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1.
Neurology ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that plasma total tau (t-tau) and neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations may have a differential role in the study of frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes (FTLD-S) and clinically-diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD-S), we determined their diagnostic and prognostic value in FTLD-S and AD-S and their sensitivity to pathologic diagnoses. METHODS: We measured plasma t-tau and NfL with the Simoa platform in 265 participants: 167 FTLD-S, 43 AD-S, and 55 healthy controls (HC), including 82 pathology-proven cases (50 FTLD-Tau, 18 FTLD-TDP, 2 FTLD-FUS, and 12 AD) and 98 participants with amyloid PET. We compared cross-sectional and longitudinal biomarker concentrations between groups, their correlation with clinical measures of disease severity, progression and survival and cortical thickness. RESULTS: Plasma NfL, but not plasma t-tau discriminated FTLD-S from HC and AD-S from HC. Both plasma NfL and t-tau were poor discriminators between FLTD-S and AD-S. In pathology confirmed cases, plasma NfL was higher in FTLD than AD and in FTLD-TDP compared to FTLD-Tau, after accounting for age and disease severity. Plasma NfL, but not plasma t-tau, predicted clinical decline and survival and correlated with regional cortical thickness in both FTLD-S and AD-S. The combination of plasma NfL with plasma t-tau did not outperform plasma NfL alone. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma NfL is superior to plasma t-tau for the diagnosis and prediction of clinical progression of FTLD-S and AD-S. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that plasma NfL has superior diagnostic and prognostic performance than plasma t-tau in FTLD and AD.

2.
Nature ; 586(7831): 749-756, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087929

RESUMO

The UK Biobank is a prospective study of 502,543 individuals, combining extensive phenotypic and genotypic data with streamlined access for researchers around the world1. Here we describe the release of exome-sequence data for the first 49,960 study participants, revealing approximately 4 million coding variants (of which around 98.6% have a frequency of less than 1%). The data include 198,269 autosomal predicted loss-of-function (LOF) variants, a more than 14-fold increase compared to the imputed sequence. Nearly all genes (more than 97%) had at least one carrier with a LOF variant, and most genes (more than 69%) had at least ten carriers with a LOF variant. We illustrate the power of characterizing LOF variants in this population through association analyses across 1,730 phenotypes. In addition to replicating established associations, we found novel LOF variants with large effects on disease traits, including PIEZO1 on varicose veins, COL6A1 on corneal resistance, MEPE on bone density, and IQGAP2 and GMPR on blood cell traits. We further demonstrate the value of exome sequencing by surveying the prevalence of pathogenic variants of clinical importance, and show that 2% of this population has a medically actionable variant. Furthermore, we characterize the penetrance of cancer in carriers of pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants. Exome sequences from the first 49,960 participants highlight the promise of genome sequencing in large population-based studies and are now accessible to the scientific community.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238578, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001981

RESUMO

The spiral ganglion neurons constitute the primary connection between auditory hair cells and the brain. The spiral ganglion afferent fibers and their synapse with hair cells do not regenerate to any significant degree in adult mammalian ears after damage. We have investigated gene expression changes after kainate-induced disruption of the synapses in a neonatal cochlear explant model in which peripheral fibers and the afferent synapse do regenerate. We compared gene expression early after damage, during regeneration of the fibers and synapses, and after completion of in vitro regeneration. These analyses revealed a total of 2.5% differentially regulated transcripts (588 out of 24,000) based on a threshold of p<0.005. Inflammatory response genes as well as genes involved in regeneration of neural circuits were upregulated in the spiral ganglion neurons and organ of Corti, where the hair cells reside. Prominent genes upregulated at several time points included genes with roles in neurogenesis (Elavl4 and Sox21), neural outgrowth (Ntrk3 and Ppp1r1c), axonal guidance (Rgmb and Sema7a), synaptogenesis (Nlgn2 and Psd2), and synaptic vesicular function (Syt8 and Syn1). Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analysis of genes that had not previously been described in the cochlea confirmed their cochlear expression. The time course of expression of these genes suggests that kainate treatment resulted in a two-phase response in spiral ganglion neurons: an acute response consistent with inflammation, followed by an upregulation of neural regeneration genes. Identification of the genes activated during regeneration of these fibers suggests candidates that could be targeted to enhance regeneration in adult ears.


Assuntos
Células Ciliadas Auditivas/fisiologia , Regeneração Nervosa/genética , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios Aferentes/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurogênese/genética , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/citologia , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
4.
Neuron ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086039

RESUMO

Astrocytes tile the central nervous system and are widely implicated in brain diseases, but the molecular mechanisms by which astrocytes contribute to brain disorders remain incompletely explored. By performing astrocyte gene expression analyses following 14 experimental perturbations of relevance to the striatum, we discovered that striatal astrocytes mount context-specific molecular responses at the level of genes, pathways, and upstream regulators. Through data mining, we also identified astrocyte pathways in Huntington's disease (HD) that were reciprocally altered with respect to the activation of striatal astrocyte G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Furthermore, selective striatal astrocyte stimulation of the Gi-GPCR pathway in vivo corrected several HD-associated astrocytic, synaptic, and behavioral phenotypes, with accompanying improvement of HD-associated astrocyte signaling pathways, including those related to synaptogenesis and neuroimmune functions. Overall, our data show that astrocytes are malleable, using context-specific responses that can be dissected molecularly and used for phenotypic benefit in brain disorders.

5.
Curr Biol ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065005

RESUMO

The main limitation on axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the slow rate of regrowth. We recently reported that nerve regeneration can be accelerated by axonal G3BP1 granule disassembly, releasing axonal mRNAs for local translation to support axon growth. Here, we show that G3BP1 phosphorylation by casein kinase 2α (CK2α) triggers G3BP1 granule disassembly in injured axons. CK2α activity is temporally and spatially regulated by local translation of Csnk2a1 mRNA in axons after injury, but this requires local translation of mTor mRNA and buffering of the elevated axonal Ca2+ that occurs after axotomy. CK2α's appearance in axons after PNS nerve injury correlates with disassembly of axonal G3BP1 granules as well as increased phospho-G3BP1 and axon growth, although depletion of Csnk2a1 mRNA from PNS axons decreases regeneration and increases G3BP1 granules. Phosphomimetic G3BP1 shows remarkably decreased RNA binding in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons compared with wild-type and non-phosphorylatable G3BP1; combined with other studies, this suggests that CK2α-dependent G3BP1 phosphorylation on Ser 149 after axotomy releases axonal mRNAs for translation. Translation of axonal mRNAs encoding some injury-associated proteins is known to be increased with Ca2+ elevations, and using a dual fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) reporter assay for axonal translation, we see that translational specificity switches from injury-associated protein mRNA translation to CK2α translation with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release versus cytoplasmic Ca2+ chelation. Our results point to axoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations as a determinant for the temporal specificity of sequential translational activation of different axonal mRNAs as severed axons transition from injury to regenerative growth.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4529, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913184

RESUMO

Although Huntington's disease (HD) is a well studied Mendelian genetic disorder, less is known about its associated epigenetic changes. Here, we characterize DNA methylation levels in six different tissues from 3 species: a mouse huntingtin (Htt) gene knock-in model, a transgenic HTT sheep model, and humans. Our epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of human blood reveals that HD mutation status is significantly (p < 10-7) associated with 33 CpG sites, including the HTT gene (p = 6.5 × 10-26). These Htt/HTT associations were replicated in the Q175 Htt knock-in mouse model (p = 6.0 × 10-8) and in the transgenic sheep model (p = 2.4 × 10-88). We define a measure of HD motor score progression among manifest HD cases based on multiple clinical assessments. EWAS of motor progression in manifest HD cases exhibits significant (p < 10-7) associations with methylation levels at three loci: near PEX14 (p = 9.3 × 10-9), GRIK4 (p = 3.0 × 10-8), and COX4I2 (p = 6.5 × 10-8). We conclude that HD is accompanied by profound changes of DNA methylation levels in three mammalian species.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento Animal , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Estudos Transversais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/sangue , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico , Doença de Huntington/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ovinos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Neurosci Res ; 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830380

RESUMO

The actions of endogenous opioids and nociceptin/orphanin FQ are mediated by four homologous G protein-coupled receptors that constitute the opioid receptor family. However, little is known about opioid systems in cyclostomes (living jawless fish) and how opioid systems might have evolved from invertebrates. Here, we leveraged de novo transcriptome and low-coverage whole-genome assembly in the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) to identify and characterize the first full-length coding sequence for a functional opioid receptor in a cyclostome. Additionally, we define two novel endogenous opioid precursors in this species that predict several novel opioid peptides. Bioinformatic analysis shows no closely related opioid receptor genes in invertebrates with regard either to the genomic organization or to conserved opioid receptor-specific sequences that are common in all vertebrates. Furthermore, no proteins analogous to vertebrate opioid precursors could be identified by genomic searches despite previous claims of protein or RNA-derived sequences in several invertebrate species. The presence of an expressed orthologous receptor and opioid precursors in the Pacific hagfish confirms that a functional opioid system was likely present in the common ancestor of all extant vertebrates some 550 million years ago, earlier than all previous authenticated accounts. We discuss the premise that the cyclostome and vertebrate opioid systems evolved from invertebrate systems concerned with antimicrobial defense and speculate that the high concentrations of opioid precursors in tissues such as the testes, gut, and activated immune cells are key remnants of this evolutionary role.

8.
Neurology ; 95(7): e847-e855, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate evidence of the potential role of early cortical vulnerability in the development of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). METHOD: A woman with a diagnosis of PPA and her 9 adult siblings, 7 with developmental language disabilities, underwent neuropsychological testing, structural MRI, and resting-state fMRI. Whole-exome sequencing was conducted for genes associated with dyslexia or with neurodegenerative dementia. RESULTS: The siblings demonstrated lower verbal than nonverbal cognitive test scores in a developmental dyslexia pattern. On structural MRI, although the siblings did not differ from controls in total brain volume, the left hemisphere language area volume was significantly smaller than the right. Furthermore, cortical connectivity between the left superior temporal area, previously identified as the region of peak atrophy in the proband early in the course of illness, and adjacent language network components, including the planum temporale, was decreased in the siblings. No distinctive genetic signatures were identified. CONCLUSION: This report further supports the hypothesis that at least some cases of PPA may be based on a familial language network vulnerability that interferes with the acquisition of language in some members and that makes the language network a locus of least resistance to the effects of an independently late-arising neurodegenerative disease in others. This association offers a conceptual model to explain why identical neurodegenerative diseases may selectively target the language network in some individuals while targeting networks that regulate memory or behavior in others. The genetic basis for this vulnerability remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Afasia Primária Progressiva/patologia , Idioma , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Afasia Primária Progressiva/diagnóstico , Atrofia/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
9.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(8): 1115-1124, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects evaluates familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) kindreds with MAPT, GRN, or C9orf72 mutations. Objectives were to examine whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) correlates with clinical symptoms and caregiver burden, and whether self-rated and informant-rated HRQoL would correlate with each other. METHODS: Individuals were classified using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR® ) Scale plus National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) FTLD. HRQoL was measured with DEMQOL and DEMQOL-proxy; caregiver burden with the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). For analysis, Pearson correlations and weighted kappa statistics were calculated. RESULTS: The cohort of 312 individuals included symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. CDR® plus NACC FTLD was negatively correlated with DEMQOL (r = -0.20, P = .001), as were ZBI and DEMQOL (r = -0.22, P = .0009). There was fair agreement between subject and informant DEMQOL (κ = 0.36, P <.0001). CONCLUSION: Lower HRQoL was associated with higher cognitive/behavior impairment and higher caregiver burden. These findings demonstrate the negative impact of FTLD on individuals and caregivers.

10.
Nature ; 581(7806): 77-82, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376949

RESUMO

Grafts of spinal-cord-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) enable the robust regeneration of corticospinal axons and restore forelimb function after spinal cord injury1; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this regeneration are unknown. Here we perform translational profiling specifically of corticospinal tract (CST) motor neurons in mice, to identify their 'regenerative transcriptome' after spinal cord injury and NPC grafting. Notably, both injury alone and injury combined with NPC grafts elicit virtually identical early transcriptomic responses in host CST neurons. However, in mice with injury alone this regenerative transcriptome is downregulated after two weeks, whereas in NPC-grafted mice this transcriptome is sustained. The regenerative transcriptome represents a reversion to an embryonic transcriptional state of the CST neuron. The huntingtin gene (Htt) is a central hub in the regeneration transcriptome; deletion of Htt significantly attenuates regeneration, which shows that Htt has a key role in neural plasticity after injury.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Regeneração Nervosa/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Axônios/patologia , Axônios/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/transplante , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/transplante , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Tratos Piramidais/citologia , Tratos Piramidais/metabolismo , Tratos Piramidais/patologia , RNA-Seq , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/genética , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Transcriptoma
11.
Neurology ; 94(22): e2384-e2395, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale (RSMS), an informant measure of socioemotional sensitivity, is a potential clinical endpoint for treatment trials for patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). METHODS: We investigated whether RSMS informant ratings reflected disease severity in 475 participants (71 bvFTD mutation+, 154 bvFTD mutation-, 12 behavioral mild cognitive impairment [MCI] mutation+, 98 asymptomatic mutation+, 140 asymptomatic mutation-). In a subset of 62 patients (20 bvFTD mutation+, 35 bvFTD mutation-, 7 MCI mutation+) who had at least 2 time points of T1-weighted images available on the same 3T scanner, we examined longitudinal changes in RSMS score over time and its correspondence to progressive gray matter atrophy. RESULTS: RSMS score showed a similar pattern in mutation carriers and noncarriers, with significant drops at each stage of progression from asymptomatic to very mild, mild, moderate, and severe disease (F 4,48 = 140.10, p < 0.001) and a significant slope of decline over time in patients with bvFTD (p = 0.004, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.90 to -0.23). More rapid declines on the RSMS corresponded to faster gray matter atrophy predominantly in the salience network (SN), and RSMS score progression best predicted thalamic volume in very mild and mild disease stages of bvFTD. Higher RSMS score predicted more caregiver burden (p < 0.001, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.11). CONCLUSIONS: The RSMS is sensitive to progression of both socioemotional symptoms and SN atrophy in patients with bvFTD and corresponds directly to caregiver burden. The RSMS may be useful in both neurologic practice and clinical trials aiming to treat behavioral symptoms of patients with bvFTD.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidadores/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Demência Frontotemporal/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Emoções Manifestas/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autogestão/métodos , Autogestão/psicologia
12.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(4): 500-509, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203496

RESUMO

Although the cerebral cortex is organized into six excitatory neuronal layers, it is unclear whether glial cells show distinct layering. In the present study, we developed a high-content pipeline, the large-area spatial transcriptomic (LaST) map, which can quantify single-cell gene expression in situ. Screening 46 candidate genes for astrocyte diversity across the mouse cortex, we identified superficial, mid and deep astrocyte identities in gradient layer patterns that were distinct from those of neurons. Astrocyte layer features, established in the early postnatal cortex, mostly persisted in adult mouse and human cortex. Single-cell RNA sequencing and spatial reconstruction analysis further confirmed the presence of astrocyte layers in the adult cortex. Satb2 and Reeler mutations that shifted neuronal post-mitotic development were sufficient to alter glial layering, indicating an instructive role for neuronal cues. Finally, astrocyte layer patterns diverged between mouse cortical regions. These findings indicate that excitatory neurons and astrocytes are organized into distinct lineage-associated laminae.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo
13.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 14(2): 336-345, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180125

RESUMO

The temporal variant of frontotemporal dementia (tv-FTD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a complex clinical picture mainly characterized by behavioral and language disorders. In this work, we describe clinical, genetic, neuroanatomical and neuropathological (only in one case) features of two patients with tv-FTD carrying C9orf72 repeat expansion. The first patient (AB) presented with a 1-year disease duration showing focal right anterior temporal lobe (ATL) atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The second patient (BC) came to medical attention 13 years after disease onset and showed a prominent bilateral ATL involvement. Both patients showed naming deficits, impairment in identifying known faces and proper names, and personality changes with new onset behavioral rigidity, and progressing language difficulties to single-word and sentence comprehension difficulties. They were classified as tv-FTD. Clinical, cognitive and MRI follow-up were performed. As cognitive impairment progressed, MRI atrophy worsened in ATL and frontotemporal areas in both patients. Both cases had clear family histories of neurological and/or psychiatric disease. Genetic testing revealed a C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in both cases. BC passed away after 15 years of disease and autopsy showed the expected TDP-type B pathology. These genetic cases of tv-FTD highlight the susceptibility of ATL to C9orf72-related pathology and emphasize the importance of genetical testing in FTD-spectrum disorders, regardless of the clinical phenotype.

14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 74, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094344

RESUMO

Current evidence from case/control studies indicates that genetic risk for psychiatric disorders derives primarily from numerous common variants, each with a small phenotypic impact. The literature describing apparent segregation of bipolar disorder (BP) in numerous multigenerational pedigrees suggests that, in such families, large-effect inherited variants might play a greater role. To identify roles of rare and common variants on BP, we conducted genetic analyses in 26 Colombia and Costa Rica pedigrees ascertained for bipolar disorder 1 (BP1), the most severe and heritable form of BP. In these pedigrees, we performed microarray SNP genotyping of 838 individuals and high-coverage whole-genome sequencing of 449 individuals. We compared polygenic risk scores (PRS), estimated using the latest BP1 genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics, between BP1 individuals and related controls. We also evaluated whether BP1 individuals had a higher burden of rare deleterious single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and rare copy number variants (CNVs) in a set of genes related to BP1. We found that compared with unaffected relatives, BP1 individuals had higher PRS estimated from BP1 GWAS statistics (P = 0.001 ~ 0.007) and displayed modest increase in burdens of rare deleterious SNVs (P = 0.047) and rare CNVs (P = 0.002 ~ 0.033) in genes related to BP1. We did not observe rare variants segregating in the pedigrees. These results suggest that small-to-moderate effect rare and common variants are more likely to contribute to BP1 risk in these extended pedigrees than a few large-effect rare variants.

15.
Neurobiol Dis ; 140: 104816, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088381

RESUMO

The cytoplasmic dynein motor complex transports essential signals and organelles from the cell periphery to the perinuclear region, hence is critical for the survival and function of highly polarized cells such as neurons. Dynein Light Chain Roadblock-Type 1 (DYNLRB1) is thought to be an accessory subunit required for specific cargos, but here we show that it is essential for general dynein-mediated transport and sensory neuron survival. Homozygous Dynlrb1 null mice are not viable and die during early embryonic development. Furthermore, heterozygous or adult knockdown animals display reduced neuronal growth, and selective depletion of Dynlrb1 in proprioceptive neurons compromises their survival. Conditional depletion of Dynlrb1 in sensory neurons causes deficits in several signaling pathways, including ß-catenin subcellular localization, and a severe impairment in the axonal transport of both lysosomes and retrograde signaling endosomes. Hence, DYNLRB1 is an essential component of the dynein complex, and given dynein's critical functions in neuronal physiology, DYNLRB1 could have a prominent role in the etiology of human neurodegenerative diseases.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3459, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103041

RESUMO

Psychosocial stressors - life events that challenge social support and relationships - represent powerful risk factors for human disease; included amongst these events are relocation, isolation and displacement. To evaluate the impact of a controlled psychosocial stressor on physiology and underlying molecular pathways, we longitudinally studied the influence of a 28-day period of quarantine on biomarkers of immune signalling, microbial translocation, glycaemic health and blood transcriptome in the wild-born vervet monkey. This event caused a coordinated, mostly transient, reduction of circulating levels of nine immune signalling molecules. These were paralleled by a massive dysregulation of blood transcriptome, including genes implicated in chronic pathologies and immune functions. Immune and inflammatory functions were enriched among the genes downregulated in response to stress. An upregulation of genes involved in blood coagulation, platelet activation was characteristic of the rapid response to stress induction. Stress also decreased neutrophils and increased CD4 + T cell proportions in blood. This model of psychosocial stress, characterised by an immune dysregulation at the transcriptomic, molecular and cellular levels, creates opportunities to uncover the underlying mechanisms of stress-related diseases with an immune component, including cardiovascular diseases and susceptibility to infections.

17.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 106-117, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914218

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We created global rating scoring rules for the CDR® plus NACC FTLD to detect and track early frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and to conduct clinical trials in FTLD. METHODS: The CDR plus NACC FTLD rating was applied to 970 sporadic and familial participants from the baseline visit of Advancing Research and Treatment in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (ARTFL)/Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects (LEFFTDS). Each of the eight domains of the CDR plus NACC FTLD was equally weighed in determining the global score. An interrater reliability study was completed for 40 participants. RESULTS: The CDR plus NACC FTLD showed very good interrater reliability. It was especially useful in detecting clinical features of mild non-fluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia participants. DISCUSSION: The global CDR plus NACC FTLD score could be an attractive outcome measure for clinical trials in symptomatic FTLD, and may be useful in natural history studies and clinical trials in FTLD spectrum disorders.


Assuntos
Afasia Primária Progressiva/diagnóstico , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 11-21, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914230

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identifying clinical measures that track disease in the earliest stages of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is important for clinical trials. Familial FTLD provides a unique paradigm to study early FTLD. Executive dysfunction is a clinically relevant hallmark of FTLD and may be a marker of disease progression. METHODS: Ninety-three mutation carriers with no symptoms or minimal/questionable symptoms (MAPT, n = 31; GRN, n = 28; C9orf72, n = 34; Clinical Dementia Rating scale plus NACC FTLD Module < 1) and 78 noncarriers enrolled through Advancing Research and Treatment in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration/Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects studies completed the Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (NIH-EXAMINER) and the UDS neuropsychological battery. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify group differences in cognition at baseline and longitudinally. We examined associations between cognition, clinical functioning, and magnetic resonance imaging volumes. RESULTS: NIH-EXAMINER scores detected baseline and differences in slopes between carriers and noncarriers, even in carriers with a baseline Clinical Dementia Rating scale plus NACC FTLD Module = 0. NIH-EXAMINER declines were associated with worsening clinical symptoms and brain volume loss. DISCUSSION: The NIH-EXAMINER is sensitive to cognitive changes in presymptomatic familial FTLD and is a promising surrogate endpoint.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Demência Frontotemporal , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
19.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 34(3): 244-247, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that diminished Ccr5 functioning has an effect on synaptic plasticity and hippocampal memory in mouse models. CCR5-delta32, a 32-bp frameshift deletion in human CCR5 encoding a nonfunctional receptor, has been reported to have a protective effect against human immunodeficiency virus infection but its role as a modifier of neurodegenerative disease has been minimally explored. We investigated whether the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism could have an effect in the context of human neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We examined the frequency of the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism in a large and well-characterized cohort including 1425 patients with neurodegenerative dementias and 2032 controls. RESULTS: We did not observe a significant association between the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism and any of the neurodegenerative diseases screened in this study. However, we observed an earlier age of onset among neurodegenerative disease patients carrying the CCR5-delta32 allele. CONCLUSIONS: Although our findings were inconclusive, the earlier age of onset observed among neurodegenerative disease patients carrying the CCR5-delta32 allele suggests that the deletion may have a detrimental effect in the context of neurodegeneration.

20.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 37-48, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272932

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Some models of therapy for neurodegenerative diseases envision starting treatment before symptoms develop. Demonstrating that such treatments are effective requires accurate knowledge of when symptoms would have started without treatment. Familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration offers a unique opportunity to develop predictors of symptom onset. METHODS: We created dementia risk scores in 268 familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration family members by entering covariate-adjusted standardized estimates of brain atrophy into a logistic regression to classify asymptomatic versus demented participants. The score's predictive value was tested in a separate group who were followed up longitudinally (stable vs. converted to dementia) using Cox proportional regressions with dementia risk score as the predictor. RESULTS: Cross-validated logistic regression achieved good separation of asymptomatic versus demented (accuracy = 90%, SE = 0.06). Atrophy scores predicted conversion from asymptomatic or mildly/questionably symptomatic to dementia (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: [1.16,1.98]). DISCUSSION: Individualized quantification of baseline brain atrophy is a promising predictor of progression in asymptomatic familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration mutation carriers.

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