Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 41
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Immunity ; 51(3): 479-490.e6, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402259

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that defend against viruses and mediate anti-tumor responses, yet mechanisms controlling their development and function remain incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the abundantly expressed microRNA-142 (miR-142) is a critical regulator of type 1 ILC biology. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) signaling induced miR-142 expression, whereas global and ILC-specific miR-142-deficient mice exhibited a cell-intrinsic loss of NK cells. Death of NK cells resulted from diminished IL-15 receptor signaling within miR-142-deficient mice, likely via reduced suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (Socs1) regulation by miR-142-5p. ILCs persisting in Mir142-/- mice demonstrated increased expression of the miR-142-3p target αV integrin, which supported their survival. Global miR-142-deficient mice exhibited an expansion of ILC1-like cells concurrent with increased transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling. Further, miR-142-deficient mice had reduced NK-cell-dependent function and increased susceptibility to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Thus, miR-142 critically integrates environmental cues for proper type 1 ILC homeostasis and defense against viral infection.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425194

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we review the rheumatologic and autoimmune features of primary immune deficiencies with a focus on recently recognized genetic diseases, the spectrum of autoimmunity in PID, and targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) were initially described as genetic diseases of the immune system leading to susceptibility to infection. It is now well recognized that immune dysfunction and dysregulation also cause noninfectious complications including autoimmunity. The increased application of molecular testing for PID has revealed the diversity of clinical disease. Recent discoveries of diseases with prominent autoimmunity include activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome and PIDs caused by gain-of-function in STAT1 and STAT3. Similarly, identification of larger cohorts of patients with molecular diagnoses in more common PIDs, such as common variable immune deficiency (CVID), has led to increased understanding of the range of autoimmunity in PIDs. Understanding the molecular basis of these PIDs has the potential to lead to targeted therapy to treat associated autoimmunity. SUMMARY: Autoimmunity and rheumatologic disease can be presenting symptoms and/or complicating features of primary immunodeficiencies. Evaluation for PIDs in patients who have early-onset, multiple, and/or atypical autoimmunity can enhance diagnosis and therapeutic options.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 549-561, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447097

RESUMO

FOXN1 is the master regulatory gene of thymic epithelium development. FOXN1 deficiency leads to thymic aplasia, alopecia, and nail dystrophy, accounting for the nude/severe combined immunodeficiency (nu/SCID) phenotype in humans and mice. We identified several newborns with low levels of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and T cell lymphopenia at birth, who carried heterozygous loss-of-function FOXN1 variants. Longitudinal analysis showed persistent T cell lymphopenia during infancy, often associated with nail dystrophy. Adult individuals with heterozygous FOXN1 variants had in most cases normal CD4+ but lower than normal CD8+ cell counts. We hypothesized a FOXN1 gene dosage effect on the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and thymopoiesis and postulated that these effects would be more prominent early in life. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed TEC subset frequency and phenotype, early thymic progenitor (ETP) cell count, and expression of FOXN1 target genes (Ccl25, Cxcl12, Dll4, Scf, Psmb11, Prss16, and Cd83) in Foxn1nu/+ (nu/+) mice and age-matched wild-type (+/+) littermate controls. Both the frequency and the absolute count of ETP were significantly reduced in nu/+ mice up to 3 weeks of age. Analysis of the TEC compartment showed reduced expression of FOXN1 target genes and delayed maturation of the medullary TEC compartment in nu/+ mice. These observations establish a FOXN1 gene dosage effect on thymic function and identify FOXN1 haploinsufficiency as an important genetic determinant of T cell lymphopenia at birth.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(495)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167928

RESUMO

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE mutations, presents with several autoimmune diseases. Among these, endocrine organ failure is widely recognized, but the prevalence, immunopathogenesis, and treatment of non-endocrine manifestations such as pneumonitis remain poorly characterized. We enrolled 50 patients with APECED in a prospective observational study and comprehensively examined their clinical and radiographic findings, performed pulmonary function tests, and analyzed immunological characteristics in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and endobronchial and lung biopsies. Pneumonitis was found in >40% of our patients, presented early in life, was misdiagnosed despite chronic respiratory symptoms and accompanying radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities, and caused hypoxemic respiratory failure and death. Autoantibodies against BPIFB1 and KCNRG and the homozygous c.967_979del13 AIRE mutation are associated with pneumonitis development. APECED pneumonitis features compartmentalized immunopathology, with accumulation of activated neutrophils in the airways and lymphocytic infiltration in intraepithelial, submucosal, peribronchiolar, and interstitial areas. Beyond APECED, we extend these observations to lung disease seen in other conditions with secondary AIRE deficiency (thymoma and RAG deficiency). Aire-deficient mice had similar compartmentalized cellular immune responses in the airways and lung tissue, which was ameliorated by deficiency of T and B lymphocytes. Accordingly, T and B lymphocyte-directed immunomodulation controlled symptoms and radiographic abnormalities and improved pulmonary function in patients with APECED pneumonitis. Collectively, our findings unveil lung autoimmunity as a common, early, and unrecognized manifestation of APECED and provide insights into the immunopathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary autoimmunity associated with impaired central immune tolerance.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(45): 11357-11359, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337482
6.
JCI Insight ; 3(15)2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089725

RESUMO

Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is among the most challenging of the JIA subtypes to treat. Even with current biologic therapies, the disease remains difficult to control in a substantial subset of patients, highlighting the need for new therapies. The aim of this study was to use the high dimensionality afforded by mass cytometry with phospho-specific antibodies to delineate signaling abnormalities in immune cells from treatment-naive polyarticular JIA patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 17 treatment-naive polyarticular JIA patients, 10 of the patients after achieving clinical remission, and 19 healthy controls. Samples were stimulated for 15 minutes with IL-6 or IFN-γ and analyzed by mass cytometry. Following IFN-γ stimulation, increased STAT1 and/or STAT3 phosphorylation was observed in subsets of CD4 T cells and classical monocytes from treatment-naive patients. The enhanced IFN-γ signaling was associated with increased expression of JAK1 and SOCS1 in CD4 T cells. Furthermore, substantial heterogeneity in surface marker expression was observed among the subsets of CD4 T cells and classical monocytes with increased IFN-γ responsiveness. The identification of enhanced IFN-γ signaling in CD4 T cells and classical monocytes from treatment-naive polyarticular JIA patients provides mechanistic support for investigations into therapies that attenuate IFN-γ signaling in this disease.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254976

RESUMO

Studies over the last decade have decisively shown that innate immune natural killer (NK) cells exhibit enhanced long-lasting functional responses following a single activation event. With the increased recognition of memory and memory-like properties of NK cells, questions have arisen with regard to their ability to effectively mediate vaccination responses in humans. Moreover, recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) could also potentially exhibit memory-like functions. Here, we review different forms of NK cell memory, and speculate about the ability of these cells and ILCs to meaningfully contribute to vaccination responses.

10.
Blood ; 131(4): 408-416, 2018 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092827

RESUMO

Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are congenital neutropenia syndromes with a high rate of leukemic transformation. Hematopoietic stressors may contribute to leukemic transformation by increasing the mutation rate in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and/or by promoting clonal hematopoiesis. We sequenced the exome of individual hematopoietic colonies derived from 13 patients with congenital neutropenia to measure total mutation burden and performed error-corrected sequencing on a panel of 46 genes on 80 patients with congenital neutropenia to assess for clonal hematopoiesis. An average of 3.6 ± 1.2 somatic mutations per exome was identified in HSPCs from patients with SCN compared with 3.9 ± 0.4 for healthy controls (P = NS). Clonal hematopoiesis due to mutations in TP53 was present in 48% (13/27) of patients with SDS but was not seen in healthy controls (0/17, P < .001) or patients with SCN (0/40, P < .001). Our SDS cohort was young (median age 6.3 years), and many of the patients had multiple TP53 mutations. Conversely, clonal hematopoiesis due to mutations of CSF3R was present in patients with SCN but was not detected in healthy controls or patients with SDS. These data show that hematopoietic stress, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, do not increase the mutation burden in HSPCs in congenital neutropenia. Rather, distinct hematopoietic stressors result in the selective expansion of HSPCs carrying specific gene mutations. In particular, in SDS there is enormous selective pressure to expand TP53-mutated HSPCs, suggesting that acquisition of TP53 mutations is an early, likely initiating event, in the transformation to myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia in patients with SDS.

11.
JCI Insight ; 2(23)2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212951

RESUMO

NK cell activation has been shown to be metabolically regulated in vitro; however, the role of metabolism during in vivo NK cell responses to infection is unknown. We examined the role of glycolysis in NK cell function during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection and the ability of IL-15 to prime NK cells during CMV infection. The glucose metabolism inhibitor 2-deoxy-ᴅ-glucose (2DG) impaired both mouse and human NK cell cytotoxicity following priming in vitro. Similarly, MCMV-infected mice treated with 2DG had impaired clearance of NK-specific targets in vivo, which was associated with higher viral burden and susceptibility to infection on the C57BL/6 background. IL-15 priming is known to alter NK cell metabolism and metabolic requirements for activation. Treatment with the IL-15 superagonist ALT-803 rescued mice from otherwise lethal infection in an NK-dependent manner. Consistent with this, treatment of a patient with ALT-803 for recurrent CMV reactivation after hematopoietic cell transplant was associated with clearance of viremia. These studies demonstrate that NK cell-mediated control of viral infection requires glucose metabolism and that IL-15 treatment in vivo can reduce this requirement and may be effective as an antiviral therapy.

14.
Nat Genet ; 49(8): 1192-1201, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628108

RESUMO

Few monogenic causes for severe manifestations of common allergic diseases have been identified. Through next-generation sequencing on a cohort of patients with severe atopic dermatitis with and without comorbid infections, we found eight individuals, from four families, with novel heterozygous mutations in CARD11, which encodes a scaffolding protein involved in lymphocyte receptor signaling. Disease improved over time in most patients. Transfection of mutant CARD11 expression constructs into T cell lines demonstrated both loss-of-function and dominant-interfering activity upon antigen receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Patient T cells had similar defects, as well as low production of the cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The mTORC1 and IFN-γ production defects were partially rescued by supplementation with glutamine, which requires CARD11 for import into T cells. Our findings indicate that a single hypomorphic mutation in CARD11 can cause potentially correctable cellular defects that lead to atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Guanilato Ciclase/genética , Sistema ASC de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Linhagem , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
16.
Crit Rev Immunol ; 36(2): 131-147, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27910764

RESUMO

Metabolism is critical for a host of cellular functions and provides a source of intracellular energy. It has been recognized recently that metabolism also regulates differentiation and effector functions of immune cells. Although initial work in this field has focused largely on T lymphocytes, recent studies have demonstrated metabolic control of innate immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we review what is known regarding the metabolic requirements for NK cell activation, focusing on NK cell production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). NK cells are innate immune lymphocytes that are poised for rapid activation during the early immune response. Although their basal metabolic rates do not change with short-term activation, they exhibit specific metabolic requirements for activation depending upon the stimulus received. These metabolic requirements for NK cell activation are altered by culturing NK cells with interleukin-15, which increases NK cell metabolic rates at baseline and shifts them toward aerobic glycolysis. We discuss the metabolic pathways important for NK cell production of IFN-γ protein and potential mechanisms whereby metabolism regulates NK cell function.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/biossíntese , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 4(6): 1089-1100, 2016 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27836058

RESUMO

A broad spectrum of autoimmunity is now well described in patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Management of autoimmune disease in the background of PID is particularly challenging given the seemingly discordant goals of immune support and immune suppression. Our growing ability to define the molecular underpinnings of immune dysregulation has facilitated novel targeted therapeutics. This review focuses on mechanism-based treatment strategies for the most common autoimmune and inflammatory complications of PID including autoimmune cytopenias, rheumatologic disease, and gastrointestinal disease. We aim to provide guidance regarding the rational use of these agents in the complex PID patient population.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Autoimunidade , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/imunologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia
18.
Trends Immunol ; 37(12): 877-888, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27773685

RESUMO

Due to their ability to kill cancer cells and produce proinflammatory cytokines, natural killer (NK) cells have long been of clinical interest for their antitumor properties. The recent discovery of NK cell memory demonstrates that NK cell functions, and potentially antitumor responses, can be enhanced long term. Following nonspecific activation with the cytokines IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 or in response to antigens or cytomegalovirus (CMV), human and mouse NK cells exhibit stable, enhanced functional responses with phenotypic and molecular changes. Here we review mechanisms driving the differentiation of NK cell memory-like properties, evidence for antitumor activity, and the challenges and opportunities in harnessing memory-like NK cells for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Ativação Linfocitária , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/transplante , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 8(357): 357ra123, 2016 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27655849

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are an emerging cellular immunotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the best approach to maximize NK cell antileukemia potential is unclear. Cytokine-induced memory-like NK cells differentiate after a brief preactivation with interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18 and exhibit enhanced responses to cytokine or activating receptor restimulation for weeks to months after preactivation. We hypothesized that memory-like NK cells exhibit enhanced antileukemia functionality. We demonstrated that human memory-like NK cells have enhanced interferon-γ production and cytotoxicity against leukemia cell lines or primary human AML blasts in vitro. Using mass cytometry, we found that memory-like NK cell functional responses were triggered against primary AML blasts, regardless of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) to KIR-ligand interactions. In addition, multidimensional analyses identified distinct phenotypes of control and memory-like NK cells from the same individuals. Human memory-like NK cells xenografted into mice substantially reduced AML burden in vivo and improved overall survival. In the context of a first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial, adoptively transferred memory-like NK cells proliferated and expanded in AML patients and demonstrated robust responses against leukemia targets. Clinical responses were observed in five of nine evaluable patients, including four complete remissions. Thus, harnessing cytokine-induced memory-like NK cell responses represents a promising translational immunotherapy approach for patients with AML.


Assuntos
Citocinas/farmacologia , Memória Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Idoso , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Ligantes , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Indução de Remissão , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Immunity ; 45(2): 229-31, 2016 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27533007

RESUMO

Natural killer cells readily kill target cells, and education ensures tolerance to self. In this issue of Immunity, Boudreau et al. (2016) and Chen et al. (2016) report new mechanisms of human and mouse natural killer cell education by inhibitory and activating receptors.


Assuntos
Tolerância Imunológica , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA