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1.
J Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616856

RESUMO

Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a rare disease in adults and exceptional in childhood. Caplacizumab has proven its effectiveness in the treatment of iTTP in adulthood in association with standard of care. Unfortunately, this treatment is restricted to adults. We report our experience in three children who were treated successfully with caplacizumab.

2.
Blood ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529333

RESUMO

Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a potentially fatal thrombotic microangiopathy caused by autoantibody-mediated severe deficiency of ADAMTS13. Standardized definitions of response, exacerbation, remission and relapse were initially proposed in 2003 and modified by the International Working Group (IWG) for TTP in 2017. These definitions, which have been widely used in clinical practice and research, are based primarily on the platelet count and are benchmarked against the timing of discontinuation of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). They do not incorporate ADAMTS13 activity or the temporizing effects of caplacizumab, a novel anti-von Willebrand factor (VWF) nanobody, on the platelet count. In light of these limitations, the IWG aimed to develop revised consensus outcome definitions that incorporate ADAMTS13 activity and the effects of anti-VWF therapy using an estimate-talk-estimate approach. The updated definitions distinguish clinical remission and clinical relapse (defined primarily by platelet count) from ADAMTS13 remission and ADAMTS13 relapse (defined by ADAMTS13 activity). The revised definitions of exacerbation and remission are benchmarked against not only the timing of discontinuation of TPE, but also of anti-VWF therapy. Retrospective validation of the revised definitions is described, though they remain to be prospectively validated. Clinical implications of the updated outcome definitions are also discussed and an example of their application to clinical practice is provided in order to highlight their clinical relevance.

3.
Hamostaseologie ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607665

RESUMO

The therapeutic landscape of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is rapidly changing with the recent availability of new targeted therapies. This progressive shift from empiricism to pathophysiology-based treatments reflects an intensive interaction between the continuous findings in the field of basic science and an efficient collaborative clinical research and represents a convincing example of the strength of translational medicine. Despite the rarity of TTP, national and international efforts could circumvent this limitation and shed light on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, prognosis, and long-term outcome of this disease. Importantly, they also provided high-quality results and practice changing studies for the benefit of patients. We report here the most recent therapeutic findings that allowed progressively improving the prognostic of TTP, both at the acute phase and through long-term outcome.

4.
Blood ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544829

RESUMO

Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is an autoimmune disorder caused by the development of autoantibodies targeting different domains of ADAMTS13. Profiling studies have shown that residues R568, F592, R660, Y661 and Y665 within exosite-3 of the spacer domain provide an immunodominant region of ADAMTS13 for pathogenic autoantibodies that develop in patients with iTTP. Modification of these 5 core residues with the goal of reducing auto-antibody binding revealed a significant trade-off between autoantibody resistance and proteolytic activity. Here, we employed structural bioinformatics to identify a larger epitope landscape on the ADAMTS13 spacer domain. Models of spacer-antibody complexes predicted that residues R568, L591, F592, K608, M609, R636, L637, R639, R660, Y661, Y665 and L668 contribute to an expanded epitope within the spacer domain. Based on bioinformatics-guided predictions we designed a panel of N-glycan insertions in this expanded epitope to reduce the binding of spacer domain autoantibodies. One N-glycan variant (NGLY3-ADAMTS13, containing a K608N substitution) showed strongly reduced reactivity with TTP patient sera (28%) as compared to WT-ADAMTS13 (100%). Insertion of an N-glycan at amino acid position 608 did not interfere with processing of VWF positioning the resulting NGLY3-ADAMTS13 variant as a potential novel therapeutic option for treatment of iTTP.

6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 9, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA) is a rare but life-threatening paraneoplastic syndrome. Only single cases or small series have been reported to date. We set up a retrospective multicentre study focusing on breast cancer-related MAHA. METHODS: Main inclusion criteria were known diagnosis of breast cancer, presence of schistocytes and either low haptoglobin or cytopenia and absence of any causes of MAHA other than breast cancer, including gemcitabine- or bevacizumab-based treatment. Patient characteristics, treatments and outcome were retrieved from digital medical records. RESULTS: Individual data from 54 patients with breast cancer-related MAHA were obtained from 7 centres. Twenty-three (44%) patients had a breast tumour with lobular features, and most primary tumours were low grade (grade I/II, N = 39, 75%). ER+/HER2-, HER2+ and triple-negative phenotypes accounted for N = 33 (69%), N = 7 (15%) and N = 8 (17%) cases, respectively. All patients had stage IV cancer at the time of MAHA diagnosis. Median overall survival (OS) was 28 days (range 0-1035; Q1:10, Q3:186). Independent prognostic factors for early death (≤ 28 days) were PS > 2 (OR = 7.0 [1.6; 31.8]), elevated bilirubin (OR = 6.9 [1.1; 42.6]), haemoglobin < 8.0 g/dL (OR = 3.7 [0.9; 16.7]) and prothrombin time < 50% (OR = 9.1 [1.2; 50.0]). A score to predict early death displayed a sensitivity of 86% (95% CI [0.67; 0.96]), a specificity of 73% (95% CI [0.52; 0.88]) and an area under the curve of 0.90 (95% CI [0.83; 0.97]). CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer-related MAHA appears to be a new feature of invasive lobular breast carcinoma. Prognostic factors and scores may guide clinical decision-making in this serious but not always fatal condition.

7.
Am J Hematol ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306213

RESUMO

Historically, double or triple hit lymphoma (DHL and THL) have poor outcome with conventional chemotherapy, but there is currently no guideline. We report the French experience in managing DHL and THL in first line using collective data on both survival and tolerance. All consecutive patients with newly diagnosis of large B-cell lymphoma with MYC, BCL2, and/or BCL6 rearrangements, as determined by FISH between January 2013 and April 2019 were included. Based on the eligibility criteria, 160 patients were selected among the 184 patients identified. With a median follow-up of 32 months, 2-year and 4-year progression free survival (PFS) rates were 40% and 28% with R-CHOP compared with 57% and 52% with intensive chemotherapy (P = .063). There was no difference in overall survival (OS). For advanced stages, PFS was significantly longer with intensive chemotherapy than with R-CHOP (P = .029). There was no impact of autologous stem cell transplantation among patient in remission. For patient with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, 2-year PFS and OS rate was 21 % and 39 %, versus 57% and 75 % without CNS disease (P = .007 and P <.001). By multivariate analysis, elevated IPI score and CNS disease were strongly and independently associated with a poorer survival, whereas treatment was not significantly associated with OS. This is the largest series reporting the treatment of DHL and THL in Europe. PFS was significantly longer with an intensive regimen for advanced stage, but no difference in OS, supporting the need for a prospective randomized trial. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Eur J Haematol ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Relapsed/refractory peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) have a poor prognosis. We aimed at assessing efficacy of ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide (ICE) regimen, a known therapeutic option, to which we added brentuximab-vedotin (BV). METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively analyzed patients with PTCL treated with BV-ICE in our center between July 2014 and March 2018. RESULTS: Fourteen patients received BV-ICE. Median age was 62 years (range, 31-73). Main histological subtypes were PTCL-not otherwise specified (29%), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (21%), follicular-T helper (21%), or anaplastic large-cell (15%) lymphomas, all were CD30 positive. Overall response was seen in four (29%) patients, and complete response (CR) in two (14%). Most frequent adverse events were infections, and cytopenia. 2-year progression-free and overall survival were 14% and 17.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with relapsed/refractory PTCL treated with BV-ICE can achieve CR, but few had a sustained response. This association should preferably be used as a bridge to stem cell transplant or be followed by maintenance therapy.

9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is caused by anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies inducing a severe deficiency of ADAMTS13. Epitope mapping studies on samples obtained during acute iTTP episodes have shown that the iTTP immune response is polyclonal, with almost all patients having autoantibodies targeting the spacer domain of ADAMTS13. OBJECTIVES: To identify the immunogenic hotspots in the spacer domain of ADAMTS13. PATIENTS/METHODS: A library of 11 full-length ADAMTS13 spacer hybrids was created in which amino acids regions of the spacer domain of ADAMTS13 were exchanged by the corresponding region of the spacer domain of ADAMTS1. Next, the full-length ADAMTS13 spacer hybrids were used in ELISA to epitope map anti-spacer autoantibodies in 138 samples from acute and remission iTTP patients. RESULTS: Sixteen different anti-spacer autoantibody profiles were identified with a similar distribution in acute and remission patients. There was no association between the anti-spacer autoantibody profiles and disease severity. Almost all iTTP samples contained anti-spacer autoantibodies against the following three regions: amino acid residues 588-592, 602-610 and 657-666 (hybrids E, G and M). Between 31 and 57% of the samples had anti-spacer autoantibodies against amino acid regions 572-579, 629-638, 667-676 (hybrids C, J and N). In contrast, none of the samples had anti-spacer autoantibodies against amino acid regions 556-563, 564-571, 649-656 and 677-685 (hybrids A, B, L and O). CONCLUSION: We identified 3 hotspot regions (amino acid regions 588-592, 602-610, and 657-666) in the spacer domain of ADAMTS13 that are targeted by anti-spacer autoantibodies found in a large cohort of iTTP patients.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 549931, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195299

RESUMO

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by mechanical hemolytic anemia, profound thrombocytopenia, and neurological manifestations. Acquired auto-immune TTP, the most prevalent cause of TTP, is induced by the presence of inhibitory anti-ADAMTS13 auto-antibodies. Modern treatment of acquired TTP relies on plasma exchange, rituximab, and steroids. Caplacizumab (Cablivi®), a humanized single-variable domain immunoglobulin that targets the A1 domain of the ultra-large von Willebrand factor, inhibits the interaction between ultra-large vWFand platelets. In two clinical trials, caplacizumab, in addition to conventional treatment, shortened the delay to platelet count normalization in comparison to conventional treatment plus placebo, without increasing significantly hemorrhagic complications. Moreover, caplacizumab was associated with reduced occurrence of a secondary endpoint associating death, TTP recurrence, and major thromboembolic events. Here, we report the off-label use of caplacizumab in a 68-year-old patient with confirmed acquired TTP, severe thrombocytopenia, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures requiring mechanical ventilation and admission in the intensive care unit. Conventional treatment was rapidly started. Despite the intensification of plasma exchange treatment with twice-daily sessions, steroid continuation, and a second rituximab infusion on day 6, thrombotic microangiopathy worsened with thrombocytopenia at 21 g/L on day 8 from admission. We also considered using caplacizumab, which we could obtain and start on day 12 from admission, as it was available under a temporary authorization use in France. As soon as 12 h after caplacizumab initiation, we observed a significant increase of platelet count and improvement of other hemolytic parameters. We observed resolution of encephalopathy and complete recovery of motor paralysis, allowing us to stop mechanical ventilation on day 14. Caplacizumab was maintained for 128 days until day 139 from initial admission. The patient is going well 10 months after initial admission, without any neurological sequelae, and TTP did not relapse. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported use of caplacizumab in such a condition. This case report suggests that caplacizumab use may help to reduce the rate of refractory TTP episodes.

12.
Blood ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150928

RESUMO

The anti-von Willebrand factor nanobody caplacizumab was licensed for adults with immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) based on prospective controlled trials. However, few data are available on post-marketing surveillance. We treated 90 iTTP patients with a compassionate frontline "triplet regimen" associating therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), immunosuppression with corticosteroids and rituximab, and caplacizumab. Outcomes were compared to 180 historical patients treated with the standard frontline treatment (TPE and corticosteroids, with rituximab as salvage therapy). The primary outcome was a composite of refractoriness and death within 30 days since diagnosis. Key secondary outcomes were exacerbations, time to platelet count recovery, the number of TPE and the volume of plasma required to achieve durable remission. The percentage of patients in the triplet regimen with the composite primary outcome was 2.2% vs. 12.2% in historical patients (p=0.01). One elderly patient in the triplet regimen died of pulmonary embolism. Patients from this cohort experienced less exacerbations (3.4% vs. 44%, p<0.01); they recovered durable platelet count 1.8 times faster than historical patients (95% confidence interval, 1.41-2.36, p<0.01), with fewer TPE sessions and lower plasma volumes (p<0.01 both). The number of days in hospital was 41% lower in the triplet regimen than in the historical cohort (13 days vs. 22 days, p <0.01). Caplacizumab-related adverse events occurred in 46 patients (51%), including 13 major or clinically relevant non-major hemorrhagic events. Associating caplacizumab to TPE and immunosuppression, by addressing the three processes of iTTP pathophysiology, prevents unfavorable outcomes and alleviates the burden of care.

13.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236389

RESUMO

Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a rare, life-threatening disease that causes systemic platelet-rich microthrombi with multiorgan damage. The historical treatment is based on therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and immunosuppression. Despite survival rates exceeding 85%, unfavorable outcomes including refractoriness, death and exacerbations of the disease during treatment still calls for a better management strategy. Caplacizumab (Cablivi) appeared recently as a new treatment in iTTP. By inhibiting binding of von Willebrand Factor to platelets, caplacizumab prevents platelets aggregation and the formation of microthrombi. Two pivotal randomized controlled trials have provided positive results where the use of caplacizumab is associated with faster platelet count recovery and less unfavorable outcomes. The other strength of this agent is an impressive alleviation in the burden of care, consisting in less TPE sessions and lower volumes of plasma to achieve remission, as well as substantial shortening in the length of hospitalization. However, since the recent approval of caplacizumab for the treatment of iTTP on the basis of these studies, debates remain regarding its systematic use in this indication. Should all patients be benefited from caplacizumab? Should we reserve caplacizumab only to the more severe patients? Should caplacizumab be initiated frontline or as a salvage therapy? If applicable, how should we select patients for caplacizumab? Lastly, is caplacizumab treatment cost-effective? This review aims at addressing these specific questions at a time when iTTP is entering the area of targeted therapies.

15.
Hemasphere ; 4(4): e462, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885148

RESUMO

Following an acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) episode, patients are at risk for relapse, and a careful long-term follow-up is needed. Adherence to the follow-up by patients implies a good understanding of the disease. However, TTP literacy in patients is currently unknown. To explore the TTP literacy in patients and identify factors associated with poor disease understanding, a questionnaire was developed focusing on patient's characteristics, knowledge about TTP and patients' actions in an emergency. The questionnaire was presented to 120 TTP patients in remission from the French National Registry for Thrombotic Microangiopathies. TTP literacy was low in 24%, intermediate in 43% and high in 33% of the patients. Low TTP literacy was associated with older age and low education level. Among the knowledge gaps identified, few patients knew that plasma exchange in acute phase is mandatory and has to be done daily (39%), 47% of participants did not consider themselves at risk for relapse, and 30% of women did not know that pregnancy exposes them to a greater risk of relapse. Importantly, few patients responded about life-saving actions in an emergency. Hence, the design of educational material should pay special attention to the age and education level of the target population focusing on the events leading to TTP, the importance of the emergency treatment, controllable predisposing factors for TTP development and patient attitude in an emergency.

16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(10): 2496-2502, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in treatment options for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), there are still limited high quality data to inform clinicians regarding its appropriate treatment. METHODS: In June 2018, the ISTH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel to issue recommendations about treatment of TTP. The panel discussed 12 treatment questions related to immune-mediated TTP (iTTP) and hereditary or congenital TTP (cTTP). The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, including evidence-to-decision frameworks, to appraise evidence and formulate recommendations. RESULTS: The panel agreed on 11 recommendations based on evidence ranging from very low to moderate certainty. For first acute episode and relapses of iTTP, the panel made a strong recommendation for adding corticosteroids to therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and a conditional recommendation for adding rituximab and caplacizumab. For asymptomatic iTTP with low plasma ADAMTS13 activity, the panel made a conditional recommendation for the use of rituximab outside of pregnancy, but prophylactic TPE during pregnancy. For asymptomatic cTTP, the panel made a strong recommendation for prophylactic plasma infusion during pregnancy, and a conditional recommendation for plasma infusion or a wait and watch approach outside of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The panel's recommendations are based on all the available evidence for the effects of an individual component of various treatment approaches, including suppressing inflammation, blocking platelet clumping, replacing the missing and/or inhibited ADAMTS13, and suppressing the formation of ADAMTS13 autoantibody. There was insufficient evidence for further comparing different treatment approaches (eg, TPE, corticosteroids, rituximab, and caplacizumab, etc.), for which high quality studies are needed.

17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(10): 2503-2512, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in treatment options for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), there are still limited high quality data to inform clinicians regarding its management. METHODS: In June 2018, the ISTH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel to issue recommendations about treatment of TTP. The panel discussed 12 treatment questions related to both immune-mediated TTP (iTTP) and hereditary/congenital TTP (cTTP). The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, including evidence-to-decision frameworks, to appraise evidence and formulate recommendations. RESULTS: The panel agreed on eleven recommendations based on evidence ranging from very low to moderate certainty. For first episode and relapses of acute iTTP, the panel made a strong recommendation for the addition of corticosteroids to therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), and a conditional recommendation for addition of rituximab and caplacizumab. For asymptomatic iTTP with low ADAMTS13, the panel made a conditional recommendation for rituximab outside of pregnancy, and for prophylactic TPE during pregnancy. For asymptomatic cTTP, the panel made a strong recommendation for prophylactic plasma infusion during pregnancy, but a conditional recommendation for plasma infusion or a wait and watch approach outside of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The panel's recommendations are based on all the available evidence for the treatment effects of various approaches including suppressing inflammation, blocking platelet clumping, replacing the missing and/or inhibited ADAMTS13, and suppressing ADAMTS13 antibody production. There was insufficient evidence for further comparison of different treatment approaches, for which future high-quality studies in iTTP (e.g., rituximab, corticosteroids, recombinant ADAMTS13, and caplacizumab) and in cTTP (eg, recombinant ADAMTS13) are needed.

18.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(10): 2486-2495, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite an increase in our understandings of pathogenesis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), the approaches for initial diagnosis and management of TTP vary significantly. OBJECTIVE: The evidence-based guidelines of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) are intended to support patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals in their decisions about the initial diagnosis and management of acute TTP. METHODS: In June 2018, ISTH formed a multidisciplinary panel that included hematologists, an intensive care physician, nephrologist, clinical pathologist, biostatistician, and patient representatives, as well as a methodology team from McMaster University. The panel composition was designed to minimize the potential conflicts of interests. The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach and the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome framework to develop and grade their recommendations. Public comments were sought and incorporated in the final document. RESULTS: The panel agreed on three recommendations covering the initial diagnosis with emphasis on the importance of ADAMTS13 testing (eg, activity, anti-ADAMTS13 IgG or inhibitor) and assessment of the pretest probability of TTP by clinical assessment and/or the risk assessment models like the PLASMIC or French score. The panel noted how availability and turnaround time of ADAMTS13 test results might affect early diagnosis and management, in particular the use of caplacizumab. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of high-quality evidence to support strong recommendations for the initial diagnosis and management of a suspected TTP. The panel emphasized the importance of obtaining ADAMTS13 testing in a proper clinical context. Future research should focus on how to monitor and act on ADAMTS13 levels during remission.

19.
Blood ; 136(19): 2103-2117, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808006

RESUMO

Pregnancy and postpartum are high-risk periods for different forms of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). However, the management of pregnancy-associated TMA remains ill defined. This report, by an international multidisciplinary working group of obstetricians, nephrologists, hematologists, intensivists, neonatologists, and complement biologists, summarizes the current knowledge of these potentially severe disorders and proposes a practical clinical approach to diagnose and manage an episode of pregnancy-associated TMA. This approach takes into account the timing of TMA in pregnancy or postpartum, coexisting symptoms, first-line laboratory workup, and probability-based assessment of possible causes of pregnancy-associated TMA. Its aims are: to rule thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in or out, with urgency, using ADAMTS13 activity testing; to consider alternative disorders with features of TMA (preeclampsia/eclampsia; hemolysis elevated liver enzymes low platelets syndrome; antiphospholipid syndrome); or, ultimately, to diagnose complement-mediated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS; a diagnosis of exclusion). Although they are rare, diagnosing TTP and aHUS associated with pregnancy, and postpartum, is paramount as both require urgent specific treatment.

20.
Blood ; 135(26): 2335-2336, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585027
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