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2.
Circ Res ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564710

RESUMO

Rationale: Treatment efficacy for diabetes is largely determined by assessment of HbA1c levels, which poorly reflects direct glucose variation. People with pre-diabetes and diabetes spend >50% of their time outside the optimal glucose range. These glucose variations, termed transient intermittent hyperglycemia (TIH) appear to be an independent risk-factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the pathological basis for this association is unclear. Objective: To determine whether TIH per se promotes myelopoiesis to produce more monocytes and consequently adversely affects atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: To create a mouse model of TIH we administered 4 bolus doses of glucose at 2hr intervals intraperitoneally once to wild-type (WT) or once weekly to atherosclerotic prone mice. TIH accelerated atherogenesis without an increase in plasma cholesterol, seen in traditional models of diabetes. TIH promoted myelopoiesis in the bone marrow, resulting in increased circulating monocytes, particularly the inflammatory Ly6-Chi subset, and neutrophils. Hematopoietic-restricted deletion of S100a9, S100a8 or its cognate receptor Rage, prevented monocytosis. Mechanistically, glucose uptake via GLUT-1 and enhanced glycolysis in neutrophils promoted the production of S100A8/A9. Myeloid-restricted deletion of Slc2a1 (GLUT-1) or pharmacological inhibition of S100A8/A9 reduced TIH-induced myelopoiesis and atherosclerosis. Conclusions: Together, these data provide a mechanism as to how TIH, prevalent in people with impaired glucose metabolism, contributes to CVD. These findings provide a rationale for continual glucose control in these patients and may also suggest that strategies aimed at targeting the S100A8/A9-RAGE axis could represent a viable approach to protect the vulnerable blood vessels in diabetes.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of kidney failure, but few outcome trials proactively enrolled individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed secondary analyses of cardiovascular (CV) and kidney outcomes across baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories (≥60, 45 to <60, 30 to <45, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) in Cardiovascular and Renal Microvascular Outcome Study With Linagliptin (CARMELINA), a cardiorenal placebo-controlled outcome trial of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor linagliptin (NCT01897532). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants with CV disease and/or CKD were included. The primary outcome was time to first occurrence of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke (three-point major adverse CV event [3P-MACE]), with a secondary outcome of renal death, end-stage kidney disease, or sustained ≥40% decrease in eGFR from baseline. Other end points included progression of albuminuria, change in HbA1c, and adverse events (AEs) including hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 6,979 subjects (mean age 65.9 years; eGFR 54.6 mL/min/1.73 m2; 80.1% albuminuria) were followed for 2.2 years. Across eGFR categories, linagliptin as compared with placebo did not affect the risk for 3P-MACE (hazard ratio 1.02 [95% CI 0.89, 1.17]) or the secondary kidney outcome (1.04 [0.89, 1.22]) (interaction P values >0.05). Regardless of eGFR, albuminuria progression was reduced with linagliptin, as was HbA1c, without increasing risk for hypoglycemia. AEs were balanced among groups overall and across eGFR categories. CONCLUSIONS: Across all GFR categories, in participants with type 2 diabetes and CKD and/or CV disease, there was no difference in risk for linagliptin versus placebo on CV and kidney events. Significant reductions in risk for albuminuria progression and HbA1c and no difference in AEs were observed.

4.
Diabetologia ; 63(7): 1424-1434, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372207

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We determined whether empagliflozin altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and baroreflexes in a diabetes model in conscious rabbits. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by alloxan, and RSNA, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured before and after 1 week of treatment with empagliflozin, insulin, the diuretic acetazolamide or the ACE inhibitor perindopril, or no treatment, in conscious rabbits. RESULTS: Four weeks after alloxan administration, blood glucose was threefold and MAP 9% higher than non-diabetic controls (p < 0.05). One week of treatment with empagliflozin produced a stable fall in blood glucose (-43%) and increased water intake (+49%) but did not change RSNA, MAP or heart rate compared with untreated diabetic rabbits. The maximum RSNA to hypotension was augmented by 75% (p < 0.01) in diabetic rabbits but the heart rate baroreflex was unaltered. Empagliflozin and acetazolamide reduced the augmentation of the RSNA baroreflex (p < 0.05) to be similar to the non-diabetic group. Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) spillover was similar in untreated diabetic and non-diabetic rabbits but twofold greater in empagliflozin- and acetazolamide-treated rabbits (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: As empagliflozin can restore diabetes-induced augmented sympathetic reflexes, this may be beneficial in diabetic patients. A similar action of the diuretic acetazolamide suggests that the mechanism may involve increased sodium and water excretion. Graphical abstract.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210089

RESUMO

The major clinical associations with the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are glycemic control and systemic hypertension. Recent studies have continued to emphasize vasoactive hormone pathways including aldosterone and endothelin which suggest a key role for vasoconstrictor pathways in promoting renal damage in diabetes. The role of glucose per se remains difficult to define in DKD but appears to involve key intermediates including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and dicarbonyls such as methylglyoxal which activate intracellular pathways to promote fibrosis and inflammation in the kidney. Recent studies have identified a novel molecular interaction between hemodynamic and metabolic pathways which could lead to new treatments for DKD. This should lead to a further improvement in the outlook of DKD building on positive results from RAAS blockade and more recently newer classes of glucose-lowering agents such as SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP1 receptor agonists.

6.
Hypertension ; 75(4): 1091-1101, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114846

RESUMO

Hypertension is a risk factor for the vascular permeability and neovascularization that threatens vision in diabetic retinopathy. Excess reactive oxygen species derived from the Nox (NADPH oxidase) isoforms, Nox1 and Nox4, contributes to vasculopathy in diabetic retinopathy; however, if Nox1/4 inhibition is beneficial in hypertensive diabetic retinopathy is unknown. Here, we determined that diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats had exacerbated retinal vascular permeability and expression of angiogenic and inflammatory factors, compared with normotensive diabetic Wistar Kyoto rats. GKT136901, a specific dual inhibitor of Nox1 and Nox4, prevented these events in diabetic Wistar Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Retinal neovascularization does not develop in diabetic rodents, and therefore, the oxygen-induced retinopathy model is used to evaluate this pathology. We previously demonstrated that Nox1/4 inhibition reduced retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy. However, although Nox5 is expressed in human retina, its contribution to retinopathy has not been studied in vivo, largely due to its absence from the rodent genome. We generated transgenic mice with inducible human Nox5 expressed in endothelial cells (vascular endothelial-cadherin+Nox5+ mice). In vascular endothelial-cadherin+Nox5+ mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy, retinal vascular permeability and neovascularization, as well as the expression of angiogenic and inflammatory factors, were increased compared with wild-type littermates. In bovine retinal endothelial cells, which express Nox1, Nox4, and Nox5, Nox1/4 inhibition, as well as Nox5 silencing RNA, reduced the high glucose-induced upregulation of oxidative stress, angiogenic, and inflammatory factors. Collectively, these data indicate the potential of Nox1, Nox4, and Nox5 inhibition to reduce vision-threatening damage to the retinal vasculature.

7.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(7): 1062-1073, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037653

RESUMO

AIMS: In CARMELINA®, linagliptin demonstrated cardiovascular and renal safety in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with high renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We investigated safety and efficacy of this dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in older participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects aged ≥18 years with T2D and established CVD with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) >30 mg/g, and/or prevalent kidney disease, were randomized to linagliptin or placebo added to usual care. The primary endpoint (time to first occurrence of 3P-MACE: cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke) and other outcomes were evaluated across age groups <65 (n = 2968), 65 to <75 (n = 2800) and ≥75 years (n = 1211). RESULTS: Mean age was 65.9 years (17.4% and 5.9% aged ≥75 and 80, respectively) and median follow-up was 2.2 years. The hazard ratio (HR) for 3P-MACE with linagliptin versus placebo was 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 1.17] with no significant interaction between age and treatment effect (P = 0.0937). HRs for participants aged <65, 65 to <75 and ≥75 years were 1.11 (95% CI 0.89, 1.40), 1.09 (0.89, 1.33) and 0.76 (0.57, 1.02), respectively. Linagliptin did not increase the risk of adverse kidney outcomes or hospitalization for heart failure across age groups. The incidence of adverse events, including hypoglycaemia, increased with age but was similar with linagliptin and placebo despite glycated haemoglobin A1c reduction with linagliptin. CONCLUSIONS: Linagliptin did not increase risk for cardiovascular events or hypoglycaemia and kidney function remained stable in older people with T2D and established CVD with albuminuria and/or kidney disease.

8.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(2): 239-259, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943002

RESUMO

Mitochondrial stress has been widely observed in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a functional component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) which allows the exchange of ions and solutes between the mitochondrial matrix to induce mitochondrial swelling and activation of cell death pathways. CypD has been successfully targeted in other disease contexts to improve mitochondrial function and reduced pathology. Two approaches were used to elucidate the role of CypD and the mPTP in DKD. Firstly, mice with a deletion of the gene encoding CypD (Ppif-/-) were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ) and followed for 24 weeks. Secondly, Alisporivir, a CypD inhibitor was administered to the db/db mouse model (5 mg/kg/day oral gavage for 16 weeks). Ppif-/- mice were not protected against diabetes-induced albuminuria and had greater glomerulosclerosis than their WT diabetic littermates. Renal hyperfiltration was lower in diabetic Ppif-/- as compared with WT mice. Similarly, Alisporivir did not improve renal function nor pathology in db/db mice as assessed by no change in albuminuria, KIM-1 excretion and glomerulosclerosis. Db/db mice exhibited changes in mitochondrial function, including elevated respiratory control ratio (RCR), reduced mitochondrial H2O2 generation and increased proximal tubular mitochondrial volume, but these were unaffected by Alisporivir treatment. Taken together, these studies indicate that CypD has a complex role in DKD and direct targeting of this component of the mPTP will likely not improve renal outcomes.


Assuntos
Ciclofilina D/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Albuminúria/genética , Albuminúria/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclofilina D/antagonistas & inibidores , Ciclofilina D/genética , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo
9.
Endocr Pract ; 26(4): 429-443, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968187

RESUMO

Objective: To characterize the relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) in Chinese patients and to determine whether the severity of DR predicts end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods: Bilateral fundic photographs of 91 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with biopsy-confirmed DN, not in ESRD stage, were obtained at the time of renal biopsy in this longitudinal study. The baseline severity of DR was determined using the Lesion-aware Deep Learning System (RetinalNET) in an open framework for deep learning and was graded using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for the effect of the severity of diabetic retinopathy on ESRD. Results: During a median follow-up of 15 months, 25 patients progressed to ESRD. The severity of retinopathy at the time of biopsy was a prognostic factor for progression to ESRD (HR 2.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 4.53, P = .04). At baseline, more severe retinopathy was associated with poor renal function, and more severe glomerular lesions. However, 30% of patients with mild retinopathy and severe glomerular lesions had higher low-density lipo-protein-cholesterol and more severe proteinuria than those with mild glomerular lesions. Additionally, 3% of patients with severe retinopathy and mild glomerular changes were more likely to have had diabetes a long time than those with severe glomerular lesions. Conclusion: Although the severity of DR predicted diabetic ESRD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and DN, the severities of DR and DN were not always consistent, especially in patients with mild retinopathy or microalbuminuria. Abbreviations: CI = confidence interval; DM = diabetic mellitus; DN = diabetic nephropathy; DR = diabetic retinopathy; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; ESRD = end-stage renal disease; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c; HR = hazard ratio; NPDR = nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR = proliferative diabetic retinopathy; SBP = systolic blood pressure; T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Retinopatia Diabética , Falência Renal Crônica , Aprendizado Profundo , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
10.
Diabetes ; 69(1): 83-98, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624141

RESUMO

The sequelae of diabetes include microvascular complications such as diabetic kidney disease (DKD), which involves glucose-mediated renal injury associated with a disruption in mitochondrial metabolic agility, inflammation, and fibrosis. We explored the role of the innate immune complement component C5a, a potent mediator of inflammation, in the pathogenesis of DKD in clinical and experimental diabetes. Marked systemic elevation in C5a activity was demonstrated in patients with diabetes; conventional renoprotective agents did not therapeutically target this elevation. C5a and its receptor (C5aR1) were upregulated early in the disease process and prior to manifest kidney injury in several diverse rodent models of diabetes. Genetic deletion of C5aR1 in mice conferred protection against diabetes-induced renal injury. Transcriptomic profiling of kidney revealed diabetes-induced downregulation of pathways involved in mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. Interrogation of the lipidomics signature revealed abnormal cardiolipin remodeling in diabetic kidneys, a cardinal sign of disrupted mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics. In vivo delivery of an orally active inhibitor of C5aR1 (PMX53) reversed the phenotypic changes and normalized the renal mitochondrial fatty acid profile, cardiolipin remodeling, and citric acid cycle intermediates. In vitro exposure of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells to C5a led to altered mitochondrial respiratory function and reactive oxygen species generation. These experiments provide evidence for a pivotal role of the C5a/C5aR1 axis in propagating renal injury in the development of DKD by disrupting mitochondrial agility, thereby establishing a new immunometabolic signaling pathway in DKD.

11.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 90: 105892, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740428

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kidney disease caused by type 1 diabetes can progress to end stage renal disease and can increase mortality risk. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) plays a major role in producing oxidative stress in the kidney in diabetes, and its activity is attenuated by GKT137831, an oral Nox inhibitor with predominant inhibitory action on Nox-1 and Nox - 4. Previous studies have demonstrated renoprotective effects with GKT137831 in various experimental models of type 1 diabetes-related kidney disease. This study will evaluate the effect of GKT137831 in treating clinical diabetic kidney disease. DESIGN: This is a multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, parallel arm study evaluating the effect on albuminuria of treatment with GKT137831 400 mg BID for 48 weeks. The study will randomize 142 participants who have persistent albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline of at least 40 ml/min/1.73m2. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Difference between arms in urine albumin to creatinine ratio. Secondary outcome measures include eGFR. CONCLUSION: This study is important because it may identify a new way of slowing renal disease progression in people with type 1 diabetes and albuminuria already receiving standard of care treatment.

12.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22 Suppl 2: 12-18, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729127

RESUMO

The Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) factorial trial was a landmark randomized controlled clinical trial in 11 140 type 2 diabetic patients from 215 centers in 20 countries with a two-by-two factorial design. In the blood pressure-lowering arm, patients were treated using a fixed combination of the ACE-inhibitor, perindopril, and the thiazide-like diuretic, indapamide, or placebo, whereas in the glucose-lowering arm, the intervention compared the sulphonylurea gliclazide plus other glucose-lowering drugs, targeting a glycated hemoglobin value of 6.5% or less, with standard glucose control. Primary end-points were major macro- and microvascular events in both arms. This review gives an overview of the results of the primary randomized trial, results from observational follow-up studies, and results of several biomarker studies and discusses the perspectives of these data in the context of recent major outcome trials for current medical treatment.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doubling of serum creatinine [equivalent to 57% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)] is an established surrogate for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD); however, this endpoint necessitates lengthy follow-up and large sample sizes in clinical trials. We explored whether alternative eGFR decline thresholds provide more feasible surrogate kidney endpoints. METHODS: The study involved post hoc analysis of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial. Adults with type 2 diabetes, high cardiovascular risk and eGFR ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2 were assigned empagliflozin 10 mg or 25 mg (n = 4687) or placebo (n = 2333), on top of standard of care. We assessed composite endpoints incorporating different eGFR decline thresholds (≥30, ≥40, ≥50 or ≥57%) combined with initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) or renal death. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01131676). RESULTS: Empagliflozin versus placebo significantly lowered the risk of decline in eGFR for each threshold listed above, combined with initiation of RRT or renal death, ranging from a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.91] for endpoints based on 30% eGFR decline to an HR of 0.37 (0.23-0.61) for endpoints based on 57% eGFR decline. Lower thresholds (e.g. 30%) were associated with higher event rates but weaker treatment effects. The time to the 95% CI of the HR falling to <1.0 decreased with increasing eGFR threshold. CONCLUSIONS: The composite of 40% decline in eGFR, ESKD or renal death appears to provide reliable results similar to the traditional 57% decline in eGFR.

15.
Diabetologia ; 62(11): 1988-1997, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302707

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Some studies have reported that annual change in eGFR (eGFR slope) is associated with the future risk of end-stage kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and death in general or chronic kidney disease cohorts. However, the benefits of using eGFR slopes for prediction of major clinical outcomes in diabetes are unclear. METHODS: We used data from the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial and the ADVANCE Post-Trial Observational Study (ADVANCE-ON). After excluding the first 4 months during which an acute fall in eGFR was induced by the initiation of an ACE inhibitor and diuretic combination agent, eGFR slopes were estimated by linear mixed models, using three measurements of eGFR at 4, 12 and 24 months after randomisation over 20 months, and categorised according to quartiles. Cox regression models were used to evaluate adjusted HRs for the study's primary outcome, a composite of major renal events, major macrovascular events and all-cause mortality during the subsequent follow-up from 24 months after randomisation. RESULTS: A total of 8,879 participants (80%) were included in this cohort. The mean age was 65.6 years (SD 6.3), the mean eGFR was 75 ml min-1 (1.73 m)-2 (SD 17) and the median urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was 14 µg/mg (interquartile range 7-38). The mean eGFR slope was -0.63 ml min-1 (1.73 m)-2 year-1 (SD 1.75). Over a median follow-up of 7.6 years following the 20-month eGFR slope ascertainment period, 2,221 participants (25%) met the primary outcome. An annual substantial decrease in eGFR (lowest 25%, <-1.63 ml min-1 [1.73 m]-2 year-1) was significantly associated with the subsequent risk of the primary outcome (HR 1.30 [95% CI 1.17, 1.43]) compared with a stable change in eGFR (middle 50%, -1.63 to 0.33). An annual substantial increase in eGFR (highest 25%, >0.33) had no significant association with the risk of the primary outcome (HR 0.96 [95% CI 0.86, 1.07]). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study supports the utility of eGFR slope in type 2 diabetes as a surrogate endpoint for renal outcomes, as well as a prognostic factor for identifying individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00145925 and no. NCT00949286.

16.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 23(7): 579-591, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154867

RESUMO

Introduction: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes and is the most common cause of proteinuric and non-proteinuric forms of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Control of risk factors such as blood glucose and blood pressure is not always achievable or effective. Significant research efforts have attempted to understand the pathophysiology of DKD and develop new therapies. Areas covered: We review DKD pathophysiology in the context of existing and emerging therapies that affect hemodynamic and metabolic pathways. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition has become standard care. Recent evidence for renoprotective activity of SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 agonists is an exciting step forward while endothelin receptor blockade shows promise. Multiple metabolic pathways of DKD have been evaluated with varying success; including mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species, NADPH oxidase (NOX), transcription factors (NF-B and Nrf2), advanced glycation, protein kinase C (PKC), aldose reductase, JAK-STAT, autophagy, apoptosis-signaling kinase 1 (ASK1), fibrosis and epigenetics. Expert opinion: There have been major advances in the understanding and treatment of DKD. SGLT2i and GLP-1 agonists have demonstrated renoprotection, with novel therapies under evaluation. Addressing the interaction between hemodynamic and metabolic pathways may help achieve prevention, attenuation or even reversal of DKD.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Falência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
17.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(6): 862-872, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Whether combining changes in eGFR and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) is more strongly associated with outcomes compared with either change alone is unknown. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We analyzed 8766 patients with type 2 diabetes in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation Observational (ADVANCE-ON) study. Changes in eGFR and UACR (baseline to 2 years) were defined as ≥40% decrease, minor change, and ≥40% increase. The primary outcome was the composite of major macrovascular (nonfatal or fatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal or fatal stroke, or cardiovascular death), major kidney events (requirement for kidney replacement therapy or kidney death), and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Over a median of 7.7 years of follow-up, 2191 primary outcomes were recorded. Strong linear associations between eGFR and UACR changes and subsequent risk of the outcome were observed. For eGFR, the hazard ratios were 1.58 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.27 to 1.95) for a decrease ≥40% and 0.82 for an increase ≥40% (95% CI, 0.64 to 1.04) compared with minor change. For UACR, the hazard ratios were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.07) for a decrease ≥40% and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.46) for ≥40% increase compared with minor change. Compared with dual minor changes, both an eGFR decrease ≥40% and a UACR increase ≥40% had 2.31 (95% CI, 1.67 to 3.18) times the risk of the outcome, with evidence of interaction between the two markers. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically meaningful decreases in eGFR and increases in UACR over 2 years, independently and in combination, were significantly associated with higher risk of major clinical outcomes.

18.
Diabetologia ; 62(9): 1712-1726, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222503

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a detrimental role in the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Renal oxidative stress activates proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and profibrotic factors in DKD. Increased expression of the prooxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX) 5 in kidneys of diabetic individuals has been hypothesised to correlate with renal injury and progression of DKD. Since the gene encoding NOX5 is not expressed in the mouse genome, we examined the effect of inducible human NOX5 expression in renal cells, selectively in either endothelial cells or vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)/mesangial cells in a model of insulin-deficient diabetes, the Akita mouse. METHODS: Renal structural injury, including glomerulosclerosis, mesangial expansion and extracellular matrix protein accumulation, as well as renal inflammation, ROS formation and albuminuria, were examined in the NOX5 transgenic Akita mouse model of DKD. RESULTS: Expression of NOX5 in either endothelial cells or VSMCs/mesangial cells in diabetic Akita mice was associated with increased renal inflammation (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, NF-κB and toll-like receptor-4) and glomerulosclerosis, as well as upregulation of protein kinase C-α and increased expression of extracellular matrix genes (encoding collagen III, fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin) and proteins (collagen IV), most likely mediated via enhanced renal ROS production. The effect of VSMC/mesangial cell-specific NOX5 expression resulted in more pronounced renal fibrosis in comparison with endothelial cell-specific NOX5 expression in diabetic mice. In addition, albuminuria was significantly increased in diabetic VEcad+NOX5+ mice (1192 ± 194 µg/24 h) when compared with diabetic VEcad+NOX5- mice (770 ± 98 µg/24 h). Furthermore, the regulatory components of NOX5 activation, including heat shock protein 90 and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C member 6, were upregulated only in the presence of both NOX5 and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The findings from this study highlight the importance of NOX5 in promoting diabetes-related renal injury and provide the rationale for the development of a selective NOX5 inhibitor for the prevention and/or treatment of DKD.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Albuminúria/patologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Rim/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 5/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(8): 2017-2023, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050156

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) according to clinical outcomes and assess the effects of glucose- and blood pressure-lowering interventions on change in 1,5-AG levels in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We measured 1,5-AG in 6826 stored samples at baseline and in a random subsample of 684 participants at the 1-year follow-up visit in the ADVANCE trial. We examined baseline 1,5-AG [< 39.7, 39.7-66.2, ≥ 66.2 µmol/L (<6, 6-10, ≥10 µg/mL)] and microvascular and macrovascular events and mortality using Cox regression models during 5 years of follow-up. Using an intention-to-treat approach, we examined 1-year change in 1,5-AG (mean and percent) in response to the glucose- and blood pressure-lowering interventions in the subsample. RESULTS: Low 1,5-AG level [<39.7 µmol/L vs ≥ 66.2 µmol/L (<6 µg/mL vs ≥10 µg/mL)] was associated with microvascular events (hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.60) after adjustment for risk factors and baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); however, the associations for macrovascular events and mortality were not independent of HbA1c. The glucose-lowering intervention was associated with a significant 1-year increase in 1,5-AG (vs standard control) of 6.69 µmol/L (SE 2.52) [1.01 µg/mL (SE 0.38)], corresponding to an 8.26% (SE 0.10%) increase from baseline. We also observed an increase in 1,5-AG of similar magnitude in response to the blood pressure intervention independent of the glucose-lowering effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that 1,5-AG is a marker of risk in adults with type 2 diabetes, but only for microvascular events independently of HbA1c. We found that 1,5-AG was improved (increased) in response to an intensive glucose-lowering intervention, although the independent effect of the blood pressure-lowering intervention on 1,5-AG suggests potential non-glycaemic influences.

20.
Diabetes Ther ; 10(Suppl 1): 1-13, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758834

RESUMO

There is currently a worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D) that is predicted to increase substantially in the next few years. With 80% of the global T2D population living in low to middle-income countries, there are issues with cost and of access to appropriate medicines. The objective of this symposium was to provide an overview of the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering drugs, focussing in particular on sulfonylureas (SUs) in patients with T2D using data taken from both randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and real-world studies, the application of strategies to ensure optimal patient adherence and clinical outcomes, and the optimal use of SUs in terms of dose adjustment and agent choice to ensure the best clinical outcome. The symposium began by exploring a profile of the typical patient seen in diabetes clinical practice and the appropriate management of such a patient in the real world, before moving on to an overview of the risks associated with T2D and how the currently available agents, including newer antidiabetic medications, mitigate or exacerbate those risks. The final presentation provided an overview of real-world studies, the gap between RCTs and the real world, and the use of available glucose-lowering agents in daily clinical practice. Clinical evidence was presented demonstrating that tight glucose control improved both microvascular and macrovascular outcomes, but that aggressive treatment in patients with a very high cardiovascular risk could lead to adverse outcomes. Real-world data suggest that older agents such as SUs and metformin are being used in a large proportion of patients with T2D with demonstrable effectiveness, indicating that they still have a place in modern T2D management. The symposium, while acknowledging the need for newer antidiabetic drugs in specific situations and patient groups, recommended the continuation of SUs and metformin as the primary oral antidiabetic agents in resource-constrained regions of the world.Funding:Servier.

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