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J Vasc Surg ; 66(6): 1826-1835.e1, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807383


OBJECTIVE: Predicting cardiac events is essential to provide patients with the best medical care and to assess the risk-benefit ratio of surgical procedures. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (Lee) and the Vascular Study Group of New England Cardiac Risk Index (VSG) scores for the prediction of major cardiac events in unselected patients undergoing arterial surgery and to determine whether the inclusion of additional risk factors improved their accuracy. METHODS: The study prospectively enrolled 954 consecutive patients undergoing arterial vascular surgery, and the Lee and VSG scores were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves for each cardiac risk score were constructed and the areas under the curve (AUCs) compared. Two logistic regression models were done to determine new variables related to the occurrence of major cardiac events (myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest). RESULTS: Cardiac events occurred in 120 (12.6%) patients. Both scores underestimated the rate of cardiac events across all risk strata. The VSG score had AUC of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-0.68), which was higher than the AUC of the Lee score (0.58; 95% CI, 0.52-0.63; P = .03). Addition of preoperative anemia significantly improved the accuracy of the Lee score to an AUC of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58-0.67; P = .002) but not that of the VSG score. CONCLUSIONS: The Lee and VSG scores have low accuracy and underestimate the risk of major perioperative cardiac events in unselected patients undergoing vascular surgery. The Lee score's accuracy can be increased by adding preoperative anemia. Underestimation of major cardiac complications may lead to incorrect risk-benefit assessments regarding the planned operation.

Artérias/cirurgia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Brasil , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suíça , Resultado do Tratamento
Circulation ; 135(17): 1597-1611, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283497


BACKGROUND: Four strategies for very early rule-out of acute myocardial infarction using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) have been identified. It remains unclear which strategy is most attractive for clinical application. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled unselected patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute myocardial infarction. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. Hs-cTnI levels were measured at presentation and after 1 hour in a blinded fashion. We directly compared all 4 hs-cTnI-based rule-out strategies: limit of detection (LOD, hs-cTnI<2 ng/L), single cutoff (hs-cTnI<5 ng/L), 1-hour algorithm (hs-cTnI<5 ng/L and 1-hour change<2 ng/L), and the 0/1-hour algorithm recommended in the European Society of Cardiology guideline combining LOD and 1-hour algorithm. RESULTS: Among 2828 enrolled patients, acute myocardial infarction was the final diagnosis in 451 (16%) patients. The LOD approach ruled out 453 patients (16%) with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 99.2%-100%), the single cutoff 1516 patients (54%) with a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% CI, 95.1%-98.3%), the 1-hour algorithm 1459 patients (52%) with a sensitivity of 98.4% (95% CI, 96.8%-99.2%), and the 0/1-hour algorithm 1463 patients (52%) with a sensitivity of 98.4% (95% CI, 96.8%-99.2%). Predefined subgroup analysis in early presenters (≤2 hours) revealed significantly lower sensitivity (94.2%, interaction P=0.03) of the single cutoff, but not the other strategies. Two-year survival was 100% with LOD and 98.1% with the other strategies (P<0.01 for LOD versus each of the other strategies). CONCLUSIONS: All 4 rule-out strategies balance effectiveness and safety equally well. The single cutoff should not be applied in early presenters, whereas the 3 other strategies seem to perform well in this challenging subgroup. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: Unique identifier: NCT00470587.

Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Eletrocardiografia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
Clin Res Cardiol ; 106(6): 457-467, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28150185


BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with mild elevations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) is a challenge. It is unclear whether copeptin, a marker of endogenous stress, or 1h-hs-cTn changes are better suited to address this important unmet clinical need. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of AMI to the emergency department (ED). Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis. Mild hs-cTn elevations were defined as 26.2 ng/L (99th percentile) to 75 ng/L for hs-cTnI, and 14 ng/L (99th percentile) to 50 ng/L (biological-equivalent to 75 ng/L for hs-cTnI) for hs-cTnT. RESULTS: Among 1356 patients, 80 (6%) had mild hs-cTnI elevations at presentation. Within this group, AMI was the final diagnosis in 39 patients (49%). The diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of AMI as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.51 (95% CI 0.39-0.64) for hs-cTnI at presentation, 0.58 (95% CI 0.45-0.71) for copeptin at presentation, and 0.78 (95% CI 0.68-0.88) for 1h-hs-cTnI changes, which was significantly higher as compared to copeptin (p = 0.02) or hs-cTnI alone (p < 0.001). The additional use of 1h-hs-cTnI changes, but not of copeptin, improved diagnostic accuracy of hs-cTnI at presentation (AUC 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.90; p = 0.002 for comparison). Similar findings regarding copeptin and 1h-hs-cTnT/I changes were obtained for mild hs-cTnT elevations. CONCLUSIONS: About 6-22% of patients presenting with suggestive AMI to the ED have mild hs-cTnT/I elevations at presentation. In contrast to copeptin, the addition of 1h-hs-cTn changes substantially improves the early diagnosis of AMI.

Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC
Anesth Analg ; 123(6): 1363-1371, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27870734


BACKGROUND: Copeptin, a novel marker of endogenous stress, has shown diagnostic and prognostic value in nonsurgical patients with a suspected coronary event. We aimed to assess the incremental value of copeptin in addition to established preoperative risk indices to predict the occurrence of postoperative myocardial injury. METHODS: This secondary analysis of prospectively collected data included adults undergoing noncardiac surgery with risk factors for adverse perioperative cardiac events based on preoperative risk stratification. We examined preoperative copeptin in patients without elevated preoperative troponin and its association with myocardial injury by receiver operator characteristic curves, logistic regression, and net reassignment indices. RESULTS: Of the 190 patients included, 33 (17.4%) experienced myocardial injury within 48 hours, and 17 (8.9%) experienced cardiac death and/or major adverse cardiac events within the first postoperative year. Preoperative copeptin showed an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of .66 (95% confidence interval, .55-.76) for myocardial injury and an optimal cutoff of 9.6 pmol/L. This cutoff was an independent predictor of myocardial injury, with an odds ratio of 4.67 (95% confidence interval, 2.06-11.19) when adjusted for age, sex, and the revised cardiac risk index. The net reassignment improvement for myocardial injury was between 39% and 50% for both events and nonevents when adding copeptin to established preoperative risk indices. No significant difference in major adverse cardiac event and/or cardiac death was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Copeptin (≥9.6 pmol/L) was associated with significantly higher rates of myocardial injury and improved risk stratification in patients scheduled for noncardiac surgery with nonelevated preoperative troponin.

Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina T/sangue , Regulação para Cima
Stroke ; 47(2): 450-6, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26797662


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We compared outcome and complications in patients with stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) who could not live alone without help of another person before stroke (dependent patients) versus independent ones. METHODS: In a multicenter IVT-register-based cohort study, we compared previously dependent (prestroke modified Rankin Scale score, 3-5) versus independent (prestroke modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2) patients. Outcome measures were poor 3-month outcome (not reaching at least prestroke modified Rankin Scale [dependent patients]; modified Rankin Scale score of 3-6 [independent patients]), death, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (OR [95% confidence interval]) were calculated. RESULTS: Among 7430 IVT-treated patients, 489 (6.6%) were dependent and 6941 (93.4%) were independent. Previous stroke, dementia, heart, and bone diseases were the most common causes of preexisting dependency. Dependent patients were more likely to die (ORunadjusted, 4.55 [3.74-5.53]; ORadjusted, 2.19 [1.70-2.84]). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred equally frequent (4.8% versus 4.5%). Poor outcome was more frequent in dependent (60.5%) than in independent (39.6%) patients, but the adjusted ORs were similar (ORadjusted, 0.95 [0.75-1.21]). Among survivors, the proportion of patients with poor outcome did not differ (35.7% versus 31.3%). After adjustment for age and stroke severity, the odds of poor outcome were lower in dependent patients (ORadjusted, 0.64 [0.49-0.84]). CONCLUSIONS: IVT-treated stroke patients who were dependent on the daily help of others before stroke carry a higher mortality risk than previously independent patients. The risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and the likelihood of poor outcome were not independently influenced by previous dependency. Among survivors, poor outcome was avoided at least as effectively in previously dependent patients. Thus, withholding IVT in previously dependent patients might not be justified.

Atividades Cotidianas , Vida Independente , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento