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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 56: 21, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the sociodemographic profile and analyze the migratory characteristics of the members of the Residency Programs in Family Medicine in 2020 in Brazil. METHODS: The study follows a cross-sectional observational design of a quantitative nature from the perspective of the members of the Residency Programs in Family Medicine. Questionnaires adapted for each participating group were developed, applied through an online platform. RESULTS: Most participants are female and white. Most supervisors and preceptors were residents of Residency Programs in Family Medicine, however, there are some who are not specialists in the field. Most participants are based in capitals or metropolitan regions. In relation to retention, 41.1% of supervisors and 73.1% of preceptors are affiliated to a program in the same municipality where they lived. For most resident physicians, the place of residence coincides with the place of birth and/or graduation (57.4%), and 48.5% are in the same place of graduation. CONCLUSIONS: The research reinforces the need for policies to promote the migration of residents to Residency Programs in Family Medicine outside capital cities and metropolitan regions, as well as encouraging the retention of graduates trained outside large urban centers so that they can contribute to distribution and provision of doctors where they are still needed.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Internato e Residência , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Especialização
2.
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida; 20211230. 284 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362009

RESUMO

A Pesquisa Científica e Ética é um forte e principal fundamento para a realização de pesquisas, entretanto desde 2020 com a pandemia ocasionada pelo COVID-19, estamos podendo refletir de forma mais ampla e profunda, junto à sociedade, o significado de avaliações éticas na pesquisas e as suas repercussões para o Ser Humano. Nessa perspectiva e a partir da vivência de membros do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do Hospital Mãe de Deus surgiu esse livro que pretende dar início a Série Pesquisa: A Ética e Pesquisa no século XXI buscando estimular outros colegas com mais publicações que abordem essa temática.


Assuntos
Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Ética em Pesquisa , Gestão do Conhecimento para a Pesquisa em Saúde , Planos e Programas de Pesquisa em Saúde , Humanização da Assistência , COVID-19
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(6): 2119-2130, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231724

RESUMO

The training, recruitment and retention of primary care professionals is a constant challenge in Brazil. The recent expansion of family and community medicine residency programs in the country coexists with gaps in the literature on the effects of this process. This article explores municipal health managers' understanding of these programs and the role they play in professional training and improving the quality of health care. We conducted a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the responses to questionnaires answered by 48 health managers working in municipal health services affiliated to residency programs. A descriptive statistical analysis of the quantitative data was performed and the qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings show that efforts were made to incorporate family and community doctors into the health care network and that managers recognized the potential residency program have to improve the quality of care and enhance professional training. Weaknesses were found in actions to improve infrastructure and facilities and the organization of the services affiliated to the programs. This study highlights the potential of residency programs for addressing longstanding problems in primary health care in Brazil when combined with actions to strengthen services, human resources and the programs.


Treinamento especializado, provimento e fixação de profissionais na Atenção Primária à Saúde são desafios prementes no Brasil. A recente expansão dos Programas de Residência em Medicina de Família e Comunidade coexiste com lacunas na literatura sobre o efeito deste processo. O objetivo do trabalho é explorar a perspectiva do gestor municipal de saúde acerca das estratégias para o fortalecimento das residências e do papel destas na formação profissional e na qualificação da atenção. Trata-se de um estudo de análise quantitativa e qualitativa, com aplicação de questionário a gestores de municípios cenários destes programas. As respostas de 48 sujeitos foram submetidas a estatística descritiva e análise de conteúdo. Os resultados revelam um esforço em incorporar o Médico de Família e Comunidade na rede de atenção à saúde, uma percepção do potencial das residências no incremento da qualidade da atenção e da formação profissional e fragilidades nas ações para melhoria da estrutura e organização dos serviços com residentes. Vislumbra-se assim o potencial das residências para a superação de problemas históricos da Atenção Primária à Saúde brasileira, se atrelada a ações de fortalecimento do serviço, dos recursos humanos e do próprio programa.


Assuntos
Medicina Comunitária , Internato e Residência , Brasil , Medicina Comunitária/educação , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(6): 2119-2130, jun. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278710

RESUMO

Resumo Treinamento especializado, provimento e fixação de profissionais na Atenção Primária à Saúde são desafios prementes no Brasil. A recente expansão dos Programas de Residência em Medicina de Família e Comunidade coexiste com lacunas na literatura sobre o efeito deste processo. O objetivo do trabalho é explorar a perspectiva do gestor municipal de saúde acerca das estratégias para o fortalecimento das residências e do papel destas na formação profissional e na qualificação da atenção. Trata-se de um estudo de análise quantitativa e qualitativa, com aplicação de questionário a gestores de municípios cenários destes programas. As respostas de 48 sujeitos foram submetidas a estatística descritiva e análise de conteúdo. Os resultados revelam um esforço em incorporar o Médico de Família e Comunidade na rede de atenção à saúde, uma percepção do potencial das residências no incremento da qualidade da atenção e da formação profissional e fragilidades nas ações para melhoria da estrutura e organização dos serviços com residentes. Vislumbra-se assim o potencial das residências para a superação de problemas históricos da Atenção Primária à Saúde brasileira, se atrelada a ações de fortalecimento do serviço, dos recursos humanos e do próprio programa.


Abstract The training, recruitment and retention of primary care professionals is a constant challenge in Brazil. The recent expansion of family and community medicine residency programs in the country coexists with gaps in the literature on the effects of this process. This article explores municipal health managers' understanding of these programs and the role they play in professional training and improving the quality of health care. We conducted a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the responses to questionnaires answered by 48 health managers working in municipal health services affiliated to residency programs. A descriptive statistical analysis of the quantitative data was performed and the qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings show that efforts were made to incorporate family and community doctors into the health care network and that managers recognized the potential residency program have to improve the quality of care and enhance professional training. Weaknesses were found in actions to improve infrastructure and facilities and the organization of the services affiliated to the programs. This study highlights the potential of residency programs for addressing longstanding problems in primary health care in Brazil when combined with actions to strengthen services, human resources and the programs.


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina Comunitária/educação , Internato e Residência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Mão de Obra em Saúde
5.
Infect Genet Evol ; 21: 418-23, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24389119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the role of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G in the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection through the analysis of the HLA-G 3' untranslated region (UTR) polymorphisms 14 bp insertion/deletion (rs66554220) and +3142C>G (rs1063320). DESIGN: We analyzed 582 HIV-1 infected patients and 626 uninfected individuals from Brazil and Italy in a case-control study. METHODS: HLA-G polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR, PCR-RFLP assays or direct sequencing. All analyses were stratified by ethnicity. Genotypic, allelic and diplotypic frequencies were compared between HIV-1 infected subjects and controls using Chi-square or Fischer exact tests. Also, haplotypic frequencies were estimated using MLocus software. RESULTS: African-derived HIV-infected individuals presented a higher frequency of the 14 bp insertion allele as compared to non-infected individuals (0.468 versus 0.373, respectively; p(Bonf) = 0.010). A higher frequency of the 14 bp insertion +3142G (insG) haplotype (0.456 versus 0.346, p<0.001) and the insG/insG diplotype (OR=1.88, 95%CI = 1.08-3.23, p=0.021) was observed among African-derived patients as compared to uninfected controls. Also, we observed a higher frequency of the ins/ins genotype among African-derived HIV patients co-infected with HCV (OR=2.78, 95%CI = 1.20-6.49, p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Our data point out to an increased frequency of alleles and genotypes associated with low HLA-G expression among African-derived patients, suggesting a potential role for HLA-G in the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and HCV co-infection in those individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-G/genética , Hepatite C/etnologia , Hepatite C/imunologia , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Haplótipos , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
6.
Stem Cells Dev ; 22(9): 1455-76, 2013 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23336433

RESUMO

Stem cells (SC) are able to self-renew and to differentiate into many types of committed cells, making SCs interesting for cellular therapy. However, the pool of SCs in vivo and in vitro consists of a mix of cells at several stages of differentiation, making it difficult to obtain a homogeneous population of SCs for research. Therefore, it is important to isolate and characterize unambiguous molecular markers that can be applied to SCs. Here, we review classical and new candidate molecular markers that have been established to show a molecular profile for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The commonly cited markers for embryonic ESCs are Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2, Rex-1, Dnmt3b, Lin-28, Tdgf1, FoxD3, Tert, Utf-1, Gal, Cx43, Gdf3, Gtcm1, Terf1, Terf2, Lefty A, and Lefty B. MSCs are primarily identified by the expression of CD13, CD29, CD44, CD49e, CD54, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD106, CD166, and HLA-ABC and lack CD14, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD62E, CD62L, CD62P, and HLA-DR expression. HSCs are mainly isolated based on the expression of CD34, but the combination of this marker with CD133 and CD90, together with a lack of CD38 and other lineage markers, provides the most homogeneous pool of SCs. Here, we present new and alternative markers for SCs, along with microRNA profiles, for these cells.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Stem Cells Dev ; 13(3): 225-8, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15186718

RESUMO

Several studies have shown defective progenitor-stromal interactions in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and adhesive defects induced by BCR/ABL have been described. However, controversial results have been reported, and the role of the stroma in abnormal development of the hematopoietic system is not clear. In this study, CML hematopoietic and irradiated stromal cells were co-cultured in different combinations for 10 or 21 days. Maintenance of viable cells was dependent both on the sources of hematopoietic progenitors and stromal adherent layers, with normal cells performing better than their leukemic counterparts. The frequency of CD34(+) CD38(-) cells in the non-adherent fraction was more related to the source of hematopoietic cells than of stroma, and hematopoietic cells from normal subjects showed better performance. The simultaneous analysis of different combinations of normal and leukemic precursor cells and stromal layers, as done in the present work, suggests that the outcome of the interaction depends on characteristics of both compartments. This hematopoietic system development is influenced by intrinsic qualities of both hematopoietic stem cells and the supportive stroma.


Assuntos
Hematopoese/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/fisiopatologia , Células Estromais/fisiologia , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Humanos , Células Estromais/citologia
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