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1.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 231: 113635, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with decreased visual function in offspring. Glycol ethers (GEs) belong to oxygenated solvents and are widely used both in occupational and domestic contexts. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess associations between prenatal GEs exposure and contrast sensitivity in children. METHODS: Six GE alkoxy carboxylic acidic metabolites (methoxyacetic acid [MAA], ethoxyacetic acid [EAA], ethoxyethoxyacetic acid [EEAA], butoxyacetic acid [BAA], phenoxyacetic acid [PhAA], and 2-methoxypropionic acid [2-MPA]) were measured in first morning void urine samples collected from 220 early-pregnancy women, in the mother-child PELAGIE cohort (France). Trained investigators administered the Functional Acuity Contrast Test (FACT) to the 6-year-old children, providing scores for 5 spatial frequencies (1.5-18 cycles per degree (cpd)). We standardized biomarker urinary concentrations on urine sampling conditions. Values below the LOD were imputed based on log-normal distribution, generating five datasets for multiple imputation. Linear regression models were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: GE metabolites were detected in 70-98% of maternal urine samples. Phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) had the highest median concentration (0.33 mg/L), and 2-methoxypropionic acid (2-MPA) the lowest (0.01 mg/L). Children with higher prenatal PhAA concentrations had poorer FACT scores at various spatial frequencies (fourth vs. first quartile: ß18cpd = -0.90 (95% confidence interval CI = -1.64, -0.16), ß12cpd = -0.92 (95%CI = -1.55, -0.29) and ß1.5cpd = -0.69 (95%CI = -1.19, -0.20)). The 2-MPA log-scale concentration was negatively associated with the FACT score at the 3-cpd stimulus. DISCUSSION: PhAA is the metabolite of ethylene glycol monophenyl ether present in many cosmetics. 2-MPA is the metabolite of an isomer of propylene glycol methyl ether commonly present in household and industrial cleaning products. Although evidence of biological plausibility is lacking, the study suggests adverse impact of ubiquitous prenatal exposure to some GE on visual functioning among children.

2.
Environ Res ; 189: 109924, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Given that their traditional lifestyle and diet still relies on fish and other marine species for sustenance, the Inuit are highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCBs are increasingly linked to obesity. However, evidence is not consistent regarding which periods of exposure are most relevant. In this study, we examine whether in utero, childhood, and adolescent exposure to PCBs are related to physical growth at adolescence. METHOD: Inuit adolescents from Canada (N=212) enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study since birth were assessed for height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) at 18 years of age. PCB 153 concentrations were quantified in blood samples obtained at birth (umbilical cord), 11, and 18 years of age. Maternal anthropometrics were measured and those for the newborns collected from medical records. Data on biological mothers and participants' sociodemographic characteristics and food security were collected using interviews. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to test associations between PCB 153 concentrations and adolescent anthropometric measures. RESULTS: Cord PCB 153 was not related to height or FFMI at adolescence. By contrast, analyses showed that cord PCB 153 was related to higher BMI, FMI and marginally to weight in girls but not boys. Child PCB 153 was not related to height, weight or FFMI in adolescence. Child PCB 153 was related to lower BMI and FMI at adolescence in both sexes, particularly among those considered overweight or obese during childhood. Adolescent PCB 153 was not associated with any outcome. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that prenatal exposure to PCBs may have a long-term effect on growth in early adulthood among girls and identifies the peri-pubertal period as another window of sensitivity for the action of PCBs. Our findings also suggest that exposure to PCBs and body size be documented in multiple time periods from infancy to adulthood.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Environ Int ; 142: 105847, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heat stress during pregnancy may limit fetal growth, with ramifications throughout the life course. However, critical exposure windows are unknown, and effects of meteorological variability have not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify sensitive windows for the associations of mean and variability of temperature and humidity with term birthweight. METHODS: We analyzed data from two French mother-child cohorts, EDEN and PELAGIE (n = 4771), recruited in 2002-2006. Temperature exposure was assessed using a satellite-based model with daily 1-km2 resolution, and relative humidity exposure data were obtained from Météo France monitors. Distributed lag models were constructed using weekly means and standard deviation (SD, to quantify variability) from the first 37 gestational weeks. Analyses were then stratified by sex. Results for each exposure were adjusted for the other exposures, gestational age at birth, season and year of conception, cohort and recruitment center, and individual confounders. RESULTS: There was no evidence of association between term birthweight and mean temperature. We identified a critical window in weeks 6-20 for temperature variability (cumulative change in term birthweight of -54.2 g [95% CI: -102, -6] for a 1 °C increase in SD of temperature for each week in that window). Upon stratification by sex of the infant, the relationship remained for boys (weeks 1-21, cumulative change: -125 g [95% CI: -228, -21]). For mean humidity, there was a critical window in weeks 26-37, with a cumulative change of -28 g (95% CI: -49, -7) associated with a 5% increase in humidity for each week. The critical window was longer and had a stronger association in boys (weeks 29-37; -37 g, 95% CI: -63, -11) than girls (week 14; -1.8 g, 95% CI: -3.6, -0.1). DISCUSSION: Weekly temperature variability and mean humidity during critical exposure windows were associated with decreased term birthweight, especially in boys.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Umidade , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
4.
Neurotoxicology ; 78: 195-201, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217184

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to chlordecone, a persistent organochlorine pesticide that was used intensively in the French West Indies, affects infant neurodevelopment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between prenatal and postnatal chlordecone exposures on visual contrast sensitivity in 285 children aged from 7.1 to 8 years old (mean age = 7.68 ±â€¯0.21 years; sex ratio = 54 % girls) in a Guadeloupean prospective birth cohort (TIMOUN). The Freiburg Visual Acuity and Contrast Test (FrAcT) was used to assess visual contrast sensitivity. Chlordecone concentrations were measured in blood samples at birth (cord blood) and in children at testing time to estimate pre- and postnatal exposure, respectively. Exposures were categorized into three groups and were also log-transformed and considered as continuous variables. Multiple linear regression models were performed on all children taking into account various potential confounders, including maternal characteristics (age, education, intellectual functioning, alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy). Potential moderation effect of sex was also examined. Results showed that higher cord plasma chlordecone levels were associated with lower contrast sensitivity. Although child chlordecone levels was not associated with the FrAcT, sex-specific stratified analyses revealed significant associations in boys. Associations between postnatal exposure and FrACT scores in girls were null. This study indicates that exposure to chlordecone in utero and during childhood may impair visual contrast sensitivity at school age, particularly in boys.

5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 227: 113510, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172156

RESUMO

Glycol ethers are an oxygenated solvent family widely present in consumer products. Some of them are recognized reproductive, developmental or hematological toxicants. Although several glycol ether biomonitoring studies have been performed on adults from working or general populations, no studies have hitherto been carried out on children. The aim of our study was to explore the detection of glycol ether metabolites in the urinary samples of 6-year-old children, and if any were found, to describe them. The PELAGIE mother-child cohort included 3421 pregnant women from the general population of Brittany, France, between 2002 and 2006. Our biomonitoring study included a random sample of 110 children from the PELAGIE cohort who had participated in a neurodevelopment evaluation at the age of six. First morning voids were collected from all of the children. Eight urinary glycol ether metabolites were measured using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was 0.003 mg/L for all metabolites. Glycol ether metabolites were detected at rates varying from 33.5% of samples for propoxyacetic acid to 100% of samples for phenoxyacetic acid and methoxyacetic acid. The highest median concentration observed was for phenoxyacetic acid (0.141 mg/l). Our study reported the ubiquitous presence of glycol ether metabolites in children's urinary samples. These results call for larger biomonitoring surveys of the general population and study of the potential sources and determinants of these exposures.

6.
Environ Res ; 181: 108950, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to glycol ethers (GEs) is suspected of impairing neurodevelopment in children, but the specific impact on their inhibitory capacity, a central deficit of ADHD, has never been studied. We aimed to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to GEs on the response inhibition of children aged six years. METHODS: In total, 169 mother-child pairs from the French cohort PELAGIE (2002-2006) were studied. Maternal urinary concentrations of six GE metabolites (alkoxycarboxylic acids) were measured during pregnancy. Multiple imputation by quantile regression was used to handle non-detected values and the data were then classified into quartiles. Inhibition of children was evaluated by the Rhythmic Continuous Performance Test 90 (R-CPT90). The inhibition score (percentage of correct responses to non-target stimuli) was corrected for compliance with the instructions (percentage of correct responses to target stimuli). The analysis used a multiple linear regression model, adjusting for confounding factors for each metabolite. RESULTS: Median concentrations of metabolites ranged from 0.02 mg/L (Ethoxyacetic acid, EAA) to 0.39 mg/L (Phenoxyacetic acid, PhAA). The median corrected inhibition score was 37.9% [first quartile: 29.8 - third quartile: 47.9]. We found a negative and statistically significant association between the inhibition score and prenatal urinary EAA concentration (p-trend = 0.03), with a significant ß coefficient for the third quartile (ß = -0.064; 95% confidence interval: -0.121, -0.007). There were no statistically significant associations for the other five metabolites. CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with the hypothesis of possible impact of prenatal environmental exposure on inhibitory capacity among children. Data about the GEs metabolized to EAA (history of exposure sources and toxicokinetics) should be gathered to further interpret these results and guide precautionary measures.

7.
Toxicol Sci ; 173(2): 255-266, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693143

RESUMO

Environmental contamination by chlorotriazines has been evidenced in mother-child cohort suggesting more detailed risk assessment of these compounds in drinking water. Exposure of rodents to atrazine (ATZ) has been associated with alterations of endocrine and reproductive functions by disrupting neuroendocrine control at hypothalamus level. Perinatal exposure to low doses of ATZ has been associated with reproductive dysfunction, and to behavioral abnormalities in adult exposed during embryogenesis. The objectives of the current investigation were to (1) evaluate the influence of physicochemical properties of chlorotriazines on tissue distribution in pregnant rats and in fetuses and (2) gain a better understanding of fetal distribution of chlorotriazines in specific tissues, particularly in brain. Serial blood samples were obtained from pregnant rats after administration of ATZ, propazine (PRO), and simazine (SIM) via oral route at a dose of 10 mg/kg from day 15 to day 19. Maternal and fetal tissues were harvested at day 20, 24 h after the last dosing. The metabolic extraction ratio was estimated to 87% suggesting a significant first-pass effect explaining the low oral bioavailability. Blood exposure to parent compounds (ATZ, PRO, and SIM) was negligible (lower than 5%) compared with metabolite exposure. The main metabolite exposure involved diamino-s-chlorotriazine, ranging from 60% to 90% depending on the molecules administered. A correlation between tissue-to-blood ratio and physicochemical descriptors was observed for fat and mammary gland tissues but not for brain in adult rats. A more pronounced distribution in fetal brain was observed for ATZ and PRO, the 2 most lipophilic compounds.

8.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105163, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are ubiquitously exposed to organic solvents, such as glycol ethers. Several studies suggest potential developmental neurotoxicity following exposure to glycol ethers with a lack of clarity of possible brain mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between urinary levels of glycol ethers of women during early pregnancy and motor inhibition function of their 10- to 12-year-old children by behavioral assessment and brain imaging. METHODS: Exposure to glycol ethers was assessed by measuring six metabolites in urine (<19 weeks of gestation) of 73 pregnant women of the PELAGIE mother-child cohort (France). Maternal urinary levels were classified as low, medium, or high. Children underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations during which motor inhibition function was assessed with a Go/No-Go task. Analyses were performed using linear regression for task performance and generalized linear mixed-effect models for brain activation, FWER-corrected for multiple testing at the spatial cluster level. Confounders were considered by restriction and a priori adjustment. RESULTS: Higher maternal butoxyacetic acid (BAA) urinary concentrations were associated with poorer child performance (ß = -1.1; 95% CI: -1.9, -0.2 for high vs low). There was also a trend for ethoxyacetic acid (EAA) towards poorer performance (ß = -0.3; 95% CI: -0.7, 0.01). Considering inhibition demand, there were increased activity in occipital regions in association with moderate EAA (left cuneus) and moderate methoxyacetic acid (MAA) (right precuneus). When children succeeded to inhibit, high ethoxyethoxyacetic acid (EEAA) and moderate phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) levels were associated with differential activity in frontal cortex, involved in inhibition network. DISCUSSION: Prenatal urinary levels of two glycol ether metabolites were associated with poorer Go/No-Go task performance. Differential activations were observed in the brain motor inhibition network in relation with successful inhibition, but not with cognitive demand. Nevertheless, there is no consistence between performance indicators and cerebral activity results. Other studies are highly necessary given the ubiquity of glycol ether exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Éteres/urina , Glicóis/urina , Exposição Materna , Atividade Motora , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Acetatos/urina , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Gravidez , Solventes
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133791, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419679

RESUMO

The atoll of Hao, part of the Tuamotu Archipelago in French Polynesia, hosted an air base which was used by France Air Force and Naval Aviation during the nuclear tests. Following the publication of a report in 2012 indicating widespread contamination of the atoll, we conducted a biomonitoring survey to assess the exposure to toxic metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of Hao residents and residents of Makemo, a nearby atoll without any known sources of industrial pollution. Adults and adolescents (≥12 years) randomly sampled from Hao (n = 275) and Makemo (n = 268) provided blood samples for contaminant analyses. Whole blood samples were analysed for cadmium, lead and total mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations of PCBs were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to document lifestyle and a food-frequency questionnaire was used to document dietary habits. Concentrations of contaminants were compared between atolls and associations with sociodemographic and personal characteristics of the participants were investigated. A significantly higher mean (geometric) of blood lead concentration was observed in Hao compared to Makemo (3.75 vs 3.40 µg/L, P = 0.02), whereas similar concentrations were noted for cadmium (0.49 vs 0.50 µg/L, P = 0.58) and mercury (11.4 vs 11.5 µg/L, P = 0.78). Mean total PCBs plasma concentration was significantly higher in Hao than in Makemo participants (0.75 vs 0.32 µg/L, P < 0.001). A significant proportion of participants exceeded toxicological reference values for mercury and lead in both atolls. The higher body burden of PCBs and Pb in Hao compared to Makemo residents may be linked to past air base activities in Hao. According to international standards, PCBs exposure is low; however, exposure to both mercury and lead is high and further investigations are required to identify specific sources of exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Cádmio/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Metais/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Polinésia
10.
Environ Res ; 178: 108679, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) exposure is associated with adverse neurological development. Most notably, it has been observed through externalizing behavior symptoms, as observed among Inuit children from northern Québec. Evidence for a persistent neurological impact of early Pb exposure later in life is however scarce. Pb exposure may initiate a developmental cascade that increases the risk of long-term behavior problems. OBJECTIVES: Testing for direct associations between childhood Pb concentrations and adolescent externalizing symptoms and substance use, as well as indirect associations through childhood behavior assessments. METHODS: The study sample is a longitudinal cohort of Inuit children (n = 212) followed since birth. Blood Pb concentrations were measured during childhood (median age = 11.4 years) and adolescence (median age = 18.5 years). Externalizing/inattentive behavior were teacher-assessed through the Teacher Report Form and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale for children. At the adolescence follow-up, behavior problems were self-reported by filling Achenbach's Youth Self-Report, the Barkley Adult ADHD-IV Rating Scale, and the Diagnostics Interview Schedule for Children. Adolescent substance use was also self-assessed through the DEP-ADO. Direct and indirect associations of child Pb concentrations with adolescent outcomes were tested through mediation models. RESULTS: Child blood Pb concentrations were not directly associated with any adolescent outcomes. On the contrary, childhood Pb exposure was indirectly associated, through childhood externalizing behavior assessments, with adolescent externalizing behaviors, binge drinking, and cannabis use. These indirect associations held after controlling for adolescents' concurrent Pb blood concentrations. DISCUSSION: Our results highlight the indirect but lasting effects of child Pb exposure on adolescent behavior problems, and the importance of childhood externalizing behavior in this relationship. Adverse early-life environment put children on a riskier developmental trajectory, increasing their likelihood of lifelong psychological, social and health problems.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376129

RESUMO

Chlordecone is an organochlorine pesticide that was extensively used to control the banana root borer population in the French West Indies until 1993. Its persistence in soil has led to widespread pollution of the environment, and human beings, including pregnant women, are still exposed to this chemical. High levels of exposure to chlordecone during gestation have been shown to cause congenital anomalies, including undescended testes in rodents. We assessed the associations between chlordecone concentrations in maternal and cord plasma and the risk of congenital anomalies in the Timoun Mother-Child Cohort Study (2004-2007) that included 1068 pregnant women in Guadeloupe. Odds ratios were estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors. The median plasma concentrations in maternal and cord plasma were 0.39 µg/L and 0.20 µg/L, respectively. Thirty-six children were diagnosed with malformations according to the European Registration of Congenital Anomalies guidelines and 25 with undescended testes. There was no association between maternal or cord plasma concentration of chlordecone and the risk of overall malformations nor undescended testes. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to the currently observed environmental levels of chlordecone in French West Indies does not increase the risk of birth defects.

12.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 269, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355164

RESUMO

Childhood obesity prevalence has increased over the last 30 years. The Heart Rate Variability (HRV) studies performed in adults suggest a possible relation between abnormal autonomic regulation and hypertension in the situation of overweight or obesity. Objective: The aims of this study were to explore the early relationships between adiposity and blood pressure and HRV in pre-pubertal children. Methods: Data were collected during the medical examination of the follow-up at 7 years of the TIMOUN mother-child cohort in Guadeloupe. Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI), sum of tricipital and subscapular skinfold thickness, percentage of fat mass, and Waist-to-Height Ratio were measured. A global corpulence score was computed using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and HRV parameters (cardiac holter monitoring) were collected under 2 conditions (calm and tachycardial period). Relations between HRV, SBP, each adiposity indicator and the corpulence score were studied with restricted cubic splines models, and linear regression models. The age at adiposity rebound (AR) was estimated from the individual growth curves. Results: 575 children were included in the SBP study (mean age: 7.7 years, from 85 to 99 months). SBP was linearly correlated with the corpulence score and the zBMI. An increase of 1 in the zBMI was associated with an increase of 2.3 (±0.28) mmHg in SBP. The effect-size of zBMI on SBP was higher in children with early age at AR. Compared to children with normal BMI, children with a zBMI <™2SD had their RMSSD, SDNN, LF and HF indicators in tachycardial conditions significantly reduced by -30, -21, -37, and -48%, respectively. In boys with a zBMI >2SD, we observed a global increase in all HRV parameters (under tachycardial conditions), particularly the LF [ß = 0.43 (±0.18)]. Conclusion: In pre-pubertal period a positive correlation between adiposity excess and SBP was observed with significant changes of HRV in boys, arguing for an early abnormal autonomic regulation and for early preventive intervention in the infancy period, particularly in case of overweight or obesity. Thinness was associated with a reduction in almost all the HRV parameters studied, when compared to normal corpulence, suggesting a decrease in autonomic influence.

13.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 29(1): 29, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346177

RESUMO

Childhood asthma and allergies are particularly prevalent diseases. Our objective is to identify respiratory and allergic phenotypes from birth to 6 years of age, and to explore their environmental determinants, especially those related to the home environment. Data on respiratory and allergic health outcomes and domestic environmental exposure were collected for 935 mother-infant pairs from a longitudinal mother-child cohort based on mothers, included before 19 weeks of gestation in Brittany between 2002 and 2006. Information was obtained by self-administered questionnaires completed by parents at inclusion, delivery, and when the child was 2 and 6 years old. Kml3D clustering was used to describe profiles of children who shared similar trajectories of symptoms as phenotypes. Association with environmental determinants was estimated by polytomous logistic regression. Five phenotypes were identified: a reference group characterized by low symptom levels (31.1%), a transient cough phenotype (36.5%), an eczema/cough phenotype (12.3%), a wheeze/cough phenotype (11.8%), and finally a mixed phenotype (8.0%). The wheeze/cough profile was associated with postnatal exposure to glues used in renovation activities (aOR 2.3 [1.2-4.7]), and the mixed phenotype with postnatal exposure to paint (aOR 2.1 [1-4.5]). The phenotypes observed showed some consistencies with those seen in previous studies. Some exposures associated with respiratory/allergic phenotypes observed in this study are avoidable. If confirmed by further research including interventional trials, home-based environmental counseling could be a possible prevention target for primary care professionals.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264154

RESUMO

Chlordecone was used intensively as an insecticide in the French West Indies. Because of its high persistence, the resulting contamination of food and water has led to chronic exposure of the general population as evidenced by its presence in the blood of people of Guadeloupe, in particular in pregnant women and newborns, and in maternal breast milk. Chlordecone is recognized as a reproductive and developmental toxicant, is neurotoxic and carcinogenic in rodents, and is considered as an endocrine-disrupting compound with well-established estrogenic and progestogenic properties both in vitro and in vivo. The question arises of its potential consequences on child neurodevelopment following prenatal and childhood exposure, in particular on behavioral sexual dimorphism in childhood. We followed 116 children from the TIMOUN mother-child cohort study in Guadeloupe, who were examined at age 7. These children were invited to participate in a 7-min structured play session in which they could choose between different toys considered as feminine, masculine, or neutral. The play session was video recorded, and the percentage of the time spent playing with feminine or masculine toys was calculated. We estimated associations between playtime and prenatal exposure to chlordecone (assessed by concentration in cord blood) or childhood exposure (determined from concentrations in child blood obtained at the 7-year follow-up), taking into account confounders and co-exposures to other environmental chemicals. We used a two-group regression model to take into account sex differences in play behavior. Our results do not indicate any modification in sex-typed toy preference among 7-year-old children in relation with either prenatal or childhood exposure to chlordecone.

15.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 71, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180859

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the author asked to replace Table 2 with the correct version.

16.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 63, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous industries use organic solvents, and many workers from various occupational sectors are exposed to these known neurotoxicants, including pregnant women. Our objective is to explore whether occupational exposure of pregnant women to solvents may impair the neurodevelopment of their babies and consequently affect their behavior in childhood. METHODS: Within the French birth cohort PELAGIE, parents assessed their children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors using items from the Child Behavior Checklist and the Preschool Social Behavior Questionnaire at age 2, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at age 6. The occupational exposure to solvents of the pregnant women was self-reported prospectively at the beginning of their pregnancy (N = 715). We applied structural equation modeling to capture the longitudinal association of prenatal exposure to solvents with children's behavioral traits at 2 and 6 years. RESULTS: Increased externalizing behavior score at age 2 was associated with prenatal exposure to solvents (standardized score: 0.34 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.57) for occasional exposure and 0.26 (0.05, 0.48) for regular exposure). This association was attenuated at age 6 (0.22 (- 0.02, 0.47) for occasional exposure and 0.07 (- 0.14, 0.28) for regular exposure). No association was observed for internalizing behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women's occupational exposure to solvents may affect their children's behavior in early childhood. This effect may be attenuated with aging or diluted by the effects of other postnatal predictors.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Solventes/toxicidade , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Int ; 118: 106-115, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864722

RESUMO

The ultramafic massifs of the New Caledonian archipelago contain about 10% of the world's nickel reserves, which also contain significant but lower amounts of cobalt, chromium, and manganese. Natural erosion of these massifs and mining activities may contribute to the exposure of local populations to these metals through contamination of air, food, and water resources. We conducted a biomonitoring survey to evaluate exposure to these four metals and its main determinants by constructing a stratified sample of 732 adults and children (>3 years old) from visitors to 22 health centers across the archipelago. Urine was collected and analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine metal concentrations. A face-to-face interview was conducted to document sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits, and residence-mine distance. Environmental samples (soil, house dust, water, and foodstuffs) were collected from two areas (one with and one without mining activity) to delineate determinants of exposure in more detail. Nickel and chromium were metals with the highest concentrations found in urine, especially in children, at levels exceeding reference values derived from representative national surveys elsewhere throughout the world (for children: 4.7 µg/g creatinine for nickel and 0.50 µg/g creatinine for chromium): 13% of children exceeded the reference value for nickel and 90% for chromium. Large variations were observed by region, age, and sex. In this geological setting, urinary and environmental nickel concentrations appear to be driven mainly by soil content. This is the first archipelago-wide survey of metal exposure in New Caledonia. The potential health consequences of this chronic high exposure need to be assessed.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Níquel/urina , Adulto , Criança , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais/urina , Nova Caledônia/epidemiologia , Solo/química
18.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198448, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924815

RESUMO

The use of pesticides exposes humans to numerous harmful molecules. Exposure in early-life may be responsible for adverse effects in later life. This study aimed to assess the metabolic modifications induced in pregnant rats and their offspring by a pesticide mixture representative of human exposure. Ten pregnant rats were exposed to a mixture of eight pesticides: acetochlor (246 µg/kg bw/d) + bromoxynil (12 µg/kg bw/d) + carbofuran (22.5 µg/kg bw/d) + chlormequat (35 µg/kg bw/d) + ethephon (22.5 µg/kg bw/d) + fenpropimorph (15.5 µg/kg bw/d) + glyphosate (12 µg/kg bw/d) + imidacloprid (12.5 µg/kg bw/d) representing the main environmental pesticide exposure in Brittany (France) in 2004. Another group of 10 pregnant rats served as controls. Females were fed ad libitum from early pregnancy, which is from gestational day (GD) 4 to GD 21. Urine samples were collected at GD 15. At the end of the exposure, mothers and pups were euthanized and blood, liver, and brain samples collected. 1H NMR-based metabolomics and GC-FID analyses were performed and PCA and PLS-DA used to discriminate between control and exposed groups. Metabolites for which the levels were significantly modified were then identified using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and p-values were adjusted for multiple testing correction using the False Discovery Rate. The metabolomics analysis revealed many differences between dams of the two groups, especially in the plasma, liver and brain. The modified metabolites are involved in TCA cycle, energy production and storage, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and amino-acid metabolism. These modifications suggest that the pesticide mixture may induce oxidative stress associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism. These observations may reflect liver dysfunction with increased relative liver weight and total lipid content. Similar findings were observed for glucose and energy metabolism in the liver of the offspring, and oxidative stress was also suggested in the brains of male offspring.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica/métodos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Carbofurano/efeitos adversos , Clormequat/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , França , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfolinas/efeitos adversos , Neonicotinoides/efeitos adversos , Nitrilos/efeitos adversos , Nitrocompostos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Organofosforados/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos , Toluidinas/efeitos adversos
19.
Neurotoxicology ; 67: 161-168, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803634

RESUMO

Human exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OP) is widespread. Several studies suggest that OP prenatal exposure alters the development of cognitive and behavioural functions in children, but the effects of OP prenatal exposure on child sensory functions are largely unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between OP prenatal exposure and visual processing in school-aged children from the mother-child PELAGIE cohort (France). OP biomarkers of exposure were measured in maternal urine samples at the beginning of pregnancy. The Functional Acuity Contrast Test (FACT) was used to assess visual contrast sensitivity in 180 children at 6 years of age. Linear regression models were performed on all children, and separately for boys and girls, taking into account various potential confounders, including maternal education and breastfeeding. No associations were observed in the whole sample, while maternal OP urinary metabolite levels were associated with a decrease of FACT scores in boys. These findings indicate that OP prenatal exposure might impair visual processing later in life in boys only.


Assuntos
Sensibilidades de Contraste/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Compostos Organofosforados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia
20.
Environ Int ; 113: 66-73, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycol ethers (GEs) are oxygenated solvents widely found in occupational and consumer water-based products. Some of them are well-known reproductive and developmental toxicants. OBJECTIVES: To study the variations in circulating sex steroid hormones, measured in cord blood, according to biomarkers of prenatal GE exposure. METHODS: The study population comes from the PELAGIE mother-child cohort, which enrolled pregnant women from Brittany (France, 2002-2006). Maternal urine samples were collected from a random subcohort (n = 338) before 19 weeks' gestation, from which we measured 8 alkoxycarboxylic metabolites of GEs. We subsequently measured 13 sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in cord blood samples. Linear regressions adjusted for potential confounders were used, and nonlinear dose-response associations were investigated. RESULTS: The detection rates of GE metabolites ranged from 4% to 98%; only the 5 most detected (>20%) metabolites were investigated further. Phenoxyacetic acid (detection rate > 95%) was associated with lower levels of SHBG and various steroids (17-alpha-hydroxy-Pregnenolone, delta-5-androstenediol, and dehydroepiandrosterone) among boys and higher SHBG and 16-alpha-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone levels among girls. The two other highly detected metabolites, methoxyetoxyacetic acid and butoxyacetic acid, were associated with variations in estradiol. Butoxyacetic acid was associated with higher delta-5-androstenediol levels while detectable levels of methoxyacetic acid were associated with lower levels of this hormone. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that prenatal exposure to GE may affect endocrine response patterns, estimated by determining blood levels of sex steroid hormones in newborns. These results raise questions about the potential role of these changes in the pathways between prenatal GE exposure and previously reported adverse developmental outcomes, including impaired neurocognitive performance.


Assuntos
Glicóis/toxicidade , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Exposição Materna , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
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