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1.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 61: 123-126, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357103

RESUMO

PRESENTATION OF CASE: We will describe the case of a man who impaled himself on a greenhouse pole by falling off a ladder. DISCUSSION: The belated radiological exclusion of any spine and neck lesions forced the surgeons to operate with the patient supine and on a spine board, which prevented them from performing the classic thoracotomy and reaching the entry hole in the right scapula area. CONCLUSION: A double thoracotomy and the expedient of a haemostatic plug, positioned simultaneously with the extraction of the pole, allowed to control bleeding with absolute safety margins.

2.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183770

RESUMO

Real time information of Hb concentration can guide a tailored patient blood management. The study investigates the accuracy, precision and trending ability of the Pulse CO-Oximeter (SpHb) and blood gas analyzer in measuring the Hb concentration, compared to hematological analysis, in surgery at high risk of hemorrhage. We performed an observational study, involving 48 patients undergoing abdominal aortic open surgery. The primary endpoints of the study were to compare the accuracy in measuring the Hb concentration using non-invasive method (Masimo rainbow SET® Radical 7 Pulse CO-Oximetry™) compared to the values provided by invasive conventional blood gas analyzer and hematological analysis. The secondary endpoint was to compare the differences between the baseline and the final value of the Hb after surgery (Δ-values), as well as the trending ability. Bias (precision) for the SpHb was 1.63 g/dL (± 0.05) with 95% limits of agreement between 0.85 and + 2.4 g/dL, while for the blood gas analyzer was 0.69 g/dL (± 0.04) with 95% limits of agreement between 0.07 and 1.3 g/dL. Δ-values values were not statistically different from the reference values of ΔHb obtained with the hematological analysis. Trending ability was good for both Pulse CO-Oximeter and blood gas analysis. Our results have shown that the SpHb is not precise enough to replace an invasive approach, but the trending ability of SpHb is accurate and may provide important information on the changes in hemoglobin concentration to guide blood management.

3.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213042

RESUMO

Perioperative hemodynamic management, through monitoring and intervention on physiological parameters to improve Cardiac Output and Oxygen Delivery (Goal-directed therapy, GDT), may improve outcome. However, an Italian survey has revealed that hemodynamic protocols are applied by only 29,1% of anesthesiologists. Aim of this paper is to provide clinical guidelines for a rationale use of perioperative hemodynamic management in non cardiac surgical adult patients, oriented for Italy and updated with most recent studies. Guidelines were elaborated according to NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) and GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations of Assessment Development and Evaluations). Key questions were formulated according to PICO system (Population, Intervention, Comparators, Outcome). Guidelines and systematic reviews were identified on main research databases and strategy was updated to June 2018. There is not enough good quality evidence to support the adoption of a GDT protocol in order to reduce mortality, although it may be useful in high risk patients. Perioperative GDT protocol to guide fluid therapy is recommended to reduce morbidity. Continuous monitoring of arterial pressure may help to identify short periods of hemodynamic instability and hypotension. Fluid strategy should aim to a near zero balance in normovolemic patients at the beginning of surgery, and a slight positive fluid balance may be allowed to protect renal function. Drugs such as inotropes, vasocostrictors, and vasodilatator should be used only when fluids alone are not sufficient to optimize hemodynamics. Perioperative GDT protocols are associated with a reduction in costs, although no economic study has been performed in Italy.

4.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 20(5): 289-334, 2019 May.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066371

RESUMO

Acute heart failure (AHF) represents a relevant burden for emergency departments worldwide. AHF patients have markedly worse long-term outcomes than patients with other acute cardiac diseases (e.g. acute coronary syndromes); mortality or readmissions rates at 3 months approximate 33%, whereas 1-year mortality from index discharge ranges from 25% to 50%.The multiplicity of healthcare professionals acting across the care pathway of AHF patients represents a critical factor, which generates the need for integrating the different expertise and competence of general practitioners, emergency physicians, cardiologists, internists, and intensive care physicians to focus on care goals able to improve clinical outcomes.This consensus document results from the cooperation of the scientific societies representing the different healthcare professionals involved in the care of AHF patients and describes shared strategies and pathways aimed at ensuring both high quality care and better outcomes. The document describes the patient journey from symptom onset to the clinical suspicion of AHF and home management or referral to emergency care and transportation to the hospital, through the clinical diagnostic pathway in the emergency department, acute treatment, risk stratification and discharge from the emergency department to ordinary wards or home. The document analyzes the potential role of a cardiology fast-track and Observation Units and the transition to outpatient care by general practitioners and specialist heart failure clinics.The increasing care burden and complex problems generated by AHF are unlikely to be solved without an integrated multidisciplinary approach. Efficient networking among emergency departments, intensive care units, ordinary wards and primary care settings is crucial to achieve better outcomes. Thanks to the joint effort of qualified scientific societies, this document aims to achieve this goal through an integrated, shared and applicable pathway that will contribute to a homogeneous care management of AHF patients across the country.

6.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 85(7): 756-762, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA)® Protector™ by comparison with traditional LMA for performing endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). METHODS: This was a retrospective observational single-center study including 143 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal staging of lung cancer. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups based on whether a traditional LMA (traditional LMA group) or LMA Protector was used. Anesthesiologist outcomes, diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA, and complications related to the procedure were computed for each group and statistically compared. RESULTS: LMA traditional group and LMA Protector group counted 70 and 73 patients, respectively. LMA traditional group versus LMA Protector group showed no significant difference on time of LMA insertion (120±25 vs. 118±39 s; P=0.49), reposition rates (18% vs. 16%; P=0.78); systolic pressure (140±55 vs. 118±37 mmHg; P=0.59); diastolic pressure (82±15 vs. 90±26 mmHg; P=0.39); heart rate (82±9.9 vs. 83±20 bpm; P=0.49); SpO2 values (93±21% vs. 92±14%; P=0.63); diagnostic accuracy (91.3% vs. 92%; P=0.95), and patients' complications as nausea (4% vs. 3%; P=0.61); vomiting (3% vs. 1%, P=0.96); gastric aspiration (7% vs. 1%; P=0.08); and sore throat (7% vs. 3%; P=0.22). Conversely, LMA traditional group versus LMA Protector group presented a longer procedural time (47±23 vs. 38±17 s; P=0.02), higher number of passage to biopsy target lesion (4±0.5 vs. 3.1±0.6; P=0.01); higher rate of balloon ultrasound rupture (11% vs. 1%; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: EBUS-TBNA conducted with LMA Protector is a useful strategy that reduced the procedural time and in theory ensured the comfort of patients. Our results should be confirmed by larger, prospective, randomized studies.

7.
Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; : 1089253219842650, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994402

RESUMO

Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system recently emerged as a viable and less invasive therapeutic option in patients with severe mitral regurgitation deemed to be high-risk surgical candidates. Mitral valve morphology and geometry features are key elements for MitraClip eligibility. In the setting of functional mitral regurgitation, the presence of a leaflet coaptation gap due to advanced left ventricle remodeling can be a potential exclusion criterion for MitraClip therapy. In this article, the authors present a case of successful MitraClip implantation in a patient with severe functional mitral regurgitation and a significant coaptation gap. Periprocedural and intraoperative pharmacological and anesthesiological management were fundamental for successful grasping and procedural success.

8.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 85(8): 871-885, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938121

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Proper management of patients undergoing robotic-assisted urologic and gynecologic surgery must consider a series of peculiarities in the procedures for anesthesiology, critical care medicine, respiratory care, and pain management. Although the indications for robotic-assisted urogynecologic surgeries have increased in recent years, specific guidance documents are still lacking. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A multidisciplinary group including anesthesiologists, gynecologists, urologists, and a clinical epidemiologist systematically reviewed the relevant literature and provided a set of recommendations and unmet needs on peculiar aspects of anesthesia in this field. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Nine core contents were identified, according to their requirements in urogynecologic robotic-assisted surgery: patient position, pneumoperitoneum and ventilation strategies, hemodynamic variations and fluid therapy, neuromuscular block, renal surgery and prevention of acute kidney injury, monitoring the Department of anesthesia, postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction, prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and pain management in endometriosis. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus document provides guidance for the management of urologic and gynecologic patients scheduled for robotic-assisted surgery. Moreover, the identified unmet needs highlight the requirement for further prospective randomized studies.

9.
Support Care Cancer ; 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778756

RESUMO

Constipation, one of the adverse effects of opioid therapy with a major impact on quality of life, is still an unmet need for cancer patients, particularly those with an advanced and progressive disease, and for non-cancer patients chronically treated with opioids. The awareness of this condition is poor among healthcare providers, despite the recent publication of guidelines and consensus conferences. An early multidisciplinary approach of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD), based on available therapies of proven effectiveness, could support clinicians in managing this condition, thus increasing patients' adherence to pain therapy. Several Italian experts involved in the management of patients suffering from pain (anaesthesia pain therapy, oncology, haematology, palliative care, gastroenterology) joined in a Board in order to draw up an expert opinion on OIBD. The most frequent and still unsolved issues in this field were examined, including a more comprehensive definition of OIBD, the benefits of early intervention to prevent its occurrence and the most appropriate use of peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORAs). The use of the recently introduced PAMORA naloxegol was analysed, in light of the current literature. The Board proposed a solution for each open issue in the form of recommendations, integrated with the contribution of representatives from different disciplines and often accompanied by procedural algorithms immediately usable and applicable in daily clinical practice. Safety and quality of life of the patient suffering from pain and from the adverse effects of pain therapies have been the mainstays of this expert opinion, in cooperation with general practitioners and caregivers.

10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 7(7): e131, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain, especially shoulder pain, is commonly reported after laparoscopic gynecologic procedures. Some studies suggest that a lower insufflation pressure may reduce the risk of postoperative pain; however, there is no agreement on the optimal pneumoperitoneum pressure during gynecologic laparoscopic surgery or whether lower pressure would lead to clinically significant improvements without increasing operative complications. Questions remain regarding the clinical significance of improvements, safety, and cost-effectiveness of deep neuromuscular blockade with low-pressure pneumoperitoneum. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the superiority of anesthesia with deep neuromuscular blockade with pneumoperitoneum 8 mm Hg over moderate blockade with pneumoperitoneum 12 mm Hg in terms of overall pain 24 hours after surgery in adult women undergoing pelvic surgery for hysterectomy or benign adnexal diseases. Effects on the intensity and timing of postoperative pain in specific locations, surgeon satisfaction, respiratory and hemodynamic stability, operating times, and direct and indirect costs will be assessed. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized controlled trial with a superiority design, 300 patients will be randomly allocated in the ratio 1:1 to moderate neuromuscular blockade with a target insufflation pressure of 12 mm Hg or deep neuromuscular blockade with a target insufflation pressure of 8 mm Hg, with stratification by type of surgery and clinical center. The patient, the statistician, and the nurse who will assess the primary endpoint will be blinded to the allocation. RESULTS: Recruitment to this trial is expected to open in June 2018 and is expected to close in June 2019. CONCLUSIONS: This study is designed to confirm the reported benefits of postoperative pain and provide additional data needed to address questions regarding the effects of this intervention on operating theater management and direct and indirect costs. Strengths of this protocol include the large sample size distributed among diverse institutions across the Italian territory and the collection and analysis of data on numerous secondary objectives. Limitations include the possible introduction of bias because the surgeon and anesthesiologist are not blinded to the intervention. REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER: RR1-10.2196/9277.

12.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789999

RESUMO

The pilot balloon palpation (or 'finger-pressure') method is still widely used to assess the endotracheal tube cuff inflation, despite consistent evidence of its poor sensitivity in recognizing cuff overinflation. It was recently speculated that this may be related to the lower wall tension (due to the smaller radius) of the pilot balloon as compared with the cuff, according to Laplace's law. To verify this hypothesis and, secondarily, to assess whether the use of a 'large' pilot balloon (identical to the cuff) increases the reliability of this technique, 62 anesthetists (41 experienced anesthesiologists and 21 residents) were asked to estimate the pressure of a cuff inflated to 88 mmHg into a simulated trachea by feeling both a usual and a modified 'large' pilot balloon. A similar test was repeated at 40 mmHg. After palpation of the usual pilot balloon, only 35% of participants (49% of experienced anesthesiologists and 10% of residents) recognized considerable overinflation (88 mmHg), as compared with 87% of participants (95% of experienced anesthesiologists and 71% of residents) after palpation of the 'large' pilot balloon. Moreover, 89% of participants (85% of experienced anesthesiologists and 95% of residents) believed that pressure was higher in the 'large' balloon than in the normal one. However, only 32% of participants (51% of experienced anesthesiologists and none of residents) recognized slight overinflation (40 mmHg) after feeling the 'large' balloon. The pilot balloon size affects the sensitivity of the 'finger-pressure' technique, but it remains poorly reliable with a larger pilot balloon.

13.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 84(10): 1189-1208, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29648413

RESUMO

Minimally invasive surgical procedures have revolutionized the world of surgery in the past decades. While laparoscopy, the first minimally invasive surgical technique to be developed, is widely used and has been addressed by several guidelines and recommendations, the implementation of robotic-assisted surgery is still hindered by the lack of consensus documents that support healthcare professionals in the management of this novel surgical procedure. Here we summarize the available evidence and provide expert opinion aimed at improving the implementation and resolution of issues derived from robotic abdominal surgery procedures. A joint task force of Italian surgeons, anesthesiologists and clinical epidemiologists reviewed the available evidence on robotic abdominal surgery. Recommendations were graded according to the strength of evidence. Statements and recommendations are provided for general issues regarding robotic abdominal surgery, operating theatre organization, preoperative patient assessment and preparation, intraoperative management, and postoperative procedures and discharge. The consensus document provides evidence-based recommendations and expert statements aimed at improving the implementation and management of robotic abdominal surgery.

14.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(5): 417-434, 2018 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519377

RESUMO

Perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy in patients treated with coronary stents undergoing surgery remains poorly defined. Importantly, surgery represents a common reason for premature treatment discontinuation, which is associated with an increased risk in mortality and major adverse cardiac events. However, maintaining antithrombotic therapy to minimize the incidence of perioperative ischemic complications may increase the risk of bleeding complications. Although guidelines provide some recommendations with respect to the perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy, these have been largely developed according to the thrombotic risk of the patient and a definition of the hemorrhagic risk specific to each surgical procedure, key to defining the trade-off between ischemia and bleeding, is not provided. These observations underscore the need for a multidisciplinary collaboration among cardiologists, anesthesiologists, hematologists and surgeons to reach this goal. The present document is an update on practical recommendations for standardizing management of antithrombotic therapy management in patients treated with coronary stents (Surgery After Stenting 2) in various types of surgery according to the predicted individual risk of thrombotic complications against the anticipated risk of surgical bleeding complications. Cardiologists defined the thrombotic risk using a "combined ischemic risk" approach, while surgeons classified surgeries according to their inherent hemorrhagic risk. Finally, a multidisciplinary agreement on the most appropriate antithrombotic treatment regimen in the perioperative phase was reached for each surgical procedure.

15.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 84(11): 1254-1260, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being simple and safe to use and cheap, EZ blocker (EZB) remains underused probably because it requires particular skills in recognizing airway and in using fiber-bronchoscopy to check the exact position of their cuffs. Thus, we planned an education training program on the use of EZB for novices in anesthesia and evaluated the number of procedures required for the acquisition of the skills of this technique. METHODS: The educational training program included three different phases as follows. The first phase included a lecture on the utility of one-lung ventilation in thoracic surgery, on the use of the fiber- bronchoscopy and on the characteristics of EZB. The second phase consisted in a practical teaching course performed on a manikin model to acquire the skills in EZB. The third phase was a clinical training where each participant performed a defined number in patients scheduled for thoracic surgery procedures. The acquisition of dexterity and satisfaction were then statistically valuated. RESULTS: The dexterity in placing EZB significantly increased after six attempts (P<0.1). Participants acquired skills in correcting position EZB after 15 attempts. Participants increased their level of confidence with EZB (score 5.7±1.3) and were highly satisfied with the training received (score 5.8±1.6). CONCLUSIONS: EZB is a valid strategy for obtaining one lung ventilation. Thus, it should be included in the armamentarium of all anesthetists interested in the field of thoracic surgery. Our teaching course seems to be a valuable method to instill easily and speedily in training novices in anesthesia the skills in placing EZB.

17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 13(1): 113-121, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741278

RESUMO

Delirium is a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by inattention and global cognitive dysfunction in the setting of an acute medical illness, medical complication, drug intoxication, or drug withdrawal. The most important risk factors are advanced age and dementia, whereas pain, dehydration, infections, stroke, metabolic disturbances, and surgery are the most common triggering factors. Although delirium is a common clinical syndrome in different settings of care (acute care hospitals, inpatient rehabilitation facilities, nursing homes, and hospices), it often remains under-recognized, poorly understood, and inadequately managed. There exists a clear need for improved understanding to overcome cultural stereotypes, and for the development and dissemination of a comprehensive model of implementation of general good practice points. A network of Italian national scientific societies was thus convened (1) to develop a collaborative multidisciplinary initiative report on delirium in elderly hospitalized patients, (2) to focus the attention of health care personnel on prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of patients suffering from delirium, and (3) to make the health services research community and policy-makers more aware of the potential risks of this condition providing a reference for training activities and data collection.


Assuntos
Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Delírio/terapia , Geriatria/métodos , Hospitalização/tendências , Consenso , Geriatria/tendências , Humanos , Itália , Sociedades/tendências
18.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 50(3): 214-219, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the role on patient mortality exerted by biofilm forming (BF) Candida strains, by using predictive clinical data. METHODS: Eighty-nine strains isolated from Candida bloodstream infection, occurring in two Italian University Hospitals, were employed in this study. A random forest (RF) model was built with a procedure of iterative selection of the risk factors potentially able to predict the probability of death. The similarity between patient conditions and Bayesian clustering was calculated in order to evaluate the role of predictors in the stratification of the death risk. RESULTS: Three different groups of patients with different probability of death were obtained with a RF approach: Group 1 (mortality in 33.3% of cases), Group 2 (death in 50% of cases), and Group 3 (mortality in 76.9% of cases). The comparison between these three groups showed that BF correlated well with increased mortality in patients, admitted for medical diagnosis, with high APACHE II score and treated with azoles. Early treatment within 24 h between candidemia diagnosis and the beginning of antifungal therapy was associated with the lowest of BF rate and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: BF by Candida spp. seems to be clinically associated with increased mortality especially in medical patients with higher Apache II score or treated with azoles.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/fisiologia , Candidemia/microbiologia , Candidemia/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/diagnóstico , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Med Case Rep ; 11(1): 320, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this article, we present a clinical case of refractory septic shock resulting from intestinal perforation treated with high doses of vasopressin and hydrocortisone during emergency surgery. The use of such high doses of vasopressin for this type of shock is not described in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old white woman with grade III obesity, Crohn's disease, and an intestinal perforation presented with refractory septic shock. Initially, a low dose of vasopressin was used. Then, the dosage was increased to 0.4 U/minute; in the literature, this is defined as "salvage therapy." This therapy consists of an initial load followed by a continuous infusion of hydrocortisone. CONCLUSIONS: The significant increase in her cardiac index and stroke volume index resulted in an improvement in peripheral resistance, gas exchange, and urine output and a decrease in her heart rate, interleukin-6 level, and tumor necrosis factor-α level. The administration of high doses of vasopressin and corticosteroids was demonstrated to be safe for the immune system, to reduce the systemic inflammatory response, and to have direct cardiovascular effects. Further studies are required to examine the use of vasopressin as an initial vasopressor as well as its use in high dosages and in combination with corticosteroids.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Vasopressinas/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Valva Ileocecal/lesões , Perfuração Intestinal/complicações , Perfuração Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 13: 1163-1173, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919771

RESUMO

The increasing number of opioid users among chronic pain patients, and opioid abusers among the general population, makes perioperative pain management challenging for health care professionals. Anesthesiologists, surgeons, and nurses should be familiar with some pharmacological phenomena which are typical of opioid users and abusers, such as tolerance, physical dependence, hyperalgesia, and addiction. Inadequate pain management is very common in these patients, due to common prejudices and fears. The target of preoperative evaluation is to identify comorbidities and risk factors and recognize signs and symptoms of opioid abuse and opioid withdrawal. Clinicians are encouraged to plan perioperative pain medications and to refer these patients to psychiatrists and addiction specialists for their evaluation. The aim of this review was to give practical suggestions for perioperative management of surgical opioid-tolerant patients, together with schemes of opioid conversion for chronic pain patients assuming oral or transdermal opioids, and patients under maintenance programs with methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone.

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