Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 51
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(2): 628-639, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551038

RESUMO

Advances in diagnosis of inborn errors of immunity (IEI) and an understanding of the molecular and immunologic mechanisms of these disorders have led to both the development of new therapies and improved approaches to hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). For example, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and small molecules, such as Janus tyrosine kinase inhibitors, that can modulate immunologic pathways have been designed for or repurposed for management of IEI. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms of IEI has led to use of drugs typically considered "immunosuppressive" to modulate the immune response, such as mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in disorders of phosphoinositide 3-kinase gain of function. Since the first HCT in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in 1968, transplantation strategies have improved, with more than 90% probability of survival after allogeneic HCT in SCID and hence HCT is now the therapeutic standard for SCID and many other IEI. When tailoring treatment for IEI, multiple disease-specific and individual factors should be considered. In diseases such as SCID or agammaglobulinemia, the choice between HCT or medical management is straightforward. However, in many IEI, the choice between the options is challenging. This review focuses on the factors that should be taken into account in the quest for the optimal treatment for patients with IEI.

2.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534603

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a rapidly growing, heterogeneous group of genetically determined diseases characterized by defects in the immune system. While individually rare, collectively PIDs affect between 1/1,000 and 1/5,000 people worldwide. The clinical manifestations of PIDs vary from susceptibility to infections to autoimmunity and bone marrow failure. Our understanding of the human immune response has advanced by investigation and discovery of genetic mechanisms of PIDs. Studying patients with isolated genetic variants in proteins that participate in complex signaling pathways has led to an enhanced understanding of host response to infection, and mechanisms of autoimmunity and autoinflammation. Identifying genetic mechanisms of PIDs not only furthers immunological knowledge but also benefits patients by dictating targeted therapies or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here, we highlight several of these areas in the field of primary immunodeficiency, with a focus on the most recent advances. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology, Volume 39 is April 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1029-1043, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202260

RESUMO

Genetic testing has increased the number of variants identified in disease genes, but the diagnostic utility is limited by lack of understanding variant function. CARD11 encodes an adaptor protein that expresses dominant-negative and gain-of-function variants associated with distinct immunodeficiencies. Here, we used a "cloning-free" saturation genome editing approach in a diploid cell line to simultaneously score 2,542 variants for decreased or increased function in the region of CARD11 associated with immunodeficiency. We also described an exon-skipping mechanism for CARD11 dominant-negative activity. The classification of reported clinical variants was sensitive (94.6%) and specific (88.9%), which rendered the data immediately useful for interpretation of seven coding and splicing variants implicated in immunodeficiency found in our clinic. This approach is generalizable for variant interpretation in many other clinically actionable genes, in any relevant cell type.

5.
JCI Insight ; 5(18)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841218

RESUMO

ETV6 is an ETS family transcription factor that plays a key role in hematopoiesis and megakaryocyte development. Our group and others have identified germline mutations in ETV6 resulting in autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia and predisposition to malignancy; however, molecular mechanisms defining the role of ETV6 in megakaryocyte development have not been well established. Using a combination of molecular, biochemical, and sequencing approaches in patient-derived PBMCs, we demonstrate abnormal cytoplasmic localization of ETV6 and the HDAC3/NCOR2 repressor complex that led to overexpression of HDAC3-regulated interferon response genes. This transcriptional dysregulation was also reflected in patient-derived platelet transcripts and drove aberrant proplatelet formation in megakaryocytes. Our results suggest that aberrant transcription may predispose patients with ETV6 mutations to bone marrow inflammation, dysplasia, and megakaryocyte dysfunction.

7.
Cell Rep ; 31(9): 107720, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492428

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that mediate antiviral and antitumor responses and require the transcriptional regulator Eomesodermin (Eomes) for early development. However, the role of Eomes and its molecular program in mature NK cell biology is unclear. To address this, we develop a tamoxifen-inducible, type-1-ILC-specific (Ncr1-targeted) cre mouse and combine this with Eomes-floxed mice. Eomes deletion after normal NK cell ontogeny results in a rapid loss of NK cells (but not ILC1s), with a particularly profound effect on penultimately mature stage III NK cells. Mechanisms responsible for stage III reduction include increased apoptosis and impaired maturation from stage II precursors. Induced Eomes deletion also decreases NK cell cytotoxicity and abrogates in vivo rejection of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class-I-deficient cells. However, other NK cell functional responses, and stage IV NK cells, are largely preserved. These data indicate that mature NK cells have distinct Eomes-dependent and -independent stages.

8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(5): 1131-1142, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233035

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase is a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme that degrades sphingosine-1-phosphate in the final step of sphingolipid metabolism. In 2017, a new inherited disorder was described caused by mutations in SGPL1, which encodes sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL). This condition is referred to as SPL insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) or alternatively as nephrotic syndrome type 14 (NPHS14). Patients with SPLIS exhibit lymphopenia, nephrosis, adrenal insufficiency, and/or neurological defects. No targeted therapy for SPLIS has been reported. Vitamin B6 supplementation has therapeutic activity in some genetic diseases involving B6-dependent enzymes, a finding ascribed largely to the vitamin's chaperone function. We investigated whether B6 supplementation might have activity in SPLIS patients. We retrospectively monitored responses of disease biomarkers in patients supplemented with B6 and measured SPL activity and sphingolipids in B6-treated patient-derived fibroblasts. In two patients, disease biomarkers responded to B6 supplementation. S1P abundance and activity levels increased and sphingolipids decreased in response to B6. One responsive patient is homozygous for an SPL R222Q variant present in almost 30% of SPLIS patients. Molecular modeling suggests the variant distorts the dimer interface which could be overcome by cofactor supplementation. We demonstrate the first potential targeted therapy for SPLIS and suggest that 30% of SPLIS patients might respond to cofactor supplementation.

9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153572

RESUMO

Primary Immune Regulatory Disorders (PIRD) are an expanding group of diseases caused by gene defects in several different immune pathways, such as regulatory T cell function. Patients with PIRD develop clinical manifestations associated with diminished and exaggerated immune responses. Management of these patients is complicated; oftentimes immunosuppressive therapies are insufficient, and patients may require hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for treatment. Analysis of HCT data in PIRD patients have previously focused on a single gene defect. This study surveyed transplanted patients with a phenotypic clinical picture consistent with PIRD treated in 33 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium centers and European centers. Our data showed that PIRD patients often had immunodeficient and autoimmune features affecting multiple organ systems. Transplantation resulted in resolution of disease manifestations in more than half of the patients with an overall 5-years survival of 67%. This study, the first to encompass disorders across the PIRD spectrum, highlights the need for further research in PIRD management.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(1): 191-202, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813112

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an innate immune deficiency, primarily affecting the phagocytic compartment, and presenting with a diverse phenotypic spectrum ranging from severe childhood infections to monogenic inflammatory bowel disease. Dihydrorhodamine (DHR) flow cytometry is the standard diagnostic test for CGD, and correlates with NADPH oxidase activity. While there may be genotype correlation with the DHR flow pattern in some patients, in several others, there is no correlation. In such patients, assessment by flow cytometric evaluation of NADPH oxidase-specific (NOX) proteins provides a convenient and rapid means of genetic triage, though immunoblotting has long been used for this purpose. METHODS AND RESULTS: We describe the clinical utility of the NOX flow cytometry assay through assessment of X-linked and autosomal recessive CGD patients and their first-degree relatives. The assessment of specific NOX proteins was correlated with overall NADPH oxidase function (DHR flow), clinical phenotype and genotype. NOX-specific protein assessment is a valuable adjunct to DHR assessment and genotyping to classify and characterize CGD patients. CONCLUSIONS: The atypical clinical presentation of some CGD patients can make genotype-phenotype correlation with DHR flow data challenging. Genetic testing, while useful for confirmation of diagnosis, can take several weeks, and in some patients does not provide a conclusive answer. However, NADPH-oxidase-specific protein flow assessment offers a rapid alternative to identification of the underlying genetic defect in cellular subsets, and can be utilized as a reflex test to an abnormal DHR flow. Further, it can provide insight into correlation between oxidative burst relative to protein expression in granulocytes and monocytes.

11.
Immunity ; 51(3): 479-490.e6, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402259

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that defend against viruses and mediate anti-tumor responses, yet mechanisms controlling their development and function remain incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the abundantly expressed microRNA-142 (miR-142) is a critical regulator of type 1 ILC biology. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) signaling induced miR-142 expression, whereas global and ILC-specific miR-142-deficient mice exhibited a cell-intrinsic loss of NK cells. Death of NK cells resulted from diminished IL-15 receptor signaling within miR-142-deficient mice, likely via reduced suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (Socs1) regulation by miR-142-5p. ILCs persisting in Mir142-/- mice demonstrated increased expression of the miR-142-3p target αV integrin, which supported their survival. Global miR-142-deficient mice exhibited an expansion of ILC1-like cells concurrent with increased transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling. Further, miR-142-deficient mice had reduced NK-cell-dependent function and increased susceptibility to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Thus, miR-142 critically integrates environmental cues for proper type 1 ILC homeostasis and defense against viral infection.


Assuntos
Homeostase/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , MicroRNAs/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Muromegalovirus/imunologia , Células NIH 3T3 , Receptores de Interleucina-15/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 549-561, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447097

RESUMO

FOXN1 is the master regulatory gene of thymic epithelium development. FOXN1 deficiency leads to thymic aplasia, alopecia, and nail dystrophy, accounting for the nude/severe combined immunodeficiency (nu/SCID) phenotype in humans and mice. We identified several newborns with low levels of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and T cell lymphopenia at birth, who carried heterozygous loss-of-function FOXN1 variants. Longitudinal analysis showed persistent T cell lymphopenia during infancy, often associated with nail dystrophy. Adult individuals with heterozygous FOXN1 variants had in most cases normal CD4+ but lower than normal CD8+ cell counts. We hypothesized a FOXN1 gene dosage effect on the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and thymopoiesis and postulated that these effects would be more prominent early in life. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed TEC subset frequency and phenotype, early thymic progenitor (ETP) cell count, and expression of FOXN1 target genes (Ccl25, Cxcl12, Dll4, Scf, Psmb11, Prss16, and Cd83) in Foxn1nu/+ (nu/+) mice and age-matched wild-type (+/+) littermate controls. Both the frequency and the absolute count of ETP were significantly reduced in nu/+ mice up to 3 weeks of age. Analysis of the TEC compartment showed reduced expression of FOXN1 target genes and delayed maturation of the medullary TEC compartment in nu/+ mice. These observations establish a FOXN1 gene dosage effect on thymic function and identify FOXN1 haploinsufficiency as an important genetic determinant of T cell lymphopenia at birth.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Heterozigoto , Linfopenia/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Timo/citologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 19(6): 545-552, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425194

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we review the rheumatologic and autoimmune features of primary immune deficiencies with a focus on recently recognized genetic diseases, the spectrum of autoimmunity in PID, and targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) were initially described as genetic diseases of the immune system leading to susceptibility to infection. It is now well recognized that immune dysfunction and dysregulation also cause noninfectious complications including autoimmunity. The increased application of molecular testing for PID has revealed the diversity of clinical disease. Recent discoveries of diseases with prominent autoimmunity include activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome and PIDs caused by gain-of-function in STAT1 and STAT3. Similarly, identification of larger cohorts of patients with molecular diagnoses in more common PIDs, such as common variable immune deficiency (CVID), has led to increased understanding of the range of autoimmunity in PIDs. Understanding the molecular basis of these PIDs has the potential to lead to targeted therapy to treat associated autoimmunity. SUMMARY: Autoimmunity and rheumatologic disease can be presenting symptoms and/or complicating features of primary immunodeficiencies. Evaluation for PIDs in patients who have early-onset, multiple, and/or atypical autoimmunity can enhance diagnosis and therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
14.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(495)2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167928

RESUMO

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE mutations, presents with several autoimmune diseases. Among these, endocrine organ failure is widely recognized, but the prevalence, immunopathogenesis, and treatment of non-endocrine manifestations such as pneumonitis remain poorly characterized. We enrolled 50 patients with APECED in a prospective observational study and comprehensively examined their clinical and radiographic findings, performed pulmonary function tests, and analyzed immunological characteristics in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and endobronchial and lung biopsies. Pneumonitis was found in >40% of our patients, presented early in life, was misdiagnosed despite chronic respiratory symptoms and accompanying radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities, and caused hypoxemic respiratory failure and death. Autoantibodies against BPIFB1 and KCNRG and the homozygous c.967_979del13 AIRE mutation are associated with pneumonitis development. APECED pneumonitis features compartmentalized immunopathology, with accumulation of activated neutrophils in the airways and lymphocytic infiltration in intraepithelial, submucosal, peribronchiolar, and interstitial areas. Beyond APECED, we extend these observations to lung disease seen in other conditions with secondary AIRE deficiency (thymoma and RAG deficiency). Aire-deficient mice had similar compartmentalized cellular immune responses in the airways and lung tissue, which was ameliorated by deficiency of T and B lymphocytes. Accordingly, T and B lymphocyte-directed immunomodulation controlled symptoms and radiographic abnormalities and improved pulmonary function in patients with APECED pneumonitis. Collectively, our findings unveil lung autoimmunity as a common, early, and unrecognized manifestation of APECED and provide insights into the immunopathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary autoimmunity associated with impaired central immune tolerance.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
JCI Insight ; 3(15)2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089725

RESUMO

Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is among the most challenging of the JIA subtypes to treat. Even with current biologic therapies, the disease remains difficult to control in a substantial subset of patients, highlighting the need for new therapies. The aim of this study was to use the high dimensionality afforded by mass cytometry with phospho-specific antibodies to delineate signaling abnormalities in immune cells from treatment-naive polyarticular JIA patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 17 treatment-naive polyarticular JIA patients, 10 of the patients after achieving clinical remission, and 19 healthy controls. Samples were stimulated for 15 minutes with IL-6 or IFN-γ and analyzed by mass cytometry. Following IFN-γ stimulation, increased STAT1 and/or STAT3 phosphorylation was observed in subsets of CD4 T cells and classical monocytes from treatment-naive patients. The enhanced IFN-γ signaling was associated with increased expression of JAK1 and SOCS1 in CD4 T cells. Furthermore, substantial heterogeneity in surface marker expression was observed among the subsets of CD4 T cells and classical monocytes with increased IFN-γ responsiveness. The identification of enhanced IFN-γ signaling in CD4 T cells and classical monocytes from treatment-naive polyarticular JIA patients provides mechanistic support for investigations into therapies that attenuate IFN-γ signaling in this disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Adolescente , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/sangue , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/imunologia , Masculino , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254976

RESUMO

Studies over the last decade have decisively shown that innate immune natural killer (NK) cells exhibit enhanced long-lasting functional responses following a single activation event. With the increased recognition of memory and memory-like properties of NK cells, questions have arisen with regard to their ability to effectively mediate vaccination responses in humans. Moreover, recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) could also potentially exhibit memory-like functions. Here, we review different forms of NK cell memory, and speculate about the ability of these cells and ILCs to meaningfully contribute to vaccination responses.


Assuntos
Memória Imunológica/fisiologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/fisiologia , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Vacinação , Humanos
20.
Blood ; 131(4): 408-416, 2018 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092827

RESUMO

Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are congenital neutropenia syndromes with a high rate of leukemic transformation. Hematopoietic stressors may contribute to leukemic transformation by increasing the mutation rate in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and/or by promoting clonal hematopoiesis. We sequenced the exome of individual hematopoietic colonies derived from 13 patients with congenital neutropenia to measure total mutation burden and performed error-corrected sequencing on a panel of 46 genes on 80 patients with congenital neutropenia to assess for clonal hematopoiesis. An average of 3.6 ± 1.2 somatic mutations per exome was identified in HSPCs from patients with SCN compared with 3.9 ± 0.4 for healthy controls (P = NS). Clonal hematopoiesis due to mutations in TP53 was present in 48% (13/27) of patients with SDS but was not seen in healthy controls (0/17, P < .001) or patients with SCN (0/40, P < .001). Our SDS cohort was young (median age 6.3 years), and many of the patients had multiple TP53 mutations. Conversely, clonal hematopoiesis due to mutations of CSF3R was present in patients with SCN but was not detected in healthy controls or patients with SDS. These data show that hematopoietic stress, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, do not increase the mutation burden in HSPCs in congenital neutropenia. Rather, distinct hematopoietic stressors result in the selective expansion of HSPCs carrying specific gene mutations. In particular, in SDS there is enormous selective pressure to expand TP53-mutated HSPCs, suggesting that acquisition of TP53 mutations is an early, likely initiating event, in the transformation to myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia in patients with SDS.


Assuntos
Hematopoese , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Mutação , Neutropenia/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome Congênita de Insuficiência da Medula Óssea , Exoma , Feminino , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Taxa de Mutação , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/patologia , Neutropenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA