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1.
Toxicol Sci ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693143

RESUMO

Environmental contamination by chlorotriazines has been evidenced in mother-child cohort suggesting more detailed risk assessment of these compounds in drinking water. Exposure of rodents to atrazine has been associated to alterations of endocrine and reproductive functions by disrupting neuroendocrine control at hypothalamus level. Perinatal exposure to low doses of atrazine has been associated to reproductive dysfunction, and to behavioral abnormalities in adult exposed during embryogenesis. The objectives of the current investigation were to (1) evaluate the influence of physico-chemical properties of chlorotriazines on tissue distribution in pregnant rats and in fetuses, (2) gain a better understanding of fetal distribution of chlorotriazines in specific tissues, particularly in brain. Serial blood samples were obtained from pregnant rats after administration of atrazine (ATZ), propazine (PRO) and simazine (SIM) via oral route at a dose of 10 mg/kg from day 15 to day 19. Maternal and fetal tissues were harvested at day 20, 24 hrs after the last dosing. The metabolic extraction ratio was estimated to 87% suggesting a significant first-pass effect explaining the low oral bioavailability. Blood exposure to parent compounds (ATZ, PRO and SIM) was negligible (lower than 5%) compared to metabolite exposure. The main metabolite exposure involved diamino-s-chlorotriazine (DACT), ranging from 60 to 90% depending on the molecules administered. A correlation between tissue-to-blood ratio and physico-chemical descriptors were observed for fat and mammary gland tissues but not for brain in adult rats. A more pronounced distribution in fetal brain was observed for ATZ and PRO, the two most lipophilic compounds.

2.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105163, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are ubiquitously exposed to organic solvents, such as glycol ethers. Several studies suggest potential developmental neurotoxicity following exposure to glycol ethers with a lack of clarity of possible brain mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between urinary levels of glycol ethers of women during early pregnancy and motor inhibition function of their 10- to 12-year-old children by behavioral assessment and brain imaging. METHODS: Exposure to glycol ethers was assessed by measuring six metabolites in urine (<19 weeks of gestation) of 73 pregnant women of the PELAGIE mother-child cohort (France). Maternal urinary levels were classified as low, medium, or high. Children underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations during which motor inhibition function was assessed with a Go/No-Go task. Analyses were performed using linear regression for task performance and generalized linear mixed-effect models for brain activation, FWER-corrected for multiple testing at the spatial cluster level. Confounders were considered by restriction and a priori adjustment. RESULTS: Higher maternal butoxyacetic acid (BAA) urinary concentrations were associated with poorer child performance (ß = -1.1; 95% CI: -1.9, -0.2 for high vs low). There was also a trend for ethoxyacetic acid (EAA) towards poorer performance (ß = -0.3; 95% CI: -0.7, 0.01). Considering inhibition demand, there were increased activity in occipital regions in association with moderate EAA (left cuneus) and moderate methoxyacetic acid (MAA) (right precuneus). When children succeeded to inhibit, high ethoxyethoxyacetic acid (EEAA) and moderate phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) levels were associated with differential activity in frontal cortex, involved in inhibition network. DISCUSSION: Prenatal urinary levels of two glycol ether metabolites were associated with poorer Go/No-Go task performance. Differential activations were observed in the brain motor inhibition network in relation with successful inhibition, but not with cognitive demand. Nevertheless, there is no consistence between performance indicators and cerebral activity results. Other studies are highly necessary given the ubiquity of glycol ether exposure.

3.
Environ Res ; 178: 108679, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) exposure is associated with adverse neurological development. Most notably, it has been observed through externalizing behavior symptoms, as observed among Inuit children from northern Québec. Evidence for a persistent neurological impact of early Pb exposure later in life is however scarce. Pb exposure may initiate a developmental cascade that increases the risk of long-term behavior problems. OBJECTIVES: Testing for direct associations between childhood Pb concentrations and adolescent externalizing symptoms and substance use, as well as indirect associations through childhood behavior assessments. METHODS: The study sample is a longitudinal cohort of Inuit children (n = 212) followed since birth. Blood Pb concentrations were measured during childhood (median age = 11.4 years) and adolescence (median age = 18.5 years). Externalizing/inattentive behavior were teacher-assessed through the Teacher Report Form and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale for children. At the adolescence follow-up, behavior problems were self-reported by filling Achenbach's Youth Self-Report, the Barkley Adult ADHD-IV Rating Scale, and the Diagnostics Interview Schedule for Children. Adolescent substance use was also self-assessed through the DEP-ADO. Direct and indirect associations of child Pb concentrations with adolescent outcomes were tested through mediation models. RESULTS: Child blood Pb concentrations were not directly associated with any adolescent outcomes. On the contrary, childhood Pb exposure was indirectly associated, through childhood externalizing behavior assessments, with adolescent externalizing behaviors, binge drinking, and cannabis use. These indirect associations held after controlling for adolescents' concurrent Pb blood concentrations. DISCUSSION: Our results highlight the indirect but lasting effects of child Pb exposure on adolescent behavior problems, and the importance of childhood externalizing behavior in this relationship. Adverse early-life environment put children on a riskier developmental trajectory, increasing their likelihood of lifelong psychological, social and health problems.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133791, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419679

RESUMO

The atoll of Hao, part of the Tuamotu Archipelago in French Polynesia, hosted an air base which was used by France Air Force and Naval Aviation during the nuclear tests. Following the publication of a report in 2012 indicating widespread contamination of the atoll, we conducted a biomonitoring survey to assess the exposure to toxic metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of Hao residents and residents of Makemo, a nearby atoll without any known sources of industrial pollution. Adults and adolescents (≥12 years) randomly sampled from Hao (n = 275) and Makemo (n = 268) provided blood samples for contaminant analyses. Whole blood samples were analysed for cadmium, lead and total mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations of PCBs were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to document lifestyle and a food-frequency questionnaire was used to document dietary habits. Concentrations of contaminants were compared between atolls and associations with sociodemographic and personal characteristics of the participants were investigated. A significantly higher mean (geometric) of blood lead concentration was observed in Hao compared to Makemo (3.75 vs 3.40 µg/L, P = 0.02), whereas similar concentrations were noted for cadmium (0.49 vs 0.50 µg/L, P = 0.58) and mercury (11.4 vs 11.5 µg/L, P = 0.78). Mean total PCBs plasma concentration was significantly higher in Hao than in Makemo participants (0.75 vs 0.32 µg/L, P < 0.001). A significant proportion of participants exceeded toxicological reference values for mercury and lead in both atolls. The higher body burden of PCBs and Pb in Hao compared to Makemo residents may be linked to past air base activities in Hao. According to international standards, PCBs exposure is low; however, exposure to both mercury and lead is high and further investigations are required to identify specific sources of exposure.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376129

RESUMO

Chlordecone is an organochlorine pesticide that was extensively used to control the banana root borer population in the French West Indies until 1993. Its persistence in soil has led to widespread pollution of the environment, and human beings, including pregnant women, are still exposed to this chemical. High levels of exposure to chlordecone during gestation have been shown to cause congenital anomalies, including undescended testes in rodents. We assessed the associations between chlordecone concentrations in maternal and cord plasma and the risk of congenital anomalies in the Timoun Mother-Child Cohort Study (2004-2007) that included 1068 pregnant women in Guadeloupe. Odds ratios were estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors. The median plasma concentrations in maternal and cord plasma were 0.39 µg/L and 0.20 µg/L, respectively. Thirty-six children were diagnosed with malformations according to the European Registration of Congenital Anomalies guidelines and 25 with undescended testes. There was no association between maternal or cord plasma concentration of chlordecone and the risk of overall malformations nor undescended testes. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to the currently observed environmental levels of chlordecone in French West Indies does not increase the risk of birth defects.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264154

RESUMO

Chlordecone was used intensively as an insecticide in the French West Indies. Because of its high persistence, the resulting contamination of food and water has led to chronic exposure of the general population as evidenced by its presence in the blood of people of Guadeloupe, in particular in pregnant women and newborns, and in maternal breast milk. Chlordecone is recognized as a reproductive and developmental toxicant, is neurotoxic and carcinogenic in rodents, and is considered as an endocrine-disrupting compound with well-established estrogenic and progestogenic properties both in vitro and in vivo. The question arises of its potential consequences on child neurodevelopment following prenatal and childhood exposure, in particular on behavioral sexual dimorphism in childhood. We followed 116 children from the TIMOUN mother-child cohort study in Guadeloupe, who were examined at age 7. These children were invited to participate in a 7-min structured play session in which they could choose between different toys considered as feminine, masculine, or neutral. The play session was video recorded, and the percentage of the time spent playing with feminine or masculine toys was calculated. We estimated associations between playtime and prenatal exposure to chlordecone (assessed by concentration in cord blood) or childhood exposure (determined from concentrations in child blood obtained at the 7-year follow-up), taking into account confounders and co-exposures to other environmental chemicals. We used a two-group regression model to take into account sex differences in play behavior. Our results do not indicate any modification in sex-typed toy preference among 7-year-old children in relation with either prenatal or childhood exposure to chlordecone.

7.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 29(1): 29, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346177

RESUMO

Childhood asthma and allergies are particularly prevalent diseases. Our objective is to identify respiratory and allergic phenotypes from birth to 6 years of age, and to explore their environmental determinants, especially those related to the home environment. Data on respiratory and allergic health outcomes and domestic environmental exposure were collected for 935 mother-infant pairs from a longitudinal mother-child cohort based on mothers, included before 19 weeks of gestation in Brittany between 2002 and 2006. Information was obtained by self-administered questionnaires completed by parents at inclusion, delivery, and when the child was 2 and 6 years old. Kml3D clustering was used to describe profiles of children who shared similar trajectories of symptoms as phenotypes. Association with environmental determinants was estimated by polytomous logistic regression. Five phenotypes were identified: a reference group characterized by low symptom levels (31.1%), a transient cough phenotype (36.5%), an eczema/cough phenotype (12.3%), a wheeze/cough phenotype (11.8%), and finally a mixed phenotype (8.0%). The wheeze/cough profile was associated with postnatal exposure to glues used in renovation activities (aOR 2.3 [1.2-4.7]), and the mixed phenotype with postnatal exposure to paint (aOR 2.1 [1-4.5]). The phenotypes observed showed some consistencies with those seen in previous studies. Some exposures associated with respiratory/allergic phenotypes observed in this study are avoidable. If confirmed by further research including interventional trials, home-based environmental counseling could be a possible prevention target for primary care professionals.

8.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 71, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180859

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the author asked to replace Table 2 with the correct version.

9.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 63, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous industries use organic solvents, and many workers from various occupational sectors are exposed to these known neurotoxicants, including pregnant women. Our objective is to explore whether occupational exposure of pregnant women to solvents may impair the neurodevelopment of their babies and consequently affect their behavior in childhood. METHODS: Within the French birth cohort PELAGIE, parents assessed their children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors using items from the Child Behavior Checklist and the Preschool Social Behavior Questionnaire at age 2, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at age 6. The occupational exposure to solvents of the pregnant women was self-reported prospectively at the beginning of their pregnancy (N = 715). We applied structural equation modeling to capture the longitudinal association of prenatal exposure to solvents with children's behavioral traits at 2 and 6 years. RESULTS: Increased externalizing behavior score at age 2 was associated with prenatal exposure to solvents (standardized score: 0.34 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.57) for occasional exposure and 0.26 (0.05, 0.48) for regular exposure). This association was attenuated at age 6 (0.22 (- 0.02, 0.47) for occasional exposure and 0.07 (- 0.14, 0.28) for regular exposure). No association was observed for internalizing behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women's occupational exposure to solvents may affect their children's behavior in early childhood. This effect may be attenuated with aging or diluted by the effects of other postnatal predictors.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198448, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924815

RESUMO

The use of pesticides exposes humans to numerous harmful molecules. Exposure in early-life may be responsible for adverse effects in later life. This study aimed to assess the metabolic modifications induced in pregnant rats and their offspring by a pesticide mixture representative of human exposure. Ten pregnant rats were exposed to a mixture of eight pesticides: acetochlor (246 µg/kg bw/d) + bromoxynil (12 µg/kg bw/d) + carbofuran (22.5 µg/kg bw/d) + chlormequat (35 µg/kg bw/d) + ethephon (22.5 µg/kg bw/d) + fenpropimorph (15.5 µg/kg bw/d) + glyphosate (12 µg/kg bw/d) + imidacloprid (12.5 µg/kg bw/d) representing the main environmental pesticide exposure in Brittany (France) in 2004. Another group of 10 pregnant rats served as controls. Females were fed ad libitum from early pregnancy, which is from gestational day (GD) 4 to GD 21. Urine samples were collected at GD 15. At the end of the exposure, mothers and pups were euthanized and blood, liver, and brain samples collected. 1H NMR-based metabolomics and GC-FID analyses were performed and PCA and PLS-DA used to discriminate between control and exposed groups. Metabolites for which the levels were significantly modified were then identified using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and p-values were adjusted for multiple testing correction using the False Discovery Rate. The metabolomics analysis revealed many differences between dams of the two groups, especially in the plasma, liver and brain. The modified metabolites are involved in TCA cycle, energy production and storage, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and amino-acid metabolism. These modifications suggest that the pesticide mixture may induce oxidative stress associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism. These observations may reflect liver dysfunction with increased relative liver weight and total lipid content. Similar findings were observed for glucose and energy metabolism in the liver of the offspring, and oxidative stress was also suggested in the brains of male offspring.

11.
Environ Int ; 118: 106-115, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864722

RESUMO

The ultramafic massifs of the New Caledonian archipelago contain about 10% of the world's nickel reserves, which also contain significant but lower amounts of cobalt, chromium, and manganese. Natural erosion of these massifs and mining activities may contribute to the exposure of local populations to these metals through contamination of air, food, and water resources. We conducted a biomonitoring survey to evaluate exposure to these four metals and its main determinants by constructing a stratified sample of 732 adults and children (>3 years old) from visitors to 22 health centers across the archipelago. Urine was collected and analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine metal concentrations. A face-to-face interview was conducted to document sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits, and residence-mine distance. Environmental samples (soil, house dust, water, and foodstuffs) were collected from two areas (one with and one without mining activity) to delineate determinants of exposure in more detail. Nickel and chromium were metals with the highest concentrations found in urine, especially in children, at levels exceeding reference values derived from representative national surveys elsewhere throughout the world (for children: 4.7 µg/g creatinine for nickel and 0.50 µg/g creatinine for chromium): 13% of children exceeded the reference value for nickel and 90% for chromium. Large variations were observed by region, age, and sex. In this geological setting, urinary and environmental nickel concentrations appear to be driven mainly by soil content. This is the first archipelago-wide survey of metal exposure in New Caledonia. The potential health consequences of this chronic high exposure need to be assessed.

12.
Neurotoxicology ; 67: 161-168, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803634

RESUMO

Human exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OP) is widespread. Several studies suggest that OP prenatal exposure alters the development of cognitive and behavioural functions in children, but the effects of OP prenatal exposure on child sensory functions are largely unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between OP prenatal exposure and visual processing in school-aged children from the mother-child PELAGIE cohort (France). OP biomarkers of exposure were measured in maternal urine samples at the beginning of pregnancy. The Functional Acuity Contrast Test (FACT) was used to assess visual contrast sensitivity in 180 children at 6 years of age. Linear regression models were performed on all children, and separately for boys and girls, taking into account various potential confounders, including maternal education and breastfeeding. No associations were observed in the whole sample, while maternal OP urinary metabolite levels were associated with a decrease of FACT scores in boys. These findings indicate that OP prenatal exposure might impair visual processing later in life in boys only.

13.
Environ Int ; 113: 66-73, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycol ethers (GEs) are oxygenated solvents widely found in occupational and consumer water-based products. Some of them are well-known reproductive and developmental toxicants. OBJECTIVES: To study the variations in circulating sex steroid hormones, measured in cord blood, according to biomarkers of prenatal GE exposure. METHODS: The study population comes from the PELAGIE mother-child cohort, which enrolled pregnant women from Brittany (France, 2002-2006). Maternal urine samples were collected from a random subcohort (n = 338) before 19 weeks' gestation, from which we measured 8 alkoxycarboxylic metabolites of GEs. We subsequently measured 13 sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in cord blood samples. Linear regressions adjusted for potential confounders were used, and nonlinear dose-response associations were investigated. RESULTS: The detection rates of GE metabolites ranged from 4% to 98%; only the 5 most detected (>20%) metabolites were investigated further. Phenoxyacetic acid (detection rate > 95%) was associated with lower levels of SHBG and various steroids (17-alpha-hydroxy-Pregnenolone, delta-5-androstenediol, and dehydroepiandrosterone) among boys and higher SHBG and 16-alpha-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone levels among girls. The two other highly detected metabolites, methoxyetoxyacetic acid and butoxyacetic acid, were associated with variations in estradiol. Butoxyacetic acid was associated with higher delta-5-androstenediol levels while detectable levels of methoxyacetic acid were associated with lower levels of this hormone. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that prenatal exposure to GE may affect endocrine response patterns, estimated by determining blood levels of sex steroid hormones in newborns. These results raise questions about the potential role of these changes in the pathways between prenatal GE exposure and previously reported adverse developmental outcomes, including impaired neurocognitive performance.

14.
Occup Environ Med ; 75(1): 59-65, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Glycol ethers (GE) are oxygenated solvents frequently found in occupational and consumer products. Some of them are well-known testicular and developmental animal toxicants. This study aims to evaluate the risk of male genital anomalies in association with prenatal exposure to GE using urinary biomarkers of exposure. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested in two joint mother-child cohorts (5303 pregnant women). Cases of cryptorchidism and hypospadias were identified at birth and confirmed during a 2-year follow-up period (n=14 cryptorchidism and n=15 hypospadias). Each case was matched to three randomly selected controls within the cohorts for region of inclusion and gestational age at urine sampling. Concentrations of five GE acidic metabolites were measured in spot maternal urine samples collected during pregnancy. ORs were estimated with multivariate conditional logistic regressions including a Firth's penalisation. RESULTS: Detection rates of urinary GE metabolites ranged from 8% to 93% and only two were sufficiently detected (>33%) in each cohort to be studied: methoxyacetic acid (MAA) and phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA). A significantly higher risk of hypospadias was associated with the highest tertile of exposure to MAA: OR (95% CI) 4.5(1.4 to 23.4). No association were observed with urinary concentration of PhAA, nor with the risk of cryptorchidism. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the toxicological plausibility of our results, this study, despite its small sample size, raises concern about the potential developmental toxicity of MAA on the male genital system and calls for thorough identification of current sources of exposure to MAA.


Assuntos
Acetatos/efeitos adversos , Criptorquidismo/etiologia , Éteres/efeitos adversos , Glicóis/efeitos adversos , Hipospadia/etiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Substâncias Perigosas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 32(9): 751-764, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027084

RESUMO

Women who drink light-to-moderately during pregnancy have been observed to have lower risk of unfavourable pregnancy outcomes than abstainers. This has been suggested to be a result of bias. In a pooled sample, including 193 747 live-born singletons from nine European cohorts, we examined the associations between light-to-moderate drinking and preterm birth, birth weight, and small-for-gestational age in term born children (term SGA). To address potential sources of bias, we compared the associations from the total sample with a sub-sample restricted to first-time pregnant women who conceived within six months of trying, and examined whether the associations varied across calendar time. In the total sample, drinking up to around six drinks per week as compared to abstaining was associated with lower risk of preterm birth, whereas no significant associations were found for birth weight or term SGA. Drinking six or more drinks per week was associated with lower birth weight and higher risk of term SGA, but no increased risk of preterm birth. The analyses restricted to women without reproductive experience revealed similar results. Before 2000 approximately half of pregnant women drank alcohol. This decreased to 39% in 2000-2004, and 14% in 2005-2011. Before 2000, every additional drink was associated with reduced mean birth weight, whereas in 2005-2011, the mean birth weight increased with increasing intake. The period-specific associations between low-to-moderate drinking and birth weight, which also were observed for term SGA, are indicative of bias. It is impossible to distinguish if the bias is attributable to unmeasured confounding, which change over time or cohort heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Viés , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
Am J Ind Med ; 60(6): 578-590, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28514021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are occupationally exposed to various hazards, some associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous reviews. This systematic review aims at synthesizing the recent literature on occupational exposures among HCWs related to fetal death, congenital anomalies, and fertility disorders. METHODS: We searched the Medline database from 2000 to 2015 for articles about all potential occupational exposures of women and men working in this sector. RESULTS: We retained 32 studies, most of them (n = 30) among women HCWs. Studies based on job title reported excess risks of some congenital anomalies (especially nervous and musculoskeletal systems) among HCWs compared to non-HCWs but no evidence about fetal death. Excess risks associated with specific exposures includes reports of some congenital anomalies for women exposed to anesthetic gases. Exposure to some sterilizing agents and, with less evidence, to antineoplastic drugs and to ionizing radiation, is associated with increased risks of miscarriage but not stillbirth. Strenuous work schedules appear to be associated with fertility disorders, but the evidence is limited. Only a few studies have been published since 2000 about non-ionizing radiation, or about fertility disorders related to chemical or physical agents, or about male HCWs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the establishment of recommendations to limit exposures of HCWs, some excess risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes are still reported and need to be explained.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Infertilidade/etiologia , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia
18.
Environ Int ; 104: 76-82, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453973

RESUMO

Pyrethroids are insecticides frequently used in agriculture and in the home; exposure occurs through dietary and non-dietary pathways, including indoor and outdoor environmental contamination. Our objective was to study the potential determinants of pyrethroid metabolite concentrations measured in children's urine samples and in the dust of their homes. Specifically, we measured urinary metabolites from morning spot samples of 245 six-year-old children living in Brittany (France) in 2009-2012 and from dust vacuumed from the floor of their homes. Mothers reported home insecticide use, dietary habits, sociodemographic data; residential and school proximity to agricultural crops was assessed with spatialized data. The metabolites cis-DBCA, trans-DCCA, cis-DCCA, 3-PBA, and F-PBA were detected in 84, 95, 64, 63, and 16% of the urine samples, respectively. Permethrin, cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, and tetramethrin pyrethroids were detected in 100, 56, 9, 15, and 26% of the dust samples, respectively. Multiple regression analysis suggested diet plays a role in children's exposure, in particular, the food groups "pasta, rice or semolina" (for cis-DCCA and F-PBA), fruit (3-PBA), "breakfast cereals and whole grain bread" (cis-DBCA), and the global proportion of organic food in diet (for cis-DBCA, trans-DCCA). Children with a parent occupationally exposed to pesticides were about 3-times more likely to have higher urinary concentrations of 3-PBA (OR=2.8, 95% CI [1.2; 6.5]). Dust content was correlated mainly with household insecticide use: higher mean concentrations of permethrin (ß=0.8 [0.3; 1.3], in µg/g) and an increased risk of a detectable level of cyfluthrin (OR=4.7 [1.7; 12.9]) were observed in home dust, for indoor use of at least twice a year. Outdoor insecticide use at least once a year was associated with detection in dust of cypermethrin (OR=3.0 [1.3; 6.7]) and tetramethrin (OR=3.7 [1.6; 8.3]). Three positive and one negative correlations (out of 11) between urinary metabolite concentrations and home dust contents of their possible corresponding parent compounds were observed. The strength of this study lies in its concurrent use of biomarkers, environmental measurements, and potential sources of exposure. Its limitations include the use of a single urine sample and imprecise data about pyrethroid use in local agriculture.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Agricultura , Criança , Dieta , Poeira/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , França , Habitação , Humanos , Inseticidas/urina , Masculino , Piretrinas/urina , Análise de Regressão
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(5): 1465-1477, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338907

RESUMO

Background: It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to n-3 long-chain fatty acids protects against asthma and other allergy-related diseases later in childhood. The extent to which fish intake in pregnancy protects against child asthma and rhinitis symptoms remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether fish and seafood consumption in pregnancy is associated with childhood wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis. Methods: We pooled individual data from 60 774 mother-child pairs participating in 18 European and US birth cohort studies. Information on wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence was collected using validated questionnaires. The time periods of interest were: infancy (0-2 years), preschool age (3-4 years), and school age (5-8 years). We used multivariable generalized models to assess associations of fish and seafood (other than fish) consumption during pregnancy with child respiratory outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. Results: The median fish consumption during pregnancy ranged from 0.44 times/week in The Netherlands to 4.46 times/week in Spain. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy was not associated with offspring wheeze symptoms in any age group nor with the risk of child asthma [adjusted meta-analysis relative risk (RR) per 1-time/week = 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.05)] and allergic rhinitis at school age (RR = 1.01, 0.99-1.03). These results were consistently found in further analyses by type of fish and seafood consumption and in sensitivity analyses. Conclusion: We found no evidence supporting a protective association of fish and seafood consumption during pregnancy with offspring symptoms of wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis from infancy to mid childhood.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Sons Respiratórios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Occup Environ Med ; 74(4): 275-281, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28250046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The potential impact of environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides on child neurodevelopment has only just started to receive attention despite their widespread use. We investigated the associations between prenatal and childhood exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and behavioural skills in 6-year-olds. METHODS: The PELAGIE cohort enrolled 3421 pregnant women from Brittany, France between 2002 and 2006. 428 mothers were randomly selected for the study when their children turned 6, and 287 (67%) agreed to participate. Children's behaviour was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Three subscales (prosocial behaviour, internalising disorders and externalising disorders) were considered. Five pyrethroid metabolites were measured in maternal and child urine samples collected between 6 and 19 gestational weeks and at 6 years of age, respectively. Logistic regression and reverse-scale Cox regression models were used to estimate the associations between SDQ scores and urinary pyrethroid metabolite concentrations, adjusting for organophosphate metabolite concentrations and potential confounders. RESULTS: Increased prenatal cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA) concentrations were associated with internalising difficulties (Cox p value=0.05). For childhood 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) concentrations, a positive association was observed with externalising difficulties (Cox p value=0.04) and high ORs were found for abnormal or borderline social behaviour (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.27 to 6.78, and OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.80 to 4.57, for the intermediate and highest metabolite categories, respectively). High childhood trans-DCCA concentrations were associated with reduced externalising disorders (Cox p value=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that exposure to certain pyrethroids, at environmental levels, may negatively affect neurobehavioral development by 6 years of age.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Piretrinas/urina
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