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1.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 195: 111441, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539905

RESUMO

Frailty is a late life phenotype characterized by a decline in physiological reserve across several organ systems, resulting in the increased susceptibility to endogenous and/or exogenous stressors. Although the etiology of frailty remains poorly understood, an interconnected network of putative mechanisms linked to the ageing process has been proposed. However, frailty is a dynamic process that may be prevented, delayed, or even reversed. The syndromic nature of frailty requires a multidomain approach, such as proper nutrition, as part of modifiable environmental factors, and represents one of the most promising and least costly ways to prevent and reduce frailty among older adults. Nutrient deficiencies have been consistently associated with frailty; however, mounting evidence also supports the hypothesis that beyond the traditional nutritional value, specific dietary components may exert function-enhancing effects and mitigate the extent of frailty. Thus, further mechanistic studies, along with large clinical trials, are imperative to establish the exact role of functional nutrients in the clinical management of frailty. Here, we provide a contemporary discussion of how emerging functional nutrients may contribute to modify the trajectory of the frailty syndrome.

2.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305554

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is the worst worldwide pandemic with more than 12,000,000 cases and 560,000 deaths until 14th July 2020. Men were more infected by COVID-19 than women, and male subjects with underlying conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases developed a severe form of the affection, with increased mortality rate. Many factors can contribute to the disparity in disease outcomes, such as hormone-specific reaction and activity of X-linked genes, which modulate the innate and adaptive immune response to virus infection. Until now, only the Remdesivir was approved by FDA (Food Drug Administration) for COVID-19 treatment, although several clinical trials are ongoing worldwide also on other drugs. In this review, we analyzed published studies on several drugs (chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir-ritonavir in combination, tocilizumab, plasma, and immunoglobulins) with some efficacy to COVID-19 in humans, and evaluated if there were a gender analysis of the available data. In our opinion, it is essential to report data about COVID-19 disaggregated by sex, age, and race, because the knowledge of gender differences is fundamental to identify effective and customized treatments to reduce hospitalizations, admissions to intensive care units, and mortality.

3.
Biomolecules ; 10(12)2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327600

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is very complex and heterogeneous. If not adequately treated, RA patients are likely to manifest excess of morbidity and disability with an important impact on the quality of life. Pharmacological treatment is based on the administration of the disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), subdivided into conventional synthetic (csDMARDs), targeted synthetic (tsDMARDs), and biological (bDMARDs). bDMARDs are now frequently administered in patients, both as alternative treatment and together with csDMARDs. Unfortunately, there is a therapeutic response variability both to old and new drugs. Therefore, to identify pre-therapeutic and on-treatment predictors of response is a priority. This review aims to summarize recent advances in understanding the causes of the variability in treatment response in RA, with particular attention to predictive potential of autoantibodies and DMARD pharmacogenetics. In recent years, several biomarkers have been proposed to personalize the therapy. Unfortunately, a magic bullet does not exist, as many factors concur to disease susceptibility and treatment outcomes, acting around the patient's congenital background. Models integrating demographic, clinical, biochemical, and genetic data are needed to enhance the predictive capacity of specific factors singularly considered to optimize RA treatment in light of multidisciplinary patient management.

4.
Forensic Sci Int ; : 110559, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162280

RESUMO

Driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) and drugs (DUID) is considered an elevated risk for traffic safety. When assessing a driver's fitness to drive, standardized and objective measurement methods are still required, in order to clarify the question whether an individual is under the influence of substances acting on the central nervous system (CNS). We exposed healthy test subjects (n=41) as well as persons who were under the influence of cannabis after repeated inhalation to multiple light stimuli using infrared technology and measured the pupillary light reflex (PLR). Toxicological tests of blood samples taken from every subject followed. The aims of this study were to assess the differences in pupillography response between cannabis consumers after a washout period and no cannabis consumers as well as the dose related effects on pupillography parameters of cannabis in cannabis consumers. All four pupillary parameters changed according to a weakened pupil function after acute administration of cannabis in all test subjects. Furthermore, it could be observed that habitual cannabis consumers showed an altered pupillary function just before the first dose was taken, suggesting that the long-term effects and addiction also have to be taken into account, when effects of the CNS are discussed. The results of the present study show that almost all pupil parameters could be reliable indicators for the detection of subjects under the acute effect of cannabis.

5.
Biomolecules ; 10(11)2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238655

RESUMO

Heart Failure (HF) is a syndrome, which implies the existence of different phenotypes. The new categorization includes patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), mid-range EF (HFmrEF), and reduced EF (HFrEF) but the molecular mechanisms involved in these HF phenotypes have not yet been exhaustively investigated. Sirt1 plays a crucial role in biological processes strongly related to HF. This study aimed to evaluate whether Sirt1 activity was correlated with EF and other parameters in HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF. Seventy patients, HFpEF (n = 23), HFmrEF (n = 23) and HFrEF (n = 24), were enrolled at the Cardiology Unit of the University Hospital of Salerno. Sirt1 activity was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) levels were quantified in plasma. HFpEF showed lower Sirt1 and ACE2 activities than both HFmrEF and HFrEF (p < 0.0001), without difference compared to No HF controls. In HFmrEF and HFrEF a very strong correlation was found between Sirt1 activity and EF (r2 = 0.899 and r2 = 0.909, respectively), and between ACE2 activity and Sirt1 (r2 = 0.801 and r2 = 0.802, respectively). HFrEF showed the highest TNF-α levels without reaching statistical significance. Significant differences in BNP were found among the groups, with the highest levels in the HFrEF. Determining Sirt1 activity in PBMCs is useful to distinguish the HF patients' phenotypes from each other, especially HFmrEF/HFrEF from HFpEF.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 569514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101027

RESUMO

Background: The prevention or early treatment of pathological scars is the most appropriate therapeutic approach. Gels and patches containing onion extract and allantoin are safe and effective in patients with scars of various origins and severity. However, no controlled studies have evaluated the effects of the patch formulation in women after Cesarean delivery. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a patch containing Allium cepa and allantoin on Cesarean section (C-section) scars. Methods: This is an observational study. Women were consecutively recruited at the University Hospital of Salerno and subdivided into two groups considering the number of C-section. Group A included subjects without and group B with a history of C-section. Scars assessment was made using digital photographs and the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS). After 4 weeks, the C-section of the women who had applied a patch containing Allium cepa and allantoin and those of women who had not used any products (controls) were re-evaluated as at baseline. The Observers independently performed the scars assessment at baseline and after 4 weeks. Data are expressed as the difference of the POSAS scores after 4 weeks minus the POSAS scores at baseline. The statistical significance was established at a p value <0.05. Results: Ninety-three subjects completed the study (47 in group A and 46 in group B). Women who had used a patch showed an improvement in total score by observer scale when compared with controls (p = 0.013). By the patient scale, no significant changes from baseline were found in group A and group B. Group B with patch showed changes in scars' pigmentation (p = 0.015), relief (p = 0.039), and pliability (p = 0.046) in comparison of controls. Digital photographs confirmed such improvements in women who had already undergone previous C-section, while no significant changes from baseline were found in women without a history of C-section. Conclusions: Intense treatment of just 4 weeks with a patch containing Alium Cepa extract and allantoin was able to improve pigmentation, relief, and pliability of C-section scars in women with a history of C-section. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT04046783.

8.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(6): 2319-2334, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681208

RESUMO

Ageing of the global population represents a challenge for national healthcare systems and healthcare professionals, including medico-legal experts, who assess personal damage in an increasing number of older people. Personal damage evaluation in older people is complex, and the scarcity of evidence is hindering the development of formal guidelines on the subject. The main objectives of the first multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Medico-Legal Assessment of Personal Damage in Older People were to increase knowledge on the subject and establish standard procedures in this field. The conference, organized according to the guidelines issued by the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS), was held in Bologna (Italy) on June 8, 2019 with the support of national scientific societies, professional organizations, and stakeholders. The Scientific Technical Committee prepared 16 questions on 4 thematic areas: (1) differences in injury outcomes in older people compared to younger people and their relevance in personal damage assessment; (2) pre-existing status reconstruction and evaluation; (3) medico-legal examination procedures; (4) multidimensional assessment and scales. The Scientific Secretariat reviewed relevant literature and documents, rated their quality, and summarized evidence. During conference plenary public sessions, 4 pairs of experts reported on each thematic area. After the last session, a multidisciplinary Jury Panel (15 members) drafted the consensus statements. The present report describes Conference methods and results, including a summary of evidence supporting each statement, and areas requiring further investigation. The methodological recommendations issued during the Conference may be useful in several contexts of damage assessment, or to other medico-legal evaluation fields.

9.
Ageing Res Rev ; 61: 101092, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479927

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) represents the most common arrhythmia worldwide and its prevalence exponentially increases with age. It is related to increased risk of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, which determines a significant burden of morbidity and mortality, as widely documented in the literature. AF also constitutes a risk factor for other less investigated conditions, such as heart failure, pulmonary embolism, impairment in physical performance, reduced quality of life, development of disability, mood disorders and cognitive impairment up to dementia. In the elderly population, the management of AF and its complications is particularly complex due to the heterogeneity of the ageing process, the lack of specific evidence-based recommendations, as well as the high grade of comorbidity and disability characterizing the over 65 years aged people. In the present review, we aim to summarize the pieces of the most updated evidence on AF complications beyond stoke, mainly focusing on the elderly population.

10.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(8): 1599-1608, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557332

RESUMO

The elderly may represent a specific cluster of high-risk patients for developing COVID-19 with rapidly progressive clinical deterioration. Indeed, in older individuals, immunosenescence and comorbid disorders are more likely to promote viral-induced cytokine storm resulting in life-threatening respiratory failure and multisystemic involvement. Early diagnosis and individualized therapeutic management should be developed for elderly subjects based on personal medical history and polypharmacotherapy. Our review examines the pathogenesis and clinical implications of ageing in COVID-19 patients; finally, we discuss the evidence and controversies in the management in the long-stay residential care homes and aspects of end-of-life care for elderly patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos
11.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-16, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056443

RESUMO

The n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are among the most studied nutrients in human metabolism. In the past few decades, prospective studies and controlled trials have supported the view that the effects of these essential fatty acids are clinically relevant. PUFA profiles in different blood compartments are reflections of both diet and metabolism, and their levels may be related to disease risk. Despite widespread interest, there is no consensus regarding which biomarkers best reflect PUFA status in the body. The measurement of PUFA levels is not straight-forward, and a wide variety of indices have been used in clinical studies, producing conflicting results. A major source of heterogeneity among studies is associated with research design, sampling, and laboratory analyses. To date, the n-3 index, n-6/n-3 ratio, and arachidonic acid (AA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio are the most promising biomarkers associated with PUFA metabolism. Although hotly debated, these indices may be considered at least markers, if not risk factors, for several diseases, especially cardiovascular events and brain disorders. Here, we summarize the most updated evidence of n-3 and n-6 PUFA effects on human health, reviewing current controversies on the aforementioned indices and whether they can be considered valuable predictors of clinical outcomes.

12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 2176728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998434

RESUMO

Dietary phytochemicals are considered an innovative strategy that helps to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Some phytochemicals have been shown to play a beneficial role in lipid metabolism, to improve endothelial function and to modify oxidative stress pathways in experimental and clinical models of cardiovascular impairment. Importantly, investigation on phytochemical effect on cardiac remodeling appears to be promising. Nowadays, drug therapy and implantation of devices have demonstrated to ameliorate survival. Of interest, sex-gender seems to influence the response to HF canonical therapies. In fact, starting by the evidence of the feminization of world population and the scarce efficacy and safety of the traditional drugs in women, the search of alternative therapeutic tools has become mandatory. The aim of this review is to summarize the possible role of dietary phytochemicals in HF therapy and the evidence of a different sex-gender-oriented response.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 20(3): 451-461, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801992

RESUMO

We assessed the predictive accuracy of the Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) algorithm in a prospective cohort of 376 high-risk elderly patients (≥65 years) who required new treatment with warfarin for either medical (non valvular atrial fibrillation) or surgical conditions (heart valve replacement), had ≥1 comorbid conditions, and regularly used ≥2 other drugs. Follow-up visits were performed according to clinical practice and lasted for a maximum of 1 year. Two hundred and eighty-three (75%) patients achieved a stable maintenance dose. Warfarin maintenance doses were low on average (median 20.3 mg/week, interquartile range, 14.1-27.7 mg/week) and were substantially overestimated by the IWPC algorithm. Overall the percentage of patients whose predicted dose of warfarin was within 20% of the actual stable dose was equal to 37.5%, (95% CI 32.0-43.3%). IWPC algorithm explained only 31% of the actual warfarin dose variability. Modifications of the IWPC algorithm are needed in high-risk elderly people.

14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624104

RESUMO

Along with epidemiologic transitions of the global population, the burden of aortic stenosis (AS) is rapidly increasing and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has quickly spread; indeed, it is nowadays also employed in treating patients with AS at intermediate operative risk. Nonetheless, the less invasive interventional strategy still carries relevant issues concerning post-procedural optimal antithrombotic strategy, given the current indications provided by guidelines are not completely supported by evidence-based data. Geriatric patients suffer from high bleeding and thromboembolic risks, whose balance is particularly subtle due to the presence of concomitant conditions, such as atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease, that make the post-TAVR antithrombotic management particularly insidious. This scenario is further complicated by the lack of specific evidence regarding the 'real-life' complex conditions typical of the geriatric syndromes, thus, the management of such a heterogeneous population, ranging from healthy ageing to frailty, is far from being defined. The aim of the present review is to summarize the critical points and the most updated evidence regarding the post-TAVR antithrombotic approach in the geriatric population, with a specific focus on the most frequent clinical settings.

15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 7049237, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885811

RESUMO

Purpose: Exercise training induces beneficial effects also by increasing levels of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and ß-hydroxybutyrate (ßOHB). Up to date, no studies investigated the role of exercise training-based cardiac rehabilitation (ET-CR) programs on ßOHB levels. Therefore, the present study is aimed at investigating whether a supervised 4-week ET-CR program was able to induce changes in Sirt1 activity and ßOHB levels and to evaluate the possible relationship between such parameters, in Heart Failure with preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF) patients. Methods: A prospective longitudinal observational study was conducted on patients consecutively admitted to the Cardiology and Cardiac Rehabilitation Units of "San Gennaro dei Poveri" Hospital in Naples, Italy. In fifty elderly patients affected by HFpEF, in NYHA II and III class, Sirt1 activity, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), ßOHB, and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) levels were measured before and at the end of the ET-CR program. A control group of 20 HFpEF patients was also recruited, and the same parameters were evaluated 4 weeks after the beginning of the study. Results: ET-CR induced an increase of Sirt1 activity, ßOHB levels, and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, it was associated with a rise in NAD+ and NAD+/NADH ratio levels and a reduction in Ox-LDL. No changes affected the controls. Conclusion: The characterization of the ET-CR effects from a metabolic viewpoint might represent an important step to improve the HFpEF management.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/reabilitação , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Idoso , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Regulação para Cima
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18416, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804552

RESUMO

Aim of the present study was to assess the impact of gender on the relationship between long-term mortality and clinical frailty. In an observational, longitudinal study on 10-year mortality, we examined 1284 subjects. The Frailty Staging System was used to assess frailty. The Cox model was employed to assess variables independently associated with survival using a backward stepwise algorithm. To investigate the possible interactions between gender and the selected variables, an extension of the multivariable fractional polynomial algorithm was adopted. Women were more likely to be older, have a higher disability, present with more comorbidities, consume more drugs, be frail and have a higher rate of survival at the follow-up than were men. At the Cox multivariate analysis only age (HR 2.26), female gender (HR 0.43), and number of drugs (HR 1.57) were significant and independent factors associated with all-cause mortality. In the survival analyses, only frailty (vs no frailty) showed significant interaction with gender (p < 0.001, HR = 1.92). While the presence of frailty reduced the survival rate in women, no effect was observed in men. Importantly, frail women showed higher survival rates than did both frail and no frail men. The main finding of the present study is that gender shapes up the association between frailty and long-term survival rates.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Fragilidade/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Feminino , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547312

RESUMO

Adiponectin exerts positive effects on metabolic and inflammatory processes. Adiponectin levels and some single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) seem to be associated with obesity. Here, we investigated the effects of a 4-week Hypocaloric diet and Physical exercise Program (HPP) on 268 young people with severe obesity. We evaluated the relationship between adiponectin levels and anthropometric and biochemical parameters, at baseline and after a 4-week HPP. Finally, we investigated some adiponectin gene variants and their correlation to biochemical parameters. Adiponectin levels were statistically lower in people with severe obesity than in controls. At the end of the HPP, all the people with severe obesity showed a Body Mass Index (BMI) reduction with a statistically significant increase in adiponectin levels. Genotyping, the adiponectin gene demonstrated a significant difference in 3 polymorphisms within the people with severe obesity. Besides, c.11377C>G and c.11391G>A homozygous subjects experienced more advantages by HPP. Furthermore, c.268G>A heterozygous subjects showed an enhancement in lipid profile as well in adiponectin levels. The best predictor of the changes in adiponectin levels was represented by the c.268G>A WT allele. Our study confirmed that a 4-weeks HPP in people with severe obesity results in metabolic amelioration associated with a significant increase of adiponectin levels. Importantly, we found that a specific genetic background in the ADIPOQ gene can predispose toward a more significant weight loss.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Manejo da Obesidade/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/genética , Obesidade Mórbida/terapia , Perda de Peso/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Antropometria , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 659, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have shown that exercise reduces the risk of cognitive decline; however, evidences from long-term, well-conducted, randomized controlled trials are scanty. The principal aim of this study is to verify whether a long-term program of multimodal supervised exercise improves the cognitive function and/or reduces the rate of cognitive decline in older adults at different degrees of risk for dementia. METHODS/DESIGN: EPD is a parallel group, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Community-dwelling volunteers aged 50 years or more are being recruited from different community centers and screened for eligibility. Enrolled subjects are being divided in 3 groups: a) without subjective or objective cognitive impairment, b) with subjective memory complaints, and c) with mild cognitive impairments. Participants in each group (at least 180) are being randomly assigned (1:1) to an experimental group, performing a supervised training including aerobic and resistance exercises of moderate/high intensity, or to a control group. Primary outcome will be 48-months changes in Mini Mental State Examinations. Secondary outcomes will be changes in several cognitive tests including a composite cognitive score. Time points will be at baseline, and at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. Statistical analysis will be done as intention to treat, complete case and mixed model analysis. DISCUSSION: EPD is the first trial to examine the effects of a long exercise program (48 months) on cognitive performances. If successful, this trial may provide evidence for using long-term and multimodal exercise interventions for dementia prevention programs in the aging population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with the code NCT02236416 .


Assuntos
Demência/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Idoso , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Demência/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medição de Risco
19.
Front Physiol ; 10: 487, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105590

RESUMO

Background: Tissue availability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) depends on several factors, including dietary intake, physical exercise, genetic variation, and metabolic turnover. However, there is limited evidence whether running training activity per se may influence indices associated with PUFA metabolism such as Omega-3 (ω-3) index and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4ω-6)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5ω-3) ratio. Objective: To examine the association between kilometers (Km) run per week and changes in ω-3 index and AA/EPA ratio. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational, cohort study of 257 non-elite runners (mean age: 40.85 ± 12.17 years) who consumed no fatty acid supplements and provided a blood sample for analysis. The whole blood samples were collected by finger sticks, stored on absorbent filter paper, and then PUFA were quantified by gas chromatography (GC) and ω-3 index and AA/EPA ratio measured. Results: In a multivariate linear regression model, a gradual decrease of the ω-3 index was observed with higher weekly running distance (ß = -0.033; 95% CI -0.039 to -0.026; R2 = 0.447; p < 0.0001). We also found a progressive increase of the AA/EPA ratio in subjects who ran greater weekly distances (ß = 0.092; 95% CI 0.038 to 0.146; R2 = 0.320; p = 0.001). No other significant associations were observed with other variables, including years of running training and weekly training frequency (hours/week). Finally, as expected, a significant inverse correlation between ω-3 index and AA/EPA ratio (ß = -2.614; 95% CI -3.407 to -1.821; R2 = 0.336; p < 0.0001) was detected. Conclusions: These findings suggest that distance running training and its weekly volume may negatively contribute to changes of the ω-3 index and AA/EPA ratio. Further studies with greater sample size will be required to replicate and extend these data.

20.
Intern Emerg Med ; 14(4): 549-555, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694436

RESUMO

With ageing population the number of elderly vulnerable to abuse is expected to grow. Hospital personnel play a crucial role in identifying mistreatment. The aim of this study was to establish the level of awareness and perception of elder abuse by healthcare workers, and to understand if they are able to recognize and properly report elder abuse, as well as to identify the physical signs of abuse and neglect. A 41-question survey was administered to healthcare professionals, working in the Internal Medicine and Geriatric Wards of two different University Hospitals of Southern Italy, representative of the Italian health public system. The data collection resulted in 98 questionnaires. For the majority, neglect represents a type of abuse, whereas 40% of physicians and 37% of nurses considered this concept false. All the professionals recognized the elder abuse as a violation of the human rights, but 46.94% were not sure about the existence of standard procedures for abuse reporting/treatment. The most of the nurses and the care assistants declared they never had suspected or witnessed abuse, while few physicians stated to have suspected/witnessed abuse 1-3 times in their career. In both the suspected and witnessed cases, the healthcare personnel did not made any action, neither reported them to public authorities nor adult protective service agencies. The level of awareness and perception of elder abuse by healthcare professionals are still poor especially regarding the reporting procedures. There is still strong need for education and specific training programs on elder abuse.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos ao Idoso/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Percepção , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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