Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 225
Filtrar
1.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 324-335, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011506

RESUMO

Objective: To present the essential guidelines for pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. Methods: This is a systematic review of articles retrieved from the MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciELO databases published from 1997 to 2017. Other relevant articles in the literature were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. Results: Of 5,362 articles retrieved, 1,731 abstracts were selected for further reading. The final sample included 74 articles that met all inclusion criteria. The evidence shows that pharmacologic treatment is indicated only after non-pharmacologic approaches have failed. The cause of the agitation, side effects of the medications, and contraindications must guide the medication choice. The oral route should be preferred for drug administration; IV administration must be avoided. All subjects must be monitored before and after medication administration. Conclusion: If non-pharmacological strategies fail, medications are needed to control agitation and violent behavior. Once medicated, the patient should be monitored until a tranquil state is possible without excessive sedation. Systematic review registry number: CRD42017054440.

2.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(2): 186-190, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314858

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brazil is the world's biggest consumer of crack cocaine, and dependence is a major public health issue. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of potentially harmful adulterants present in hair samples from Brazilian patients with crack cocaine dependence. METHOD: We evaluated adulterants in hair samples extracted by convenience from 100 patients admitted at the 48 hour-observation unit of Centro de Referência de Álcool, Tabaco e Outras Drogas (CRATOD), Brazil's largest center for addiction treatment. A cross-sectional analysis was performed with the data obtained. RESULTS: Adulterants were found in 97% of the analyzed hair samples. The most prevalent adulterant was lidocaine (92%), followed by phenacetin (69%) and levamisole (31%). CONCLUSION: Adulterants were widely prevalent in hair samples from crack users treated at CRATOD: at least one adulterant was present in virtually all the hair samples collected. This points to a need to monitor adverse effects in the clinical setting in order to provide this high-risk group of patients with prompt and effective care related to the acute and chronic complications associated with these adulterants.

3.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider proposed the concept of first-rank symptoms (FRS) of schizophrenia in 1959. However, their relevance for diagnosis and prediction of treatment response are still unclear. Most studies have investigated FRS in chronic or medicated patients. The present study sought to evaluate whether FRS predict remission, response, or improvement in functionality in antipsychotic-naive first-episode psychosis. METHODS: Follow-up study of 100 patients at first episode of psychosis (FEP), with no previous treatment, assessed at baseline and after 2 months of treatment. The participants were evaluated with the standardized Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and for presence of FRS. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that, in this sample, up to three individual FRS predicted remission: voices arguing, voices commenting on one's actions, and thought broadcasting. CONCLUSION: Specific FRS may predict remission after treatment in FEP patients. This finding could give new importance to Kurt Schneider's classic work by contributing to future updates of diagnostic protocols and improving estimation of prognosis.

4.
Trials ; 20(1): 199, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are core symptoms of schizophrenia that occur from the early stages of the disorder. There is reliable evidence that cognitive deficits are associated with outcomes in schizophrenia; thus, early treatment could be particularly important. Studies with different neuromodulation techniques involving subjects with schizophrenia suggest that application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with inhibitory stimulation over the left temporo-parietal cortex and excitatory stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex could ameliorate positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. The aim of the present study protocol is to evaluate the efficacy of tDCS in the treatment of cognitive symptomatology in the early stages of psychosis. METHODS/DESIGN: Seventy patients in the early stages of psychosis will be randomly allocated to receive 20 min of active 2-mA tDCS or sham stimulation once a day for 10 consecutive weekdays. The anode will be placed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the cathode over the left temporo-parietal cortex. Neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments will be performed at baseline and at 1 and 3 months following the end of the intervention (sustained effect). DISCUSSION: The development and utilization of potentially effective neuroenhancement tools such as the non-invasive brain stimulation technique tDCS for the treatment and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment in the early stages of schizophrenia may contribute to improving outcomes of the disorder and eventually provide a further understanding of the nature of the complex and dynamic neural processes underlying those abnormalities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03071484 . Registered on 7 March 2017.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Cognição , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(2): 153-167, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990823

RESUMO

Objective: To present the essential guidelines for non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. Methods: These guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of articles published from 1997 to 2017, retrieved from MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, and SciELO. Other relevant articles identified by searching the reference lists of included studies were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. Results: We initially selected 1,731 abstracts among 5,362 articles. The final sample included 104 articles that fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The management of agitated patients should always start with the least coercive approach. The initial non-pharmacological measures include a verbal strategy and referral of the patient to the appropriate setting, preferably a facility designed for the care of psychiatric patients with controlled noise, lighting, and safety aspects. Verbal de-escalation techniques have been shown to decrease agitation and reduce the potential for associated violence in the emergency setting. The possibility of underlying medical etiologies must be considered first and foremost. Particular attention should be paid to the patient's appearance and behavior, physical signs, and mental state. If agitation is severe, rapid tranquilization with medications is recommended. Finally, if verbal measures fail to contain the patient, physical restraint should be performed as the ultimate measure for patient protection, and always be accompanied by rapid tranquilization. Healthcare teams must be thoroughly trained to use these techniques and overcome difficulties if the verbal approach fails. It is important that healthcare professionals be trained in non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation as part of the requirements for a degree and graduate degree. Conclusion: The non-pharmacological management of agitated patients should follow the hierarchy of less invasive to more invasive and coercive measures, starting with referral of the patient to an appropriate environment, management by a trained team, use of verbal techniques, performance of physical and mental assessment, use of medications, and, if unavoidable, use of the mechanical restraint. Systematic review registry number: CRD42017054440.

6.
Epilepsy Behav ; 95: 39-42, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the leading causes of disability in the world. However, treatment options are still limited, and marked by high refractoriness rates, new approaches are needed to optimize clinical improvement. Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) is an innovative neuromodulation strategy consisting on the application of an electric current over the trigeminal nerve that propagates stimuli towards brain areas involved in mood control. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of TNS in MDD after a 10-day experimental protocol. METHODS: This was a randomized, double blind, and sham-controlled phase II study with 24 patients with severe MDD. Patients underwent a 10-day intervention protocol and were assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) at following three observation points: baseline (T1), after 10 days (T2), and after one month of the last stimulation session (T3). Main clinical outcome analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. RESULTS: Patients in the active group presented a mean reduction of 36.15% in depressive symptoms after the stimulation protocol. There was a significant interaction between group and time regarding HDRS-17 scores (F = 3.18; df = 2; p = 0.0456). Post hoc analyses exhibited a statistically significant difference between active and sham group symptoms at T2 (p = 0.040) and T3 (p = 0.026), which highlights the sustained amelioration of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: The present study found amelioration of depressive symptoms for patients undergoing a 10-day stimulation protocol of TNS, and this was sustained after one month of follow-up.

7.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 41(4): 324-335, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the essential guidelines for pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. METHODS: This is a systematic review of articles retrieved from the MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciELO databases published from 1997 to 2017. Other relevant articles in the literature were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. RESULTS: Of 5,362 articles retrieved, 1,731 abstracts were selected for further reading. The final sample included 74 articles that met all inclusion criteria. The evidence shows that pharmacologic treatment is indicated only after non-pharmacologic approaches have failed. The cause of the agitation, side effects of the medications, and contraindications must guide the medication choice. The oral route should be preferred for drug administration; IV administration must be avoided. All subjects must be monitored before and after medication administration. CONCLUSION: If non-pharmacological strategies fail, medications are needed to control agitation and violent behavior. Once medicated, the patient should be monitored until a tranquil state is possible without excessive sedation. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRY NUMBER: CRD42017054440.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/classificação , Benzodiazepinas/classificação , Brasil , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico
8.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 202-208, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857875

RESUMO

Our previous studies showed reduced Ndel1 enzyme activity in patients with chronic schizophrenia (SCZ), and only a subtle NDEL1 mRNA increases in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode psychosis (FEP) individuals compared to matched healthy controls (HC). Aiming to refine the evaluation of Ndel1 enzyme activity in early stages of psychosis, we compared 3 groups composed by (1) subjects at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis, (2) a cohort comprising antipsychotic-naïve FEP individuals (assessed in three moments, at baseline (FEP-0), and after 2 months (FEP-2 M) and one year (FEP-1Y) of treatment with risperidone), and (3) a HC group. There was no significant difference in Ndel1 enzyme activity between UHR and HC, but this activity was significantly lower in FEP compared to HC. Conversely, Ndel1 activity in HC groups was higher than in FEP even before (FEP-0) or after the treatment with risperidone (FEP-2 M and FEP-1Y), and with progressive decrease of Ndel1 activity and significant improvement of symptoms observed after this treatment. In addition, a positive correlation was observed for Ndel1 activity with clinical symptoms as assessed by PANSS, while a negative correlation was seen for GAF scores. Our results suggest that reductions in Ndel1 activity in FEP may be possibly related to responses to the illness, rather than to the pharmacological effects of antipsychotics, which might be acting essentially in the symptoms suppression. This hypothesis might be further evaluated in prospective long-term follow-up studies with a larger sample cohort.

9.
Psychiatry Res ; 274: 391-394, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901624

RESUMO

We investigated the role of DGCR2, a corticogenesis-related gene, on schizophrenia (SZ) and its subphenotypes, including brain morphology. A total of 221 SZ patients, 263 controls and 70 antipsychotic-naïve first episode of psychosis (FEP) were genotyped for 17 DGCR2 polymorphisms. While no association between DGCR2 polymorphisms and SZ was found, the missense variant rs2072123 was associated to left rostral anterior cingulate thickness, showing that DGCR2 seems not to be associated directly with the SZ but might be influencing the brain morphology. We also showed a DGCR2 downregulation in SZ patients when compared to controls and FEP.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIb-IX de Plaquetas/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/patologia
12.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(3): 416-431, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594344

RESUMO

Psychotic disorders are accompanied by activation of the immune inflammatory response system (IRS). The compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS) is a regulatory immune response that is induced by the IRS but exerts negative feedback through increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13 and IL-10. This study aims to examine the IRS and CIRS components, including macrophagic M1, T-helper (Th)-1, Th-2, Th-17 and T-regulatory (Treg) phenotypes, in antipsychotic-naïve first episode psychosis (AN-FEP) before and after risperidone treatment. We included 31 AN-FEP and 22 healthy controls. AN-FEP showed increments in M1, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg phenotypes and a relatively greater IRS response (especially granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-6 and IL-12) as compared with the CIRS response. Inflammatory markers, especially IL-6 and IL-8, were significantly correlated with negative, psychotic, affective and excitation symptom dimensions. Treatment with risperidone significantly suppressed the IRS and CIRS. Baseline levels of CIRS biomarkers, especially higher soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 and IL-10 predicted clinical improvement after treatment. Our findings indicate that AN-FEP is characterized by robust IRS (M1 + Th-1 + Th-17) and CIRS responses, suggesting that monocytes, macrophages, Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 and Treg cells are activated. The findings indicate that (a) FEP patients are prone to the detrimental effects of M1, Th-1, Th-17 and Th-2 cells, which may contribute to long-lasting abnormalities in brain circuitry; and (b) in FEP, the CIRS may contribute to recovery from the acute phase of illness. Enhancing the CIRS might be a new drug target to treat FEP.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/imunologia , Risperidona/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de Citocinas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 41(2): 153-167, 2019 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the essential guidelines for non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. METHODS: These guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of articles published from 1997 to 2017, retrieved from MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, and SciELO. Other relevant articles identified by searching the reference lists of included studies were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. RESULTS: We initially selected 1,731 abstracts among 5,362 articles. The final sample included 104 articles that fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The management of agitated patients should always start with the least coercive approach. The initial non-pharmacological measures include a verbal strategy and referral of the patient to the appropriate setting, preferably a facility designed for the care of psychiatric patients with controlled noise, lighting, and safety aspects. Verbal de-escalation techniques have been shown to decrease agitation and reduce the potential for associated violence in the emergency setting. The possibility of underlying medical etiologies must be considered first and foremost. Particular attention should be paid to the patient's appearance and behavior, physical signs, and mental state. If agitation is severe, rapid tranquilization with medications is recommended. Finally, if verbal measures fail to contain the patient, physical restraint should be performed as the ultimate measure for patient protection, and always be accompanied by rapid tranquilization. Healthcare teams must be thoroughly trained to use these techniques and overcome difficulties if the verbal approach fails. It is important that healthcare professionals be trained in non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation as part of the requirements for a degree and graduate degree. CONCLUSION: The non-pharmacological management of agitated patients should follow the hierarchy of less invasive to more invasive and coercive measures, starting with referral of the patient to an appropriate environment, management by a trained team, use of verbal techniques, performance of physical and mental assessment, use of medications, and, if unavoidable, use of the mechanical restraint. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRY NUMBER: CRD42017054440.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/terapia , Brasil , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
15.
J Affect Disord ; 244: 67-70, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal activity of two enzymes relevant to neurodevelopment, namely nuclear-distribution element-like 1 (Ndel1) and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), was reported in individuals with schizophrenia; to our knowledge, these oligopeptidases were never measured in bipolar disorder (BD). AIMS: Evaluate the enzyme activity of Ndel1 and ACE in euthymic individuals with BD type 1 which was compare to healthy control (HC) group. METHODS: Ndel1 and ACE activities were assessed in the serum of individuals with BD type 1 according to DSM-IV criteria (n = 70) and a HC group (n = 34). The possible differences between BD type 1 and HC groups were evaluated using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), and the results were adjusted for age, gender and body mass index. RESULTS: We observed a positive correlation between Ndel1 activity and the total YMRS score in BD group (p = 0.030) and a positive correlation between ACE activity and Ham-D score (p = 0.047). ANCOVA analysis showed lower Ndel1 activity in BDs compared to HCs. Interestingly, we did not observe between-groups differences in ACE activity, despite the recognized correlation of ACE activity levels with cognitive functions, also described to be worsened in psychiatric patients. CONCLUSION: Oligopeptidases, especially Ndel1, which has been strongly correlated with neurodevelopment and brain formation, are potentially a good new target in the study of the neurobiology of BD. LIMITATIONS: The relatively small sample size did not permit to examine the cause-effect relationship of clinical dimensions of BD and the enzymatic activity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/sangue , Transtorno Bipolar/enzimologia , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(4): 285-291, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-979439

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: The recovery housing (RH) program was initiated in São Paulo with the objective of providing treatment for substance use disorders and addressing users' housing and employment problems. The purpose of this study was to describe the model based on its first 11 months of operation, it was launched in June 2016 in Brazil. Method: We carried out a retrospective analysis of the records of all subjects treated in the RH of the Restart Program (Programa Recomeço) since its creation, from June 2016 to May 2017. Results: Sixty-nine subjects were included. Thirty-five (51%) remained in the household until the end of treatment or were reinserted in society. Thirty-four (49%) presented recurrence during their stay, of which 16 (47%) volunteered for treatment in a therapeutic community or psychiatric hospital, 8 (23.5%) chose to continue with outpatient treatment only, 6 (17.7%) returned to their families and continued to receive outpatient treatment, and 4 (11.8%) discontinued the treatment. Of the 35 subjects who completed the RH program, 28 (80%) were in employment and 7 (20%) received governmental support for permanent disability on medical or psychiatric grounds. Conclusion: RH can be an important component of integrated care and is used in several countries. Although controversial, the use of urine tests to control relapse seems to have a positive impact on adherence to treatment and maintenance of abstinence. These preliminary findings corroborate, with clear limitations, the evidence available in the literature showing that RH programs are effective for the treatment of addictions.


Resumo Introdução: O Programa Moradia Monitorada (MM) foi iniciado em São Paulo com o objetivo de prover tratamento para transotrnos de uso de substâncias e problemas relacionados a moradia e emprego. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever o modelo com base nos primeiros 11 meses de operação (o programa foi lançado em junho de 2016 no Brasil). Métodos: Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo utilizando os registros de todos os indivíduos tratados no MM do Programa Recomeço desde a sua criação. Resultados: Sessenta e nove indivíduos foram incluídos. Trinta e cinco (51%) permaneceram no tratamento até o fim ou foram reinseridos socialmente com sucesso. Trinta e quatro sujeitos (49%) apresentaram recidiva durante a permanência. Destes, 16 (47%) se voluntariaram para tratamento em comunidades terapêuticas ou hospitais psiquiátricos, 8 (23,5%) escolheram permanecer apenas no tratamento ambulatorial, 6 (17.7%) retornaram para suas famílias e continuaram o tratamento em uma unidade ambulatorial próxima ao domicílio, e 4 (11.8%) descontinuaram o tratamento. Dos 35 pacientes que completaram o tratamento, 28 (80%) estavam empregados em serviço regular e 7 (20%) recebiam aposentadoria por questões clínicas e/ou psiquiátricas. Conclusão: O modelo MM pode ser um componente importante na via de cuidados integrados e é utilizado em vários países. Apesar de controverso, o uso de análise de urina para vigilância da recidiva e da recorrência parece ter um impacto positivo na adesão ao tratamento e na manutenção da abstinência. Nossos achados preliminares corroboram, com claras limitações, os resultados reportados previamente na literatura, de que os programas de MM são efetivos no tratamento da dependência química.

17.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 40(4): 285-291, 2018 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570100

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The recovery housing (RH) program was initiated in São Paulo with the objective of providing treatment for substance use disorders and addressing users' housing and employment problems. The purpose of this study was to describe the model based on its first 11 months of operation, it was launched in June 2016 in Brazil. METHOD: We carried out a retrospective analysis of the records of all subjects treated in the RH of the Restart Program (Programa Recomeço) since its creation, from June 2016 to May 2017. RESULTS: Sixty-nine subjects were included. Thirty-five (51%) remained in the household until the end of treatment or were reinserted in society. Thirty-four (49%) presented recurrence during their stay, of which 16 (47%) volunteered for treatment in a therapeutic community or psychiatric hospital, 8 (23.5%) chose to continue with outpatient treatment only, 6 (17.7%) returned to their families and continued to receive outpatient treatment, and 4 (11.8%) discontinued the treatment. Of the 35 subjects who completed the RH program, 28 (80%) were in employment and 7 (20%) received governmental support for permanent disability on medical or psychiatric grounds. CONCLUSION: RH can be an important component of integrated care and is used in several countries. Although controversial, the use of urine tests to control relapse seems to have a positive impact on adherence to treatment and maintenance of abstinence. These preliminary findings corroborate, with clear limitations, the evidence available in the literature showing that RH programs are effective for the treatment of addictions.


Assuntos
Instituições Residenciais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Adulto , Brasil , Integração Comunitária , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Dados Preliminares , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 174, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171181

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to test if the schizophrenia (SCZ) polygenic risk score (PRS) was associated with clinical symptoms in (a) the first episode of psychosis pre-treatment (FEP), (b) at nine weeks after initiation of risperidone treatment (FEP-9W) and (c) with the response to risperidone. We performed a detailed clinical assessment of 60 FEP patients who were antipsychotic-naive and, again, after nine weeks of standardized treatment with risperidone. After blood collection and DNA isolation, the samples were genotyped using the Illumina PsychArrayChip and then imputed. To calculate PRS, we used the latest available GWAS summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium wave-2 SCZ group as a training set. We used Poisson regression to test association between PRS and clinical measurements correcting for the four principal components (genotyping). We considered a p-value < 0.0014 (Bonferroni correction) as significant. First, we verified that the schizophrenia PRS was also able to distinguish cases from controls in this south-eastern Brazilian sample, with a similar variance explained to that seen in Northern European populations. In addition, within-cases analyses, we found that PRS is significantly correlated with baseline (pre-treatment) symptoms, as measured by lower clinical global assessment of functioning (-GAF), higher depressive symptoms and higher scores on a derived excitement factor. After standardized treatment for nine weeks, the correlation with GAF and the excitement factor disappeared while depressive symptoms became negatively associated with PRS. We conclude that drug (and other treatments) may confound attempts to understand the aetiological influence on symptomatology of polygenic risk scores. These results highlight the importance of studying schizophrenia, and other disorders, pre-treatment to understand the relationship between polygenic risk and phenotypic features.

19.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 3(4): 192-196, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888230

RESUMO

Preliminary evidence suggests that premature immunosenescence is involved in bipolar disorder (BD) pathophysiology. The cellular marker CD69 is expressed in T lymphocyte surface during their activation and its expression is negatively correlated with age. The objective of this study was to assess the moderating effects of obesity on the reduction of expression of CD69, a marker of immunosenescence. Forty euthymic patients with BD type I, aged 18-65 years, were included in this study. The healthy comparison group consisted of 39 volunteers who had no current or lifetime history of mental disorders, no use of psychotropic medications, and no known family history of mood disorders or psychosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BD patients and healthy controls were collected and isolated. The cells were allowed to grow in culture and stimulated for 3 days. CD69 was marked and read in flow cytometry. We found that the lower expression of CD69 in BD patients was moderated by body mass index (BMI) in both CD4+ (RR = 0.977, 95% CI 0.960-0.995, p = 0.013) and CD8+ cells (RR = 0.972, 95% CI 0.954-0.990, p = 0.003). Our findings indicate that BMI could potentially influence the process of premature aging in BD.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA