concerns was the only cognitive vulnerability factor to indirectly explain the relation between NA and depressive symptoms, although a direct effect of NA was also found. These findings suggest that the lower-order dimensions of AS and IU demonstrate more specific and less transdiagnostic associations with social anxiety and depression.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Fobia Social/psicologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 9(2)2017 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28230784

RESUMO

This study was designed to determine if providing wheat, corn, and rice as whole (WG) or refined grains (RG) under free-living conditions will change parameters of health over a six-week intervention in healthy, habitual non-WG consumers. Measurements of body composition, fecal microbiota, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides were made at baseline and post intervention. Subjects were given adequate servings of either WG or RG products based on their caloric need and asked to keep records of grain consumption, bowel movements, and GI symptoms weekly. After six weeks, subjects repeated baseline testing. Significant decreases in total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol were seen after the WG treatments but were not observed in the RG treatment. During Week 6, bowel movement frequency increased with increased WG consumption. No significant differences in microbiota were seen between baseline and post intervention, although, abundance of order Erysipelotrichales increased in RG subjects who ate more than 50% of the RG market basket products. Increasing consumption of WGs can alter parameters of health, but more research is needed to better elucidate the relationship between the amount consumed and the health-related outcome.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lipídeos/sangue , Grãos Integrais , Adulto , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Composição Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Defecação , Diarreia/etiologia , Jejum , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Oryza , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triticum , Grãos Integrais/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem , Zea mays
11.
Foot (Edinb) ; 25(2): 89-96, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25797139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Claims of injury reduction related to barefoot running has resulted in interest from the running public; however, its risks are not well understood for those who typically wear cushioned footwear. OBJECTIVES: Examine how plantar loading changes during barefoot running in a group of runners that ordinarily wear cushioned footwear and demonstrate a rearfoot strike pattern (RFSP) without cueing or feedback alter their foot strike pattern and plantar loading when asked to run barefoot at different speeds down a runway. METHOD: Forty-one subjects ran barefoot at three different speeds across a pedography platform which collected plantar loading variables for 10 regions of the foot; data were analyzed using two-way mixed multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). RESULTS: A significant foot strike position (FSP)×speed interaction in each of the foot regions indicated that plantar loading differed based on FSP across the different speeds. The RFSP provided the highest total forces across the foot while the pressures displayed in subjects with a non-rearfoot strike pattern (NRFSP) was more similar between each of the metatarsals. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of subjects ran barefoot with a NRFSP and demonstrated lower total forces and more uniform force distribution across the metatarsal regions. This may have an influence in injuries sustained in barefoot running.


Assuntos
Antepé Humano/fisiologia , Calcanhar/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Sapatos , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 3(2): 364-92, 2015 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27417768

RESUMO

This review summarizes recent studies examining whole grain consumption and its effect on gut microbiota and satiety in healthy humans. Studies comparing whole grains to their refined grain counterparts were considered, as were studies comparing different grain types. Possible mechanisms linking microbial metabolism and satiety are described. Clinical trials show that whole grain wheat, maize, and barley alter the human gut microbiota, but these findings are based on a few studies that do not include satiety components, so no functional claims between microbiota and satiety can be made. Ten satiety trials were evaluated and provide evidence that whole oats, barley, and rye can increase satiety, whereas the evidence for whole wheat and maize is not compelling. There are many gaps in the literature; no one clinical trial has examined the effects of whole grains on satiety and gut microbiota together. Once understanding the impact of whole grains on satiety and microbiota is more developed, then particular grains might be used for better appetite control. With this information at hand, healthcare professionals could make individual dietary recommendations that promote satiety and contribute to weight control.

13.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 40(4): 759-72, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24286999

RESUMO

Several benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions may arise on the vulva, and multiple types of procedures may be used to diagnose and treat these conditions. Punch and shave biopsies may be used to diagnose most vulvar conditions, but lesions suspected of being melanomas may best be diagnosed with narrow-margin excisional biopsies. Bartholin gland cysts and abscesses may be treated with several different treatment modalities, the most common of which are fistulization and marsupialization. Genital warts may be treated with several medical and surgical modalities to relieve symptoms.


Assuntos
Abscesso/patologia , Glândulas Vestibulares Maiores , Biópsia , Condiloma Acuminado/patologia , Cistos/patologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Doenças da Vulva/patologia , Abscesso/cirurgia , Glândulas Vestibulares Maiores/patologia , Glândulas Vestibulares Maiores/cirurgia , Biópsia/métodos , Condiloma Acuminado/cirurgia , Cistos/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças da Vulva/cirurgia
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