Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 171
Filtrar
1.
Int J Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF), the dominant form of cardiovascular disease in Africans, is mainly due to hypertension, rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathies pose a great challenge because of poor prognosis and high prevalence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Little is known about the etiology and outcome of cardiomyopathy in Africa. Specifically, the role of myocarditis and the genetic causes of cardiomyopathy are largely unidentified in Africans. METHOD: The African Cardiomyopathy and Myocarditis Registry Program (the IMHOTEP study) is a pan-African multi-centre, hospital-based cohort study, designed with the primary aim of describing the clinical characteristics, genetic causes, prevalence, management and outcome of cardiomyopathy and myocarditis in children and adults. The secondary aim is to identify barriers to the implementation of evidence-based care and provide a platform for trials and other intervention studies to reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiomyopathy. The registry consists of a prospective cohort of newly diagnosed (i.e., incident) cases and a retrospective (i.e., prevalent) cohort of existing cases from participating centres. Patients with cardiomyopathy and myocarditis will be subjected to a standardized 3-stage diagnostic process. To date, 750 patients have been recruited into the multi-centre pilot phase of the study. CONCLUSION: The IMHOTEP study will provide comprehensive and novel data on clinical features, genetic causes, prevalence and outcome of African children and adults with all forms of cardiomyopathy and myocarditis in Africa. Based on these findings, appropriate strategies for management and prevention of the cardiomyopathies in LMICs are likely to emerge.

2.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(572)2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268509

RESUMO

The mechanisms that drive nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain incompletely understood. This large multicenter study characterized the transcriptional changes that occur in liver tissue across the NAFLD spectrum as disease progresses to cirrhosis to identify potential circulating markers. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing on a discovery cohort comprising histologically characterized NAFLD samples from 206 patients. Unsupervised clustering stratified NAFLD on the basis of disease activity and fibrosis stage with differences in age, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), type 2 diabetes mellitus, and carriage of PNPLA3 rs738409, a genetic variant associated with NAFLD. Relative to early disease, we consistently identified 25 differentially expressed genes as fibrosing steatohepatitis progressed through stages F2 to F4. This 25-gene signature was independently validated by logistic modeling in a separate replication cohort (n = 175), and an integrative analysis with publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing data elucidated the likely relative contribution of specific intrahepatic cell populations. Translating these findings to the protein level, SomaScan analysis in more than 300 NAFLD serum samples confirmed that circulating concentrations of proteins AKR1B10 and GDF15 were strongly associated with disease activity and fibrosis stage. Supporting the biological plausibility of these data, in vitro functional studies determined that endoplasmic reticulum stress up-regulated expression of AKR1B10, GDF15, and PDGFA, whereas GDF15 supplementation tempered the inflammatory response in macrophages upon lipid loading and lipopolysaccharide stimulation. This study provides insights into the pathophysiology of progressive fibrosing steatohepatitis, and proof of principle that transcriptomic changes represent potentially tractable and clinically relevant markers of disease progression.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201861

RESUMO

Genetic factors undoubtedly affect the development of congenital heart disease (CHD), but still remain ill-defined. We sought to identify genetic risk factors associated with CHD and to accomplish functional analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-carrying genes. We performed a genome-wide association study of 4,034 Caucasian CHD patients and 8,486 healthy controls. One SNP on chromosome 5q22.2 reached genome-wide significance across all CHD phenotypes and was also indicative for septal defects. One region on chromosome 20p12.1 pointing to the MACROD2 locus identified four highly significant SNPs in patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Three highly significant risk variants on chromosome 17q21.32 within the GOSR2 locus were detected in patients with anomalies of thoracic arteries and veins (ATAV). Genetic variants associated with ATAV are suggested to influence expression of WNT3, and variant rs870142 related to septal defects is proposed to influence expression of MSX1. The expression of all four genes was analyzed during cardiac differentiation of human and murine induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro and by single-cell RNAseq analyses of developing murine and human hearts. Our data show that MACROD2, GOSR2, WNT3 and MSX1 play an essential functional role in heart development at the embryonic and newborn stage.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125279

RESUMO

Background - The aortic valve is an important determinant of cardiovascular physiology and anatomic location of common human diseases. Methods - From a sample of 34,287 white British-ancestry participants, we estimated functional aortic valve area by planimetry from prospectively obtained cardiac MRI sequences of the aortic valve. Aortic valve area measurements were submitted to genome-wide association testing, followed by polygenic risk scoring and phenome-wide screening to identify genetic comorbidities. Results - A genome-wide association study of aortic valve area in these UK Biobank participants showed three significant associations, indexed by rs71190365 (chr13:50764607, DLEU1, p=1.8×10-9), rs35991305 (chr12:94191968, CRADD, p=3.4×10-8) and chr17:45013271:C:T (GOSR2, p=5.6×10-8). Replication on an independent set of 8,145 unrelated European-ancestry participants showed consistent effect sizes in all three loci, although rs35991305 did not meet nominal significance. We constructed a polygenic risk score for aortic valve area, which in a separate cohort of 311,728 individuals without imaging demonstrated that smaller aortic valve area is predictive of increased risk for aortic valve disease (Odds Ratio 1.14, p=2.3×10-6). After excluding subjects with a medical diagnosis of aortic valve stenosis (remaining n=308,683 individuals), phenome-wide association of >10,000 traits showed multiple links between the polygenic score for aortic valve disease and key health-related comorbidities involving the cardiovascular system and autoimmune disease. Genetic correlation analysis supports a shared genetic etiology with between aortic valve area and birthweight along with other cardiovascular conditions. Conclusions - These results illustrate the use of automated phenotyping of cardiac imaging data from the general population to investigate the genetic etiology of aortic valve disease, perform clinical prediction, and uncover new clinical and genetic correlates of cardiac anatomy.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18051, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093519

RESUMO

Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) are a severe congenital heart defect present in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) at a > 2000-fold increased prevalence compared to the general population. This study aimed to identify risk-associated genes and pathways and to examine a potential polygenic contribution to AVSD in DS. We analyzed a total cohort of 702 individuals with DS with or without AVSD, with genomic data from whole exome sequencing, whole genome sequencing, and/or array-based imputation. We utilized sequence kernel association testing and polygenic risk score (PRS) methods to examine rare and common variants. Our findings suggest that the Notch pathway, particularly NOTCH4, as well as genes involved in the ciliome including CEP290 may play a role in AVSD in DS. These pathways have also been implicated in DS-associated AVSD in prior studies. A polygenic component for AVSD in DS has not been examined previously. Using weights based on the largest genome-wide association study of congenital heart defects available (2594 cases and 5159 controls; all general population samples), we found PRS to be associated with AVSD with odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.3 per standard deviation increase in PRS and corresponding liability r2 values of approximately 1%, suggesting at least a small polygenic contribution to DS-associated AVSD. Future studies with larger sample sizes will improve identification and quantification of genetic contributions to AVSD in DS.

7.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sustained high alcohol intake is necessary but not sufficient to produce alcohol-related cirrhosis. Identification of risk factors, apart from lifetime alcohol exposure, would assist in discovery of mechanisms and prediction of risk. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter case-control study (GenomALC) comparing 1,293 cases (with alcohol-related cirrhosis, 75.6% male) and 754 controls (with equivalent alcohol exposure but no evidence of liver disease, 73.6% male). Information confirming or excluding cirrhosis, and on alcohol intake and other potential risk factors, was obtained from clinical records and by interview. Case-control differences in risk factors discovered in the GenomALC participants were validated using similar data from 407 cases and 6,573 controls from UK Biobank. RESULTS: The GenomALC case and control groups reported similar lifetime alcohol intake (1,374 vs 1,412 kg). Cases had a higher prevalence of diabetes (20.5% (262/1,288) vs 6.5% (48/734), P = 2.27 × 10) and higher premorbid body mass index (26.37 ± 0.16 kg/m) than controls (24.44 ± 0.18 kg/m, P = 5.77 × 10). Controls were significantly more likely to have been wine drinkers, coffee drinkers, smokers, and cannabis users than cases. Cases reported a higher proportion of parents who died of liver disease than controls (odds ratio 2.25 95% confidence interval 1.55-3.26). Data from UK Biobank confirmed these findings for diabetes, body mass index, proportion of alcohol as wine, and coffee consumption. DISCUSSION: If these relationships are causal, measures such as weight loss, intensive treatment of diabetes or prediabetic states, and coffee consumption should reduce the risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14356, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873833

RESUMO

Blood flow in the vasculature can be characterised by dimensionless numbers commonly used to define the level of instabilities in the flow, for example the Reynolds number, Re. Haemodynamics play a key role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression. Genetic studies have identified mechanosensitive genes with causal roles in CVD. Given that CVD is highly heritable and abnormal blood flow may increase risk, we investigated the heritability of fluid metrics in the ascending aorta calculated using patient-specific data from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. 341 participants from 108 British Caucasian families were phenotyped by CMR and genotyped for 557,124 SNPs. Flow metrics were derived from the CMR images to provide some local information about blood flow in the ascending aorta, based on maximum values at systole at a single location, denoted max, and a 'peak mean' value averaged over the area of the cross section, denoted pm. Heritability was estimated using pedigree-based (QTDT) and SNP-based (GCTA-GREML) methods. Estimates of Reynolds number based on spatially averaged local flow during systole showed substantial heritability ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), while the estimated heritability for Reynolds number calculated using the absolute local maximum velocity was not statistically significant (12-13%; [Formula: see text]). Heritability estimates of the geometric quantities alone; e.g. aortic diameter ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), were also substantially heritable, as described previously. These findings indicate the potential for the discovery of genetic factors influencing haemodynamic traits in large-scale genotyped and phenotyped cohorts where local spatial averaging is used, rather than instantaneous values. Future Mendelian randomisation studies of aortic haemodynamic estimates, which are swift to derive in a clinical setting, will allow for the investigation of causality of abnormal blood flow in CVD.

9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(11): 1446-1452, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to investigate whether there was any association between genetically regulated gene expression (as predicted using various reference panels) and anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment response (change in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)) using 3158 European ancestry patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: The genetically regulated portion of gene expression was estimated in the full cohort of 3158 subjects (as well as within a subcohort consisting of 1575 UK patients) using the PrediXcan software package with three different reference panels. Estimated expression was tested for association with anti-TNF treatment response. As a replication/validation experiment, we also investigated the correlation between change in ESR with measured gene expression at the Interleukin 18 Receptor Accessory Protein (IL18RAP) gene in whole blood and synovial tissue, using an independent replication data set of patients receiving conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, with directly measured (via RNA sequencing) gene expression. RESULTS: We found that predicted expression of IL18RAP showed a consistent signal of association with treatment response across the reference panels. In our independent replication data set, IL18RAP expression in whole blood showed correlation with the change in ESR between baseline and follow-up (r=-0.35, p=0.0091). Change in ESR was also correlated with the expression of IL18RAP in synovial tissue (r=-0.28, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that IL18RAP expression is worthy of further investigation as a potential predictor of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis that is not specific to a particular drug type.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our goal was to identify genetic risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. METHODS: Genotyping 2066 CL cases and 2046 controls using Illumina HumanCoreExomeBeadChips provided data for 4,498,586 imputed single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Genome-wide association testing using linear mixed models took account of genetic diversity/ethnicity/admixture. Post-GWAS positional, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL), and chromatin interaction mapping was performed in FUMA. Transcriptional data were compared between lesions and normal skin, and cytokines measured using flow cytometry and Bioplex assay. RESULTS: Positional mapping identified 32 genomic loci associated with CL, none achieving genome-wide significance (P&5x10 -8). Lead SNVs at 23 loci occurred at protein coding or non-coding RNA genes, 15 with eQTLs for functionally relevant cells/tissues and/or showed differential expression in lesions. Of these, the 6 most plausible genetic risk loci were: SERPINB10 (Pimputed_1000G=2.67x10 -6), CRLF3 (Pimputed_1000G=5.12x10 -6), STX7 (Pimputed_1000G=6.06x10 -6), KRT80 (Pimputed_1000G=6.58x10 -6), LAMP3 (Pimputed_1000G=6.54x10 -6) and IFNG-AS1 (Pimputed_1000G=1.32x10 -5). LAMP3 (Padjusted=9.25x10 -12; +6-fold), STX7 (Padjusted=7.62x10 -3; +1.3-fold) and CRLF3 (Padjusted=9.19x10 -9; +1.97-fold) were expressed more highly in CL biopsies compared to normal skin; KRT80 (Padjusted=3.07x10 -8; -3-fold) was lower. Multiple cis-eQTLs across SERPINB10 mapped to chromatin interaction regions of transcriptional/enhancer activity in neutrophils, monocytes, B cells and haematopoietic stem cells. Those at IFNG-AS1 mapped to transcriptional/enhancer regions in T, natural killer, and B cells. The percent peripheral blood CD3 + T cells making antigen-specific interferon-γ differed significantly by IFNG-AS1 genotype. CONCLUSIONS: This first GWAS for CL identified multiple genetic risk loci including a novel lead to understanding CL pathogenesis through regulation of interferon-γ by IFNG antisense RNA 1.

11.
Hepatology ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853455

RESUMO

Only a minority of heavy drinkers progress to alcohol-related cirrhosis (ALC). The aim of this study was to identify common genetic variants that underlie risk for ALC. We analyzed data from 1,128 subjects of European ancestry with ALC and 614 heavy drinking subjects without known liver disease from Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and three countries in Europe. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed, adjusting for principal components and clinical covariates (alcohol use, age, sex, BMI, diabetes). We validated our GWAS findings using UK Biobank. We then performed a meta-analysis combining data from our study, the UK Biobank, and a previously published GWAS. Our GWAS found genome-wide significant risk association of rs738409 in PNPLA3 (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.19 (G allele), p-value=4.93x10-17 ) and rs4607179 near HSD17B13 (OR=0.57 (C allele), p-value=1.09x10-10 ) with ALC. Conditional analysis accounting for the PNPLA3 and HSD17B13 loci identified a new protective association at rs374702773 in Fas Associated Factor family member 2 (FAF2) (OR=0.61 (del(T) allele), p-value=2.56x10-8 ) for ALC. This association was replicated in the UK Biobank using conditional analysis (OR=0.79, p-value=0.001). Meta-analysis (without conditioning) confirmed genome-wide significance for the newly identified FAF2 locus as well as PNPLA3 and HSD17B13. Two other previously known loci (SERPINA1, SUGP1/TM6SF2) were also genome-wide significant in the meta-analysis. GeneOntology pathway analysis identified lipid droplets as the target for several identified genes. In conclusion, our GWAS identified a new locus at FAF2 associated with reduced risk of ALC among heavy drinkers. Like the PNPLA3 and HSD17B13 gene products, the FAF2 product has been localized to fat droplets in hepatocytes. Our genetic findings implicate lipid droplets in the biological pathway(s) underlying ALC.

12.
J Hepatol ; 73(3): 505-515, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genetic factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain incompletely understood. To date, most genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have adopted radiologically assessed hepatic triglyceride content as the reference phenotype and so cannot address steatohepatitis or fibrosis. We describe a GWAS encompassing the full spectrum of histologically characterised NAFLD. METHODS: The GWAS involved 1,483 European NAFLD cases and 17,781 genetically matched controls. A replication cohort of 559 NAFLD cases and 945 controls was genotyped to confirm signals showing genome-wide or close to genome-wide significance. RESULTS: Case-control analysis identified signals showing p values ≤5 × 10-8 at 4 locations (chromosome [chr] 2 GCKR/C2ORF16; chr4 HSD17B13; chr19 TM6SF2; chr22 PNPLA3) together with 2 other signals with p <1 × 10-7 (chr1 near LEPR and chr8 near IDO2/TC1). Case-only analysis of quantitative traits showed that the PNPLA3 signal (rs738409) had genome-wide significance for steatosis, fibrosis and NAFLD activity score and a new signal (PYGO1 rs62021874) had close to genome-wide significance for steatosis (p = 8.2 × 10-8). Subgroup case-control analysis for NASH confirmed the PNPLA3 signal. The chr1 LEPR single nucleotide polymorphism also showed genome-wide significance for this phenotype. Considering the subgroup with advanced fibrosis (≥F3), the signals on chr2, chr19 and chr22 maintained their genome-wide significance. Except for GCKR/C2ORF16, the genome-wide significance signals were replicated. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms PNPLA3 as a risk factor for the full histological spectrum of NAFLD at genome-wide significance levels, with important contributions from TM6SF2 and HSD17B13. PYGO1 is a novel steatosis modifier, suggesting that Wnt signalling pathways may be relevant in NAFLD pathogenesis. LAY SUMMARY: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common disease where excessive fat accumulates in the liver and may result in cirrhosis. To understand who is at risk of developing this disease and suffering liver damage, we undertook a genetic study to compare the genetic profiles of people suffering from fatty liver disease with genetic profiles seen in the general population. We found that particular sequences in 4 different areas of the human genome were seen at different frequencies in the fatty liver disease cases. These sequences may help predict an individual's risk of developing advanced disease. Some genes where these sequences are located may also be good targets for future drug treatments.

13.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008721, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339198

RESUMO

Current estimates suggest 50% of glaucoma blindness worldwide is caused by primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) but the causative gene is not known. We used genetic linkage and whole genome sequencing to identify Spermatogenesis Associated Protein 13, SPATA13 (NM_001166271; NP_001159743, SPATA13 isoform I), also known as ASEF2 (Adenomatous polyposis coli-stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2), as the causal gene for PACG in a large seven-generation white British family showing variable expression and incomplete penetrance. The 9 bp deletion, c.1432_1440del; p.478_480del was present in all affected individuals with angle-closure disease. We show ubiquitous expression of this transcript in cell lines derived from human tissues and in iris, retina, retinal pigment and ciliary epithelia, cornea and lens. We also identified eight additional mutations in SPATA13 in a cohort of 189 unrelated PACS/PAC/PACG samples. This gene encodes a 1277 residue protein which localises to the nucleus with partial co-localisation with nuclear speckles. In cells undergoing mitosis SPATA13 isoform I becomes part of the kinetochore complex co-localising with two kinetochore markers, polo like kinase 1 (PLK-1) and centrosome-associated protein E (CENP-E). The 9 bp deletion reported in this study increases the RAC1-dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) activity. The increase in GEF activity was also observed in three other variants identified in this study. Taken together, our data suggest that SPATA13 is involved in the regulation of mitosis and the mutations dysregulate GEF activity affecting homeostasis in tissues where it is highly expressed, influencing PACG pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Divisão Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Olho/metabolismo , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/patologia , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/química , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico
14.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(5): 425-441, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190932

RESUMO

In transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS), gene expression values are predicted using genotype data and tested for association with a phenotype. The power of this approach to detect associations relies, at least in part, on the accuracy of the prediction. Here we compare the prediction accuracy of six different methods-LASSO, Ridge regression, Elastic net, Best Linear Unbiased Predictor, Bayesian Sparse Linear Mixed Model, and Random Forests-by performing cross-validation using data from the Geuvadis Project. We also examine prediction accuracy (a) at different sample sizes, (b) when ancestry of the prediction model training and testing populations is different, and (c) when the tissue used to train the model is different from the tissue to be predicted. We find that, for most genes, the expression cannot be accurately predicted, but in general sparse statistical models tend to outperform polygenic models at prediction. Average prediction accuracy is reduced when the model training set size is reduced or when predicting across ancestries and is marginally reduced when predicting across tissues. We conclude that using sparse statistical models and the development of large reference panels across multiple ethnicities and tissues will lead to better prediction of gene expression, and thus may improve TWAS power.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Transcriptoma , Teorema de Bayes , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tamanho da Amostra
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(8): 1135-1136, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203202

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

16.
PLoS Genet ; 16(3): e1008198, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119656

RESUMO

Mendelian randomization (MR) implemented through instrumental variables analysis is an increasingly popular causal inference tool used in genetic epidemiology. But it can have limitations for evaluating simultaneous causal relationships in complex data sets that include, for example, multiple genetic predictors and multiple potential risk factors associated with the same genetic variant. Here we use real and simulated data to investigate Bayesian network analysis (BN) with the incorporation of directed arcs, representing genetic anchors, as an alternative approach. A Bayesian network describes the conditional dependencies/independencies of variables using a graphical model (a directed acyclic graph) with an accompanying joint probability. In real data, we found BN could be used to infer simultaneous causal relationships that confirmed the individual causal relationships suggested by bi-directional MR, while allowing for the existence of potential horizontal pleiotropy (that would violate MR assumptions). In simulated data, BN with two directional anchors (mimicking genetic instruments) had greater power for a fixed type 1 error than bi-directional MR, while BN with a single directional anchor performed better than or as well as bi-directional MR. Both BN and MR could be adversely affected by violations of their underlying assumptions (such as genetic confounding due to unmeasured horizontal pleiotropy). BN with no directional anchor generated inference that was no better than by chance, emphasizing the importance of directional anchors in BN (as in MR). Under highly pleiotropic simulated scenarios, BN outperformed both MR (and its recent extensions) and two recently-proposed alternative approaches: a multi-SNP mediation intersection-union test (SMUT) and a latent causal variable (LCV) test. We conclude that BN incorporating genetic anchors is a useful complementary method to conventional MR for exploring causal relationships in complex data sets such as those generated from modern "omics" technologies.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(2): 1113-1118, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879347

RESUMO

Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity and the lack of sufficiently large patient cohorts pose a significant challenge to understanding genetic associations in rare disease. Here we identify Bsnd (alias Barttin) as a genetic modifier of cystic kidney disease in Joubert syndrome, using a Cep290-deficient mouse model to recapitulate the phenotypic variability observed in patients by mixing genetic backgrounds in a controlled manner and performing genome-wide analysis of these mice. Experimental down-regulation of Bsnd in the parental mouse strain phenocopied the severe cystic kidney phenotype. A common polymorphism within human BSND significantly associates with kidney disease severity in a patient cohort with CEP290 mutations. The striking phenotypic modifications we describe are a timely reminder of the value of mouse models and highlight the significant contribution of genetic background. Furthermore, if appropriately managed, this can be exploited as a powerful tool to elucidate mechanisms underlying human disease heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Genes Modificadores , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Retina/anormalidades , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Nefropatias , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13556, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537879

RESUMO

Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a strong risk factor for heart failure and cardiovascular death. ECG measures of LV mass are estimated as heritable in twin and family-based analyses and heritability estimates of LV mass measured by echocardiography are lower. We hypothesised that CMR-derived measurements, being more precise than echocardiographic measurements, would advance our understanding of heritable LV traits. We phenotyped 116 British families (427 individuals) by CMR and ECG, and undertook heritability analyses using variance-components (QTDT) and GWAS SNP-based (GCTA-GREML) methods. ECG-based traits such as LV mass and Sokolow-Lyon duration showed substantial estimates of heritability (60%), whereas CMR-derived LV mass was only modestly heritable (20%). However, the ECG LV mass was positively correlated with the lateral diameter of the chest (rho = 0.67), and adjustment for this attenuated the heritability estimate (42%). Finally, CMR-derived right ventricular mass showed considerable heritability (44%). Heritability estimates of LV phenotypes show substantial variation depending on the modality of measurement, being greater when measured by ECG than CMR. This may reflect the differences between electrophysiological as opposed to anatomical hypertrophy. However, ECG LV hypertrophy traits are likely to be influenced by genetic association with anthropometric measures, inflating their overall measured heritability.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Idoso , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Reino Unido
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(9)2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480262

RESUMO

In the past years, genome wide association studies (GWAS) have provided evidence that inter-individual susceptibility to diverse pathological conditions can reveal a common genetic architecture. Through the analysis of congenital heart disease (CHD) and neuroblastoma (NB) GWAS data, we aimed to dissect the genetic susceptibility shared between these conditions, which are known to arise from neural crest cell (NCC) migration or development abnormalities, via identification and functional characterization of common regions of association. Two loci (2q35 and 3q25.32) harbor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated at a p-value < 10-3 with conotruncal malformations and ventricular septal defect respectively, as well as with NB. In addition, the lead SNP in 4p16.2 for atrial septal defect and the lead SNP in 3q25.32 for tetralogy of Fallot are less than 250 Kb distant from the lead SNPs for NB at the same genomic regions. Some of these shared susceptibility loci regulate the expression of relevant genes involved in NCC formation and developmental processes (such as BARD1, MSX1, and SHOX2) and are enriched in several epigenetic markers from NB and fetal heart cell lines. Although the clinical correlation between NB and CHD is unclear, our exploration of a possible common genetic basis between NB and a subset of cardiac malformations can help shed light on their shared embryological origin and pathogenetic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Crista Neural/patologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E2/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Longevidade/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA