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1.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(6): 499-505, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of packed RBC (pRBC) transfusion on thromboelastographic (TEG) tracings in dogs with naturally occurring anemia. ANIMALS: 22 clinically anemic dogs that received a pRBC transfusion. PROCEDURES: For each dog, a blood sample was collected before and within 3 hours after completion of the pRBC transfusion for a CBC, nonactivated TEG analysis, and measurement of blood viscosity. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare CBC, viscosity, and TEG variables between pretransfusion and posttransfusion blood samples. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the effects of pretransfusion-posttransfusion changes in Hct, WBC count, and platelet count on changes in TEG variables. RESULTS: Median posttransfusion Hct (21%; range, 13% to 34%) was significantly greater than the median pretransfusion Hct (12.5%; range, 7% to 29%). Packed RBC transfusion was associated with a median increase in Hct of 6.2% (range, 1.2% to 13%). Maximum amplitude significantly decreased from 74.9 to 73.8 mm and clot strength significantly decreased from 14,906 to 14,119 dynes/s after pRBC transfusion. Blood viscosity significantly increased, whereas platelet and WBC counts significantly decreased after transfusion. Multivariable linear regression revealed that pretransfusion-posttransfusion changes in Hct, WBC count, and platelet count were not associated with changes in TEG variables. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that pRBC transfusion had only small effects on the TEG tracings of hemodynamically stable dogs. Therefore, large changes in TEG tracings following pRBC transfusion are unlikely to be the result of the transfusion and should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Anemia/veterinária , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Animais , Transfusão de Sangue/veterinária , Doenças do Cão , Cães , Hematócrito/veterinária , Tromboelastografia/veterinária
2.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 30(1): 11-17, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence of abdominal effusion and its association with decompressive cystocentesis in male cats with urethral obstruction. DESIGN: Prospective observational clinical study. ANIMALS: Forty-five male neutered, client-owned cats with naturally occurring urethral obstruction. PROCEDURES: Laboratory testing and point-of-care ultrasonography were performed. Presence of abdominal effusion was evaluated using the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) technique at presentation. Decompressive cystocentesis was then performed prior to catheterization by a standardized technique. Repeat FAST examination was performed 15 minutes after cystocentesis and the following day to further assess for the presence of abdominal effusion. RESULTS: A mean volume of 92.3 ± 35.2 mL of urine was removed from each cat via cystocentesis prior to catheterization. At presentation, 15 of 45 (33%) had abdominal effusion (13/15 with scant effusion, 2/15 with mild), with an additional 7 cats developing scant effusion 15 minutes post-cystocentesis. By the following day, 4 cats still had scant effusion present. No significant complications secondary to cystocentesis were reported. No association was found between severity of azotemia, or volume removed by cystocentesis, and the presence of effusion at presentation or after decompressive cystocentesis was performed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A single decompressive cystocentesis prior to catheterization did not lead to development of clinically significant abdominal effusion or other discernable complications and appears to be a safe procedure in this population of patients. Abdominal effusion may be found at presentation in cats with urethral obstruction. The significance of this effusion remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Líquido Ascítico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Gato/fisiopatologia , Obstrução Uretral/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Cuidados Críticos , Cistoscopia/veterinária , Masculino , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Obstrução Uretral/complicações , Obstrução Uretral/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Uretral/terapia , Cateterismo Urinário/veterinária
3.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(5): 472-477, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of bacteriuria at the time of presentation and as a result of indwelling urethral catheterization in naturally occurring feline urethral obstruction (UO). DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: A population of 34 male cats with UO admitted for standard medical care. INTERVENTIONS: A presenting urine sample was obtained by cystocentesis (precatheterization). After catheterization (performed under strict aseptic technique), a urine sample was obtained through the urinary catheter every 24 hours, as well as just prior to catheter removal. Urine was applied to culture media within 30 minutes of collection or refrigerated immediately at 4°C for subsequent culture the following morning. Samples positive for growth (defined as > 104 colony forming units/mL) had bacterial identification and susceptibility testing performed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All 34 cats enrolled had initial culture performed. Of these, 1 patient died and 2 were euthanized within 24 hours and therefore subsequent cultures were obtained. The remaining 31 cats had median catheterization time of 42 hours (range 20-110 hours). No urine cultures yielded growth at presentation (0/34). A total of 4 of 31 patients (13%) subsequently had bacterial cultures that yielded growth. In these cases, all yielded growth by the 24-hour time point, and all had the same organism identified on subsequent cultures. Identified bacteria included Streptococcus spp. (3) and Pasteurella spp. (1). CONCLUSIONS: The male cats with UO in this study did not have bacteriuria at the time of presentation. The overall incidence of acquired bacteriuria was found to be 13% and could represent a transient bacterial population or true bacterial urinary tract infection. Based on these findings, empirical administration of antibiotics is not warranted in male cats with UO.


Assuntos
Bacteriúria/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Obstrução Uretral/veterinária , Cateterismo Urinário/veterinária , Infecções Urinárias/veterinária , Animais , Bacteriúria/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/urina , Gatos , Hospitais Universitários , Incidência , Masculino , Ohio/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Obstrução Uretral/terapia , Urinálise/veterinária , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
4.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 46(4): 580-588, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28858373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irradiation of RBC before transfusion is required to prevent transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease for human patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Additional applications for irradiated blood may exist in oncologic surgery. The effect of irradiation on canine packed RBC (pRBC) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore and characterize the in vitro electrolyte, acid-base, and oxygen-carrying capacity changes to pRBC immediately following irradiation and during storage. METHODS: Ten units of pRBC were irradiated using a linear accelerator. Concentration of potassium and glucose, percentage of free hemoglobin (fHb), hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2 ), total oxygen content, partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 ), the pO2 at which 50% of hemoglobin is saturated (p50), lactate, pH, and methemoglobin were measured before and following irradiation, and at 7 and 17 days post irradiation. RESULTS: In both irradiated and nonirradiated units, a significant decrease in pH and glucose, and a significant increase in lactate and potassium were noted. The pO2 , fHb, and the p50 value in both groups increased over the first 7 days. Immediately following irradiation, the pH was significantly lower, and the potassium, lactate, and fHb were significantly higher in irradiated units compared with controls. Small but significant differences were noted between irradiation status in pH, fHb, sO2 , total oxygen content, and p50 value at 7 days post irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: This hypothesis-generating study found irradiation and storage significantly altered in vitro properties of pRBC. The magnitude of these differences was small and the clinical impact of irradiation on pRBC may be negligible.


Assuntos
Preservação de Sangue/veterinária , Cães/sangue , Eletrólitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/efeitos da radiação , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26308573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course and successful management of a febrile dog with polyarthritis, splenic vasculitis, thrombosis, and infarction that was infected with Bartonella henselae. CASE SUMMARY: An 8-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was referred to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center Emergency Service for evaluation of limping, fever, vomiting, and malaise of 4 days' duration. Physical examination abnormalities included generalized weakness, diminished conscious proprioception, bilateral temporalis muscle atrophy, and diarrhea. Peripheral lymph nodes were normal, and there were no signs of abdominal organomegaly, joint effusion, or spinal pain. Abdominal ultrasound identified a nonocclusive splenic vein thrombus. Fine-needle aspirates of the spleen revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation, mild reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and mild extramedullary hematopoiesis. Splenic histopathology found marked, multifocal to coalescing acute coagulation necrosis (splenic infarctions) and fibrinoid necrotizing vasculitis. Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced from the splenic tissue. The dog responded favorably to antimicrobials and was healthy at the time of follow-up evaluation. NEW AND UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: Bartonella henselae is an incompletely characterized emerging canine pathogen. This case report establishes a potential role for this bacterium as a cause of vasculitis and thromboembolism, which have not been previously reported in association with B. henselae infection in dogs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infarto/veterinária , Baço/irrigação sanguínea , Esplenopatias/veterinária , Vasculite/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/complicações , Infecções por Bartonella/patologia , Bartonella henselae/genética , DNA Bacteriano , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Infarto/etiologia , Esplenopatias/microbiologia , Esplenopatias/patologia , Trombose/veterinária , Vasculite/patologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25736201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To: (1) determine the feasibility of using sidestream dark field microscopy (SDM) to measure microcirculatory parameters in healthy, anesthetized cats and (2) determine if surgical tissue manipulation and anesthesia time alter these parameters during ovariohysterectomy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Eighteen healthy female cats. INTERVENTIONS: Sublingual mucosa microcirculatory videos were obtained under general anesthesia preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively using an SDM device in healthy cats presenting for ovariohysterectomy. At each video acquisition point, macrovascular parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, pulse oximetry, end-tidal CO2) were recorded. Vascular analysis software was used to calculate standard microcirculatory parameters. Multivariate analysis was performed to compare microvascular and macrovascular parameters, as well as correlation with the effect of surgical manipulation and time under anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Twelve of 18 cats were included in final video analysis; 6 were removed for poor video quality. Values for total vessel density (TVD, 47.7 ± 8.39 mm/mm(2)), proportion of perfused vessels (PPV, 88.2 ± 5.95%), perfused vessel density (PVD, 43.0 ± 9.00 mm/mm(2)), microcirculatory flow index (MFI, 2.33 ± 0.33) were determined preoperatively. There were no significant changes in TVD, PPV, and PVD across intervention points. The MFI increased significantly from preoperative to intra- and postoperative data collection points. No correlation between microcirculatory parameters and length of anesthesia or macrocirculatory values was found. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study demonstrated that SDM can be utilized to obtain sublingual microvascular parameters in healthy, anesthetized cats. Limitations include difficulty in obtaining high quality images, presumed need for general anesthesia, and need for off-line video analysis. This technology has potential as a tool in experimental and clinical monitoring of microcirculatory changes in felines.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Gatos/fisiologia , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Microscopia de Vídeo/veterinária , Mucosa Bucal/irrigação sanguínea , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/veterinária , Pressão Sanguínea , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Histerectomia/veterinária , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Medicina Veterinária
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25590677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discuss areas of differing opinion in the management of feline urethral obstruction and present current evidence to either support or refute common practices. ETIOLOGY: Urethral obstruction may occur as a result from a functional obstruction (idiopathic obstruction) or a physical obstruction, such as mucous plugs or calculi within the urethra. Potential risk factors for obstruction in cats include predominantly indoor status, decreased water intake, and increased body weight. DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis is most commonly made based on history and initial physical exam-straining to urinate, vocalizing, signs of systemic illness, moderate to large firm bladder on abdominal palpation. THERAPY: Treatment is based on available evidence. The type of IV isotonic crystalloid used does not seem to matter and rate should be determined by need for fluid resuscitation, and replacement of deficit and ongoing losses. Though controversial, cystocentesis appears to be safe and may offer some benefits in initial management. There is evidence to suggest a smaller urethral catheter (3.5 Fr) may be associated with decreased risk of reobstruction. Routine use of antimicrobial agents in hospital is not recommended; they should be dispensed based on culture performed at the time of catheter removal. Though commonly used, evidence in support of antispasmodics is limited and further prospective investigation is needed. PROGNOSIS: Feline urethral obstruction is associated with 90-95% survival, with reported recurrence rates of 15-40%. Potential factors affecting recurrence include size or duration of indwelling urinary catheter, use of antispasmodic agents, patient age, and indoor-outdoor lifestyle; however, different studies offer conflicting results. Increased water intake and environmental modification do seem to decrease risk of recurrence.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/terapia , Obstrução Uretral/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Cuidados Críticos , Recidiva , Obstrução Uretral/terapia , Cateteres Urinários/veterinária , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/veterinária , Medicina Veterinária
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25039445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features, treatment, and outcome of a cat with acute neurologic signs subsequent to relief of urethral obstruction and rapid resolution of severe azotemia, suggesting a process similar to dialysis disequilibrium syndrome. CASE SUMMARY: A male castrated domestic short-hair cat was presented for weakness and dull mentation. Initial physical examination was consistent with urethral obstruction and laboratory data demonstrated severe azotemia, hyperkalemia, and acidemia. Interventions for hyperkalemia and urethral catheterization were performed without complication. The patient demonstrated a marked postobstructive diuresis and 7 hours after presentation suffered a grand mal seizure and was neurologically inappropriate. These changes corresponded with marked decreases in blood urea nitrogen (from 89.25 mmol/L to 19.99 mmol/L [250 mg/dL to 56 mg/dL]) and calculated serum osmolality (429 mOsm/kg to 359 mOsm/kg) from initial presentation without other apparent cause for seizure activity. The patient was treated with hypertonic saline (bolus and continuous infusion) for presumed osmotic injury (dialysis disequilibrium-like clinical signs) along with other supportive care. All neurologic signs resolved within 48 hours, the urinary catheter was removed, and the patient was discharged after 24 hours of observation of spontaneous urination. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome has been documented in small animals, but similar signs have not been reported as a sequelae of treatment of feline urethral obstruction. Urethral obstruction is a common emergency and practitioners should be aware of this potential complication as a cause of delayed neurologic recovery or seizures in the postobstructive period.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/veterinária , Obstrução Uretral/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Masculino , Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/veterinária , Obstrução Uretral/terapia
9.
Int Health ; 6(4): 271-2, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24941940

RESUMO

Since HIV infection and its consequence, AIDS, were first described, many initial assumptions have proven to be wrong. In Africa, it is women who bear the greater burden of the disease. In many ways they are less visible than men, although at least as much at risk, often even more so. Marriage is no protection against infection, and widowhood and divorce leave them still more vulnerable. This is reflected in higher proportions of infection for bereaved and separated wives. Programmes of control, which depend on education, testing and access to treatment should be visible and accessible to all women in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Estado Civil , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis
10.
Am J Vet Res ; 75(1): 77-84, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24370249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increasing the viscosity of a standard hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solution (HBOC) would offset its associated vasoconstrictive effects and result in improved microvascular perfusion in healthy splenectomized dogs with experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock. ANIMALS: 12 male American Foxhounds. PROCEDURES: Each dog underwent anesthesia and splenectomy. Shock was induced by controlled hemorrhage until a mean arterial blood pressure of 40 mm Hg was achieved and maintained for 60 minutes. Dogs were then randomly assigned to receive either a standard or hyperviscous HBOC (6 dogs/group). Sidestream dark-field microscopy was used to assess the effects of shock and HBOC administration on the microcirculation of the buccal mucosa and the jejunal serosa. Video recordings of the microcirculation were collected before shock was induced (baseline) and at intervals up to 180 minutes following HBOC administration. Vascular analysis software was used to compute microcirculatory variables. RESULTS: Compared with baseline findings, hemorrhagic shock resulted in decreases in all microvascular variables in the buccal mucosa and the jejunal serosa. At all time points following HBOC administration, microvascular variables were similar to initial values and no significant differences between treatment groups were detected. At all time points following HBOC administration, blood and plasma viscosities in dogs treated with the hyperviscous solution were significantly higher than values in dogs receiving the standard solution. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In splenectomized dogs with experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock, administration of a hyperviscous HBOC did not significantly affect microvascular variables, compared with effects of a standard HBOC. Microcirculatory flow returned to baseline values in both treatment groups, suggesting that marked HBOC-associated vasoconstriction did not occur.


Assuntos
Cães , Hemoglobinas/química , Hemoglobinas/farmacologia , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Hemodinâmica , Hemoglobinas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Esplenectomia , Viscosidade
11.
Transfusion ; 54(3): 727-34, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23901836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well established that hematocrit (Hct) influences whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) tracings. Previous studies showed hypercoagulable TEG tracings in anemic patients despite clinical expectations that anemia often prolongs bleeding. TEG is a viscoelastic assessment of clot kinetics, and Hct is the main determinant of whole blood viscosity. TEG changes in anemia may be an in vitro artifact due to Hct effect on blood viscosity rather than true in vivo changes in hemostasis. The effect of changes in whole blood viscosity on TEG independent of Hct is not well understood. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-one blood samples from seven dogs were manipulated to produce one of three Hct conditions (45, 20, and 10%). Each was tested in two situations: viscosity adjusted to normal by adding alginate (ALG) or dilution with equal volume of saline (SAL). Both samples were analyzed with TEG simultaneously. RESULTS: Twenty percent Hct plus ALG and 10% Hct plus ALG were significantly more viscous than their SAL counterparts (p=0.0156). Ten percent Hct plus SAL, 20% Hct plus SAL, and 45% Hct plus SAL all had different viscosities (p=0.006). Twenty percent Hct plus SAL and 10% Hct plus SAL had significantly shorter K and higher angle, MA, and G compared to their ALG counterparts as well as 45% Hct plus SAL (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ALG samples with low Hct, normal viscosity showed hypocoagulable tracings, whereas SAL samples with low Hct, low viscosity showed hypercoagulable tracings. TEG variables are influenced by whole blood viscosity altered with ALG, independently of Hct.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Hematócrito/efeitos adversos , Tromboelastografia , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Viscosidade
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24251625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and successful treatment of a dog that ingested a lethal dose (approximately 330 mg/kg) of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). CASE SUMMARY: A 1-year-old male intact German Shepherd dog was presented to the Emergency Service of the Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center after ingesting 10 g of 5% 5-FU cream. The dog rapidly developed refractory seizures and was managed by inducing heavy sedation with phenobarbital, benzodiazepines, ketamine, and propofol, necessitating 48 hours of mechanical ventilation. Seizure activity continued despite these treatments until IV administration of levetiracetam. The dog was discharged from the hospital 6 days after admission and remains neurologically normal currently, with no further seizure activity after 9 months. NEW INFORMATION PROVIDED: This report documents the first successful treatment of a dog that ingested > 43 mg/kg of 5-FU. In this case, the use of rapid decontamination, heavy sedation with anticonvulsant medications including levetiracetam to control seizures, and mechanical ventilation may have contributed to a positive outcome.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial/veterinária , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/terapia
13.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 241(11): 1479-83, 2012 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23176240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dogs with head trauma have a greater incidence of seizures than the general canine patient population. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: 259 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES: Medical records of dogs evaluated for head trauma at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center from 1999 to 2009 were reviewed. Data were collected regarding the cause of the head trauma, physical examination and neurologic examination findings, comorbidities, and the development of seizures during hospitalization. A telephone survey was conducted to question owners regarding the development of seizures after discharge. Relationships between the nature of the head trauma and the development of seizures were then examined. RESULTS: 3.5% of dogs with head trauma developed in-hospital seizures, and 6.8% of dogs with head trauma for which follow-up information was available developed seizures after hospital discharge, compared with an epilepsy rate of 1.4% in our hospital. Dogs that developed in-hospital seizures were significantly more likely to have been hit by a car or experienced acceleration-deceleration injury. Additionally, 10% of dogs with traumatic brain injury had in-hospital seizures. No visit or patient characteristics were significantly associated with the development of out-of-hospital seizures. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dogs with head trauma may develop seizures at a greater rate than dogs in the general canine patient population. Particularly in the immediate to early posttraumatic period, clinicians should remain vigilant for the development of posttraumatic seizures and treat patients accordingly.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Convulsões/veterinária , Animais , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Convulsões/etiologia
14.
Am J Vet Res ; 72(4): 438-45, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21453143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To directly assess microcirculatory changes associated with induced hemorrhagic shock by use of sidestream dark field microscopy (SDM) and correlate those values with concurrently measured macrovascular and blood gas variables in healthy anesthetized dogs. ANIMALS: 12 adult dogs. PROCEDURES: Dogs were anesthetized and splenectomized. Instrumentation and catheterization were performed for determination of macrohemodynamic and blood gas variables. Hemorrhagic shock was induced via controlled hemorrhage to a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 40 mm Hg. Dogs were maintained in the shock state (MAP, 35 to 45 mm Hg) for 60 minutes. An SDM device was used to image microcirculation of buccal mucosa, and vascular analysis software was used to determine microcirculatory variables. These values were compared with other cardiovascular and blood gas variables to determine correlations. RESULTS: Following hemorrhage, there was a significant decrease in microvascular variables (mean ± SD), including proportion of perfused vessels (82.77 ± 8.32% vs 57.21 ± 28.83%), perfused vessel density (14.86 ± 2.64 mm/m(2) vs 6.66 ± 4.75 mm/m(2)), and microvascular flow index (2.54 ± 0.52 vs 1.59 ± 0.85). Perfused vessel density individually correlated well with macrovascular variables, with heart rate (zero order, partial correlation, and part correlation coefficients = -0.762, -0.884, and -0.793, respectively) and oxygen extraction ratio (-0.734, -0.832, and -0.746, respectively) being the most important predictors. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: SDM allowed real-time imaging of the microvasculature and has potential as an effective tool in experimental and clinical applications for monitoring microcirculatory changes associated with hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in dogs.


Assuntos
Cães/anatomia & histologia , Microcirculação , Microscopia/métodos , Mucosa Bucal/irrigação sanguínea , Choque Hemorrágico/veterinária , Animais , Gasometria , Frequência Cardíaca , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/fisiopatologia , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia
15.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 21(1): 24-8, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21288290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin (Hb) in healthy retired racing Greyhounds via cooximetry, and to establish reference intervals for blood gases and cooximetry in this breed. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: University Teaching Hospital. ANIMALS: Fifty-seven Greyhounds and 30 non-Greyhound dogs. INTERVENTIONS: Venous blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and placed into heparinized tubes. The samples were analyzed within 30 minutes of collection using a blood gas analyzer equipped with a cooximeter. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Greyhounds had significantly higher pH, PO(2) , oxygen saturation, oxyhemoglobin, total Hb, oxygen content, and oxygen capacity and significantly lower deoxyhemoglobin and P(50) when compared with non-Greyhound dogs. CONCLUSION: These findings support the fact that this breed is able to carry a higher concentration of total oxygen in the blood. As reported previously, this breed also has lower P(50) and, therefore, high oxygen affinity. In light of recent findings suggesting that in certain tissues a high affinity for oxygen is beneficial, this adaptation may be of benefit during strenuous exercise.


Assuntos
Gasometria/veterinária , Cães/sangue , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Oximetria/veterinária , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Cães/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxiemoglobinas/análise , Linhagem , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 237(11): 1261-6, 2010 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21118011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine efficacy of a protocol for managing urethral obstruction (UO) in male cats without urethral catheterization. DESIGN: Clinical trial. ANIMALS: 15 male cats with UO in which conventional treatment had been declined. PROCEDURES: Laboratory testing and abdominal radiography were performed, and cats with severe metabolic derangements or urinary calculi were excluded. Treatment included administration of acepromazine (0.25 mg, IM, or 2.5 mg, PO, q 8 h), buprenorphine (0.075 mg, PO, q 8 h), and medetomidine (0.1 mg, IM, q 24 h) and decompressive cystocentesis and SC administration of fluids as needed. Cats were placed in a quiet, dark environment to minimize stress. Treatment success was defined as spontaneous urination within 72 hours and subsequent discharge from the hospital. RESULTS: Treatment was successful in 11 of the 15 cats. In the remaining 4 cats, treatment was considered to have failed because of development of uroabdomen (n=3) or hemoabdomen (1). Cats in which treatment failed had significantly higher serum creatinine concentrations than did cats in which treatment was successful. Necropsy was performed on 3 cats in which treatment had failed. All 3 had severe inflammatory disease of the urinary bladder, but none had evidence of bladder rupture. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that in male cats, a combination of pharmacological treatment, decompressive cystocentesis, and a low-stress environment may allow for resolution of UO without the need for urethral catheterization. This low-cost protocol could serve as an alternative to euthanasia when financial constraints prevent more extensive treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/terapia , Obstrução Uretral/veterinária , Cateterismo Urinário/veterinária , Acepromazina/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Estresse Fisiológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Obstrução Uretral/patologia , Obstrução Uretral/terapia
17.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 237(6): 689-94, 2010 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20839991

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 2.96-kg (6.5-lb) 9-month-old spayed female domestic longhair cat was admitted for removal of a tracheal foreign body. CLINICAL FINDINGS: The cat had moderate respiratory distress but otherwise appeared to be healthy. Thoracic radiography revealed a foreign body in the trachea. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: The cat was anesthetized and endoscopy of the trachea was performed in an attempt to retrieve the foreign body. Endoscopic removal was unsuccessful because of the shape and smooth texture of the foreign body. Surgical removal of the foreign body was not considered ideal because of its location and the risks associated with tracheotomy. Fluoroscopic-guided placement of an over-the-wire balloon catheter caudal to the foreign body was followed by inflation of the balloon and gradual traction in an orad direction, which resulted in successful removal of the foreign body (identified as a piece of landscaping gravel). The cat required supplemental oxygen and supportive care following removal of the foreign body. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A fluoroscopic technique was used as a minimally invasive alternative to endoscopy or open-chest surgery for removal of a foreign body from the trachea of a cat. Use of this technique allowed uninterrupted ventilation of the cat throughout the procedure.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/terapia , Cateterismo/veterinária , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Doenças da Traqueia/veterinária , Animais , Cateterismo/métodos , Gatos , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/terapia , Doenças da Traqueia/terapia
18.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 38(4): 516-20, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19473332

RESUMO

A 12-year-old, neutered male, mixed-breed dog was presented to The Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a history of weight loss and weakness. Laboratory abnormalities reported by the referring veterinarian during the past year included increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, hyperalbuminemia, and nonregenerative anemia. On referral, the dog appeared hydrated and had moderate muscle wasting and hepatomegaly. A large lobular hepatic mass was observed ultrasonographically. Laboratory results included mild to moderate nonregenerative anemia, urine-specific gravity of 1.035, 3+ proteinuria, increased serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (229 U/L, reference interval 10-55 U/L), ALP (813 U/L, reference interval 15-120 U/L), and the steroid-induced isoform of ALP (676 U/L, reference interval 0-6 U/L), marked hyperalbuminemia (5.3 g/dL, reference interval 2.9-4.2 g/dL), and an increased A/G ratio (1.7). Hyperalbuminemia was confirmed by reanalysis on 2 different analyzers and by agarose gel electrophoresis, and colloid osmotic pressure (COP) was markedly increased (42.5 mmHg, reference interval 20-25 mmHg). Cytologic examination of a fine-needle aspirate of the hepatic mass indicated hepatocellular proliferation; histologic examination of an excisional biopsy confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma. Three weeks after surgery, the albumin concentration, A/G ratio, COP, and ALT activity had normalized, but ALP activities remained high. We hypothesized that hyperalbuminemia developed secondary to hepatocellular carcinoma due to increased synthesis of albumin by malignant hepatocytes or due to decreased negative feedback from impaired hepatocellular osmoreceptivity. Hepatocellular carcinoma has been associated with paraneoplastic secretion of other proteins, but hyperalbuminemia has been reported only once in a human patient and has not previously in dogs.


Assuntos
Albuminas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/veterinária , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino
19.
J Trauma ; 66(5): 1365-73, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19430240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhancing plasma viscosity during fluid resuscitation results in vasodilation and improved microvascular perfusion in rodents subjected to hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that resuscitation with hyperviscous lactated Ringer's solution (hyperLRS) would result in improved tissue oxygenation and acid-base values in hemorrhaged dogs. METHODS: Twelve dogs were anesthetized and splenectomized. Vascular catheterization was performed, and tissue oxygen probes were placed in the jejunal serosa and skeletal muscle to assess macro- and microhemodynamic parameters. Baseline (BL) and posthemorrhage data were obtained. After 1 hour of hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure [MAP] 30-40 mm Hg), treatment groups (n = 6) were administered bolus LRS or hyperLRS, and then received sufficient LRS to achieve and maintain an MAP between 60 mm Hg and 70 mm Hg. Data were obtained at 10, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after fluid resuscitation. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between LRS or hyperLRS groups at BL or posthemorrhage. Blood and plasma viscosity were significantly increased by the administration of hyperLRS at all time points postresuscitation compared with LRS. Significantly more fluid was required to maintain MAP, and vascular hindrance was consistently lower in dogs administered hyperLRS versus LRS, suggesting viscosity-induced vasodilation. Central and mesenteric venous oxygen saturations were significantly decreased, whereas lactate and oxygen extraction ratios were significantly increased after hyperLRS administration compared with LRS. The tissue oxygen tension was similar in dogs administered hyperLRS or LRS. CONCLUSIONS: A hyperviscous balanced electrolyte solution did not improve hemodynamic parameters, tissue oxygen tension, or acid-base values despite evidence for viscosity-induced vasodilation.


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Soluções Hipertônicas/farmacologia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Gasometria , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Soluções Isotônicas/farmacologia , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Probabilidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Lactato de Ringer , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Crit Care Med ; 35(7): 1724-9, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17452933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine agreement and correlation between cardiac output determined by arterial pressure waveform analysis (PulseCO) and the lithium dilution indicator technique (LiDCO) during severe hemorrhagic shock and after fluid resuscitation in dogs. DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twelve adult mongrel dogs. INTERVENTIONS: Dogs were anesthetized, and selected arteries and veins were catheterized. Baseline cardiac output was determined by LiDCO and used to calibrate the PulseCO. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood to achieve and maintain a mean arterial pressure of 30-40 mm Hg for 60 mins, and cardiac output was measured again using both methods. All dogs were resuscitated by administering lactated Ringer's solution intravenously to achieve and maintain a mean arterial pressure between 60 and 70 mm Hg. PulseCO and LiDCO values were measured at 10 and 120 mins after resuscitation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mean baseline cardiac output was 2.93 +/- 0.45 L/min. PulseCO values overestimated cardiac output compared with LiDCO during hemorrhagic shock (2.25 vs. 0.78 L/min). There were no differences in cardiac output determined by PulseCO and LiDCO at 10 and 120 mins after fluid resuscitation. Bland-Altman analysis suggested that PulseCO values were inaccurate after hemorrhage, producing significant bias with wide limits of agreement and percentage error (1.47 +/- 1.46 L/min; 97%). Bias was small but the limits of agreement and percentage error were large for cardiac output at 10 and 120 mins after resuscitation (-0.1 +/- 1.88 [98%] and -0.17 +/- 1.32 [71%] L/min, respectively). There appeared to be a negative but not significant correlation after hemorrhage (r = -.45; p = .15). CONCLUSIONS: PulseCO determination of cardiac output does not accurately predict rapid decreases in cardiac output or the effects of fluid resuscitation in dogs. Recalibration of PulseCO may be necessary after any apparent or suspected decrease in cardiac preload, afterload, or contractility.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Débito Cardíaco , Fluxo Pulsátil , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cães , Hidratação/métodos , Lítio , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Termodiluição
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