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1.
J Nutr ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell membrane fatty acid composition has been related to inflammation and cardiovascular risk. Dysregulation of HDL functionis also considered a cardiovascular risk factor. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether the content of cell membrane fatty acids and HDL functionality are linked to each other as well as to inflammation. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis involved 259 participants (67.9 y) with overweight/obesity (body mass index 29.5 kg/m2) from a coronary heart disease case-control study nested within the PREDIMED trial for which HDL functional parameters (Apolipoproteins (Apo) A-1, A-IV and C-III, cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), HDL oxidative inflammatory index (HOII), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), serum amyloid A (SAA) and complement-3 (C3) protein) were quantified. We also assessed 22 fatty acids in blood cell membranes using gas chromatography and inflammatory markers (interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukins (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) in serum. Associations of HDL-related variables with cell membrane fatty acids and with inflammatory markers were assessed using multivariable linear regression analyses with elastic net penalty. RESULTS: ApoA-1, ApoC-III, CEC, HOII, S1P, and SAA, but not ApoA-IV and C3 protein, were associated with membrane fatty acids. S1P and SAA were directly associated with IL-6, while ApoA-1 and C3 protein showed inverse association with IL-6. Specific fatty acids including 14:0 and long chain n-6 fatty acids being negatively and positively, respectively, associated with IL-8 were also found to be positively associated with SAA. CONCLUSION: This study suggests interrelationships between indicators of inflammation and both blood cell membrane fatty acid composition and HDL structure/functional parameters in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of a Mediterranean diet, adequate levels of physical activity, and energy-restricted lifestyle interventions have been individually associated with improvements in HDL functions. Evidence of intensive interventions with calorie restriction and physical activity is, however, scarce. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether an intensive lifestyle intervention with an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet plus physical activity enhanced HDL function compared to a non-hypocaloric Mediterranean eating pattern without physical activity. METHODS: In 391 older adults with metabolic syndrome (mean age, 65 years; mean BMI, 33.3 kg/m2) from 1 of the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea-Plus trial centers, we evaluated the impact of a 6-month intervention with an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet plus physical activity (intensive lifestyle; n = 190) relative to a nonrestrictive Mediterranean diet without physical activity (control; n = 201) on a set of HDL functional traits. These included cholesterol efflux capacity, HDL oxidative/inflammatory index, HDL oxidation, and levels of complement component 3, serum amyloid A, sphingosine-1-phosphate, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins A-I, A-IV, C-III, and E in apoB-depleted plasma. RESULTS: The intensive-lifestyle intervention participants displayed greater 6-month weight reductions (-3.83 kg; 95% CI: -4.57 to -3.09 kg) but no changes in HDL cholesterol compared with control-diet participants. Regarding HDL functional traits, the intensive lifestyle decreased triglyceride levels (-0.15 mg/g protein; 95% CI: -0.29 to -0.014 mg/g protein) and apoC-III (-0.11 mg/g protein; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.026 mg/g protein) compared to the control diet, with weight loss being the essential mediator (proportions of mediation were 77.4% and 72.1% for triglycerides and apoC-III levels in HDL, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In older adults with metabolic syndrome, an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet plus physical activity improved the HDL triglyceride metabolism compared with a nonrestrictive Mediterranean diet without physical activity. This trial is registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN89898870.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 40(9): 5221-5237, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Some cognitive profiles might facilitate successful weight loss and its maintenance. Also, weight reductions may result in cognitive benefits. However, little work to date has examined the interactions between cognition and weight changes in the context of interventions with the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). We studied the within-subject longitudinal relationships between cognition, body mass index (BMI), physical activity (PA), and quality of life (QoL), in older adults following a MedDiet. METHODS: The PREDIMED-Plus is a primary prevention trial testing the effect of a lifestyle intervention program with an energy-restricted MedDiet (er-MedDiet), weight-loss goals and PA promotion on cardiovascular disease. The PREDIMED-Plus-Cognition sub-study included 487 participants (50% women, mean age 65.2 ± 4.7 years), with overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and normal cognitive performance at baseline. A comprehensive neurocognitive test battery was administered at baseline and after 1 and 3 years. RESULTS: Baseline higher performance in verbal memory (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.0, 2.1), visuoconstructive praxis and attention (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 0.9, 2.3), and inhibition (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 0.9, 1.9) were associated with a higher odd of achieving at least 8% weight loss after 3 years follow-up in participants randomized to the intervention group. There were moderate improvements in specific tests of memory and executive functions during follow-up. Higher adherence to the er-MedDiet was associated with greater improvements in memory. Women exhibited lower rates of change in global cognition, PA and QoL. Moreover, improvements in memory correlated with reductions in BMI after 1 year (ßSTD = -0.14) and with improvements in PA after 3 years (ßSTD = 0.13). Finally, participants who experienced greater improvements in executive functions and global cognition also experienced greater improvements in their QoL. CONCLUSIONS: This study refines the understanding of the determinants and mutual interrelationships between longitudinally-assessed cognitive performance and weight loss, adding further evidence to the cognitive benefits associated with better adherence to a MedDiet. Our results also suggest that weight loss interventions tailored to the cognitive profile and gender of participants are promising avenues for future studies.

5.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(10): 2870-2886, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as physical activity (PA) and Mediterranean diet (MD), decrease metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim was to assess 1-year changes of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), sedentary behavior, and diet quality according to MetS severity in older population at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective analysis of 55-75-year-old 4359 overweight/obese participants with MetS (PREDIMED-Plus trial) categorized in tertiles according to 1-year changes of a validated MetS severity score (MetSSS). Anthropometrics, visceral adiposity index, triglycerides and glucose index, dietary nutrient intake, biochemical marker levels, dietary inflammatory index, and depression symptoms were measured. Diet quality was assessed by 17-item MD questionnaire. PAs were self-reported using the Minnesota-REGICOR Short Physical Activity Questionnaire and 30-s chair stand test. Sedentary behaviors were measured using the Spanish version of the Nurses' Health Study questionnaire. After 1-year follow-up, decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grain cereals, white fish, and bluefish and low intake of refined cereals, red and processed meat, cookies/sweets, and snacks/ready-to-eat-meals. It resulted in high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, fiber, vitamins B1, B6, B9, C, D, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus and low glycemic index and saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and carbohydrates intake. Regarding PA and sedentary behavior, decreasing MetSSS was associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous LTPA, chair stand test, and decreased sedentary and TV-viewing time. CONCLUSION: Decreasing MetSSS was associated with an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern, high LTPA, high MD adherence, low sedentary time, and low depression risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444940

RESUMO

According to the food addiction (FA) model, the consumption of certain types of food could be potentially addictive and can lead to changes in intake regulation. We aimed to describe metabolic parameters, dietary characteristics, and affective and neurocognitive vulnerabilities of individuals with and without FA, and to explore its influences on weight loss progression. The sample included 448 adults (55-75 years) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus cognition sub-study. Cognitive and psychopathological assessments, as well as dietary, biochemical, and metabolic measurements, were assessed at baseline. Weight progression was evaluated after a 3-year follow up. The presence of FA was associated with higher depressive symptomatology, neurocognitive decline, low quality of life, high body mass index (BMI), and high waist circumference, but not with metabolic comorbidities. No differences were observed in the dietary characteristics except for the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids consumption. After three years, the presence of FA at baseline resulted in a significantly higher weight regain. FA is associated with worse psychological and neurocognitive state and higher weight regain in adults with metabolic syndrome. This condition could be an indicator of bad prognosis in the search for a successful weight loss process.


Assuntos
Dependência de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Cognição , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perda de Peso
7.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340911

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Quantification of cardiovascular risk has been based on scores such as Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR, SCORE or Life's Simple 7 (LS7). In vitro, animal, and randomized clinical studies have shown that polyphenols may provide benefits to the vascular system and reduce the inflammatory response. However, some clinical-epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent results. Our aim was to assess the possible association between intake of the various polyphenol classes and established cardiovascular scores. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis involved 6633 PREDIMED-Plus study participants. Food polyphenol content was estimated by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, adjusted for total energy intake according to the residual method. The association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular risk was tested using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Total polyphenol and flavonoid intake were directly and significantly associated only with the LS7 scale. Intake of lignans was directly and significantly associated with SCORE and LS7 scales, stilbene intake with SCORE, and phenolic acid intake with Framingham and Framingham-REGICOR scores. Other polyphenol classes were associated in a protective and significant manner in Framingham, SCORE and LS7 scores. In women, intake of all the polyphenol classes, except phenolic acids, showed a protective trend in the results of the Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR scores and LS7 scale. CONCLUSIONS: An inverse association was found between consumption of the 'other polyphenols' class and, especially among women, with estimated cardiovascular risk. The results were similar to those of Framingham, Framingham-REGICOR and LS7 (after eliminating the diet component) and differed from those of SCORE, but the predictors included were limited in the latter case.

8.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368892

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We explored the cross-sectional association between the adherence to three different provegetarian (PVG) food patterns defined as general (gPVG), healthful (hPVG) and unhealthful (uPVG), and the cardiometabolic risk in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) of the PREDIMED-Plus randomized intervention study. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 6439 participants of the PREDIMED-Plus randomized intervention study. The gPVG food pattern was built by positively scoring plant foods (vegetables/fruits/legumes/grains/potatoes/nuts/olive oil) and negatively scoring, animal foods (meat and meat products/animal fats/eggs/fish and seafood/dairy products). The hPVG and uPVG were generated from the gPVG by adding four new food groups (tea and coffee/fruit juices/sugar-sweetened beverages/sweets and desserts), splitting grains and potatoes and scoring them differently. Multivariable-adjusted robust linear regression using MM-type estimator was used to assess the association between PVG food patterns and the standardized Metabolic Syndrome score (MetS z-score), a composed index that has been previously used to ascertain the cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: A higher adherence to the gPVG and hPVG was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in multivariable models. The regression coefficients for 5th vs. 1st quintile were - 0.16 (95% CI: - 0.33 to 0.01) for gPVG (p trend: 0.015), and - 0.23 (95% CI: - 0.41 to - 0.05) for hPVG (p trend: 0.016). In contrast, a higher adherence to the uPVG was associated with higher cardiometabolic risk, 0.21 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.38) (p trend: 0.019). CONCLUSION: Higher adherence to gPVG and hPVG food patterns was generally associated with lower cardiovascular risk, whereas higher adherence to uPVG was associated to higher cardiovascular risk.

9.
Clin Nutr ; 40(8): 4971-4979, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short dietary assessment tools can be useful to estimate food intake and diet quality in large-scale epidemiological studies with time constraints. OBJECTIVE: To determine the concurrent validity of the 17-item energy-restricted Mediterranean Adherence Screener (er-MEDAS) used in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea)-Plus trial and to analyse its capacity to detect 1-year changes in diet and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: Validation study nested in the PREDIMED-Plus (n = 6760, 55-75 years). Dietary data were collected by the 17-item er-MEDAS and a 143-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after 1-year intervention. Cardiometabolic risk markers were measured at both time points. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) score was derived from both instruments. Concurrent validity was evaluated by Pearson and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland and Altman limits of agreement. Construct validity was evaluated by assessing 1-year changes in FFQ-reported dietary intake and cardiometabolic profile changes in relation to changes in er-MEDAS. RESULTS: A moderate to good correlation between the MedDiet score calculated by both measurement instruments was found: r = 0.61 and ICC = 0.60 (both p < 0.001). Agreement of each of the er-MEDAS items ranged from 55.4% to 85.0% with a moderate mean concordance (kappa = 0.41). Between baseline and 1-year follow-up, energy intake measured by the FFQ decreased by 242 kcal, while Mediterranean food consumption increased in participants with the highest increase in the er-MEDAS MedDiet score. An increase in the er-MEDAS MedDiet score ratings was associated with a decrease in BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, fasting glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p < 0.001 for all), and with an increase in HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The er-MEDAS shows a modest to good concurrent validity compared with FFQ data. It shows acceptable construct validity, as a greater er-MEDAS score was associated with more favourable dietary and cardiometabolic profiles over time. TRIAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN89898870; registration date, 24 July 2014. https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870.

10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371982

RESUMO

The association between ultra-processed food (UPF) and risk of cardiometabolic disorders is an ongoing concern. Different food processing-based classification systems have originated discrepancies in the conclusions among studies. To test whether the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic markers changes with the classification system, we used baseline data from 5636 participants (48.5% female and 51.5% male, mean age 65.1 ± 4.9) of the PREDIMED-Plus ("PREvention with MEDiterranean DIet") trial. Subjects presented with overweight or obesity and met at least three metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria. Food consumption was classified using a 143-item food frequency questionnaire according to four food processing-based classifications: NOVA, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), International Food Information Council (IFIC) and University of North Carolina (UNC). Mean changes in nutritional and cardiometabolic markers were assessed according to quintiles of UPF consumption for each system. The association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic markers was assessed using linear regression analysis. The concordance of the different classifications was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC3, overall = 0.51). The highest UPF consumption was obtained with the IARC classification (45.9%) and the lowest with NOVA (7.9%). Subjects with high UPF consumption showed a poor dietary profile. We detected a direct association between UPF consumption and BMI (p = 0.001) when using the NOVA system, and with systolic (p = 0.018) and diastolic (p = 0.042) blood pressure when using the UNC system. Food classification methodologies markedly influenced the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic risk markers.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/classificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/classificação , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/classificação , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 65(17): e2100363, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273124

RESUMO

SCOPE: Plasma fatty acids (FAs) are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. The aim of our study is to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and plasma FAs and their subtypes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma FAs are assessed in a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample of 240 subjects from the PREDIMED-Plus study. Participants are categorized into four groups of fruit, vegetable, and fat intake according to the food frequency questionnaire. Plasma FA analysis is performed using gas chromatography. Associations between FAs and F&V consumption are adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), total energy intake, and alcohol consumption. Plasma saturated FAs are lower in groups with high F&V consumption (-1.20 mg cL-1 [95% CI: [-2.22, -0.18], p-value = 0.021), especially when fat intake is high (-1.74 mg cL-1 [95% CI: [-3.41, -0.06], p-value = 0.042). Total FAs and n-6 polyunsaturated FAs tend to be lower in high consumers of F&V only in the high-fat intake groups. CONCLUSIONS: F&V consumption is associated with lower plasma saturated FAs when fat intake is high. These findings suggest that F&V consumption may have different associations with plasma FAs depending on their subtype and on the extent of fat intake.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is linked to inflammation. We hypothesize that metabolites implicated in this pathway may be associated with the risk of heart failure (HF) or atrial fibrillation (AF) in a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively analyze the associations of kynurenine-related metabolites with the risk of HF and AF and to analyze a potential effect modification by the randomized interventions of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). METHODS: Two case-control studies nested within the PREDIMED trial were designed. We selected 324 incident HF cases and 502 incident AF cases individually matched with ≤3 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted. Interactions with the intervention were tested for each of the baseline plasma metabolites measured by LC-tandem MS. RESULTS: Higher baseline kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (OR for 1 SD: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.43) and higher levels of kynurenic acid (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40) were associated with HF. Quinolinic acid was associated with AF (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.32) and HF (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49). The MedDiet intervention modified the positive associations of kynurenine (Pinteraction = 0.006), kynurenic acid (Pinteraction = 0.008), and quinolinic acid (Pinteraction = 0.033) with HF and the association between kynurenic acid and AF (Pinteraction = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: We found that tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolites were prospectively associated with higher HF risk and to a lesser extent with AF risk. Moreover, an effect modification by MedDiet was observed for the association between plasma baseline kynurenine-related metabolites and the risk of HF, showing that the positive association of increased levels of these metabolites and HF was restricted to the control group.

13.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 155, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multimorbid long-term condition without consensual medical definition and a diagnostic based on compatible symptomatology. Here we have investigated the molecular signature of MetS in urine. METHODS: We used NMR-based metabolomics to investigate a European cohort including urine samples from 11,754 individuals (18-75 years old, 41% females), designed to populate all the intermediate conditions in MetS, from subjects without any risk factor up to individuals with developed MetS (4-5%, depending on the definition). A set of quantified metabolites were integrated from the urine spectra to obtain metabolic models (one for each definition), to discriminate between individuals with MetS. RESULTS: MetS progression produces a continuous and monotonic variation of the urine metabolome, characterized by up- or down-regulation of the pertinent metabolites (17 in total, including glucose, lipids, aromatic amino acids, salicyluric acid, maltitol, trimethylamine N-oxide, and p-cresol sulfate) with some of the metabolites associated to MetS for the first time. This metabolic signature, based solely on information extracted from the urine spectrum, adds a molecular dimension to MetS definition and it was used to generate models that can identify subjects with MetS (AUROC values between 0.83 and 0.87). This signature is particularly suitable to add meaning to the conditions that are in the interface between healthy subjects and MetS patients. Aging and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are also risk factors that may enhance MetS probability, but they do not directly interfere with the metabolic discrimination of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Urine metabolomics, studied by NMR spectroscopy, unravelled a set of metabolites that concomitantly evolve with MetS progression, that were used to derive and validate a molecular definition of MetS and to discriminate the conditions that are in the interface between healthy individuals and the metabolic syndrome.

14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064328

RESUMO

Clinical data on the direct health effects of energy deficit or surplus beyond its impact on body weight are scarce. We aimed to assess the association with all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality of (1) sustained energy deficit or surplus, calculated according to each individual's en-ergy intake (EI) and theoretical energy expenditure (TEE), and (2) mid-term change in total EI in a prospective study. In 7119 participants in the PREDIMED Study (PREvención con DIeta MEDi-terránea) with a mean age of 67 years, energy intake was derived from a 137-item food frequency questionnaire. TEE was calculated as a function of age, sex, height, body weight and physical ac-tivity. The main exposure was the proportion of energy requirement covered by energy intake, cumulative throughout the follow-up. The secondary exposure was the change in energy intake from baseline. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% con-fidence intervals for all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Over a median follow-up of 4.8 years, there were 239 deaths (excluding the first 2 years). An energy intake exceeding energy needs was associated with an increase in mortality risk (continuous HR10% over energy needs = 1.10; 95% CI 1.02, 1.18), driven by cardiovascular death (HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.11, 1.43). However, consum-ing energy below estimated needs was not associated with a lower risk. Increments over time in energy intake were associated with greater all-cause mortality (HR10% increase = 1.09; 95% CI 1.02, 1.17). However, there was no evidence that a substantial negative change in energy intake would reduce mortality risk. To conclude, in an older Mediterranean cohort, energy surplus or increase over a 5-year period was associated with greater risk of mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality. Energy deficit, or reduction in energy intake over time were not associated with mortal-ity risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta/mortalidade , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
J Nutr ; 151(9): 2843-2851, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current approaches to studying relations between taste perception and diet quality typically consider each taste-sweet, salt, sour, bitter, umami-separately or aggregately, as total taste scores. Consistent with studying dietary patterns rather than single foods or total energy, an additional approach may be to study all 5 tastes collectively as "taste perception profiles." OBJECTIVE: We developed a data-driven clustering approach to derive taste perception profiles from taste perception scores and examined whether profiles outperformed total taste scores for capturing individual variability in taste perception. METHODS: The cohort included 367 community-dwelling adults [55-75 y; 55% female; BMI (kg/m2): 32.2 ± 3.6] with metabolic syndrome from PREDIMED-Plus, Valencia. Cluster analysis identified subgroups of individuals with similar patterns in taste perception (taste perception profiles); quantitative criteria were used to select the cluster algorithm, determine the optimal number of clusters, and assess the profiles' validity and stability. Goodness-of-fit parameters from adjusted linear regression evaluated the individual variability captured by each approach. RESULTS: A k-means algorithm with 6 clusters best fit the data and identified the following taste perception profiles: Low All, High Bitter, High Umami, Low Bitter & Umami, High All But Bitter and High All But Umami. All profiles were valid and stable. Compared with total taste scores, taste perception profiles explained more variability in bitter and umami perception (adjusted R2: 0.19 vs. 0.63, respectively; 0.40 vs. 0.65, respectively) and were comparable for sweet, salt, and sour. In addition, taste perception profiles captured differential perceptions of each taste within individuals, whereas these patterns were lost with total taste scores. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults with metabolic syndrome, taste perception profiles derived via data-driven clustering may provide a valuable approach to capture individual variability in perception of all 5 tastes and their collective influence on diet quality. This trial was registered at https://www.isrctn.com/ as ISRCTN89898870.

16.
Clin Nutr ; 40(6): 3982-3991, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between drinking water consumption and adiposity has been poorly explored. Therefore, we aimed to analyse the associations between the frequency of drinking water consumption and body weight and waist circumference changes in an elderly Mediterranean cohort. METHODS: A total of 1832 elderly participants (aged 55-75 years) with metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus study with baseline data on drinking water and other beverages assessed by a validated 32-item Spanish fluid-intake questionnaire and with data on body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) at 1-year and 2-year were included in these prospective analyses. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to assess the ß-coefficients and 95% confidence interval (CI) for BW and WC changes in terms of categories of baseline drinking water consumption (tap water and bottled water). The theoretical effect on BW and WC of replacing several beverages with drinking water was assessed using mathematical models. RESULTS: The baseline frequency of drinking water consumption was inversely associated with 1-year and 2-year changes in BW. ß-coefficients (95%CI) across categories of water consumption (<2.5, 2.5 to <5, 5 to < 7.5, ≥7.5 servings/d) expressed in % of weight changes at 2 years of follow-up were 0.0, -0.80 (-1.48, -0.12), -1.36 (-2.18, -0.54), and -1.97 (-3.09, -0.86), respectively. Individuals in the two highest categories of drinking water consumption (5 to < 7, and ≥7.5 servings/d) also showed a higher decrease in WC (expressed as % of change) after 2 years of follow-up: -1.11 (-1.96, -0.25) and -1.45 (-2.66, -0.24) compared to the reference intake (<2.5 servings/day), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The theoretical replacement of soups, beers, spirits, hot beverages, dairy beverages, and other beverages group with drinking water was associated with greater reductions in BW at one- and two-years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking water consumption was inversely associated with 2-year adiposity changes in an elderly Mediterranean cohort at high cardiovascular risk. Our results also suggest that the consumption of drinking water instead of energy-containing beverages is associated with lower weight gain. THE TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN89898870.

17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 1148-1158, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet is a well-recognized healthy diet that has shown to induce positive changes in gut microbiota. Lifestyle changes such as diet along with physical activity could aid in weight loss and improve cardiovascular risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention on gut microbiota. METHODS: This is a substudy of the PREDIMED-Plus (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea-Plus), a randomized controlled trial conducted in overweight/obese men and women (aged 55-75 y) with metabolic syndrome. The intervention group (IG) underwent an intensive weight loss lifestyle intervention based on an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity promotion, and the control group (CG) underwent a non-energy-restricted MedDiet for 1 y. Anthropometric, biochemical, and gut microbial 16S rRNA sequencing data were analyzed at baseline (n = 362) and 1-y follow-up (n = 343). RESULTS: IG participants had a weight loss of 4.2 (IQR, -6.8, -2.5) kg compared with 0.2 (IQR, -2.1, 1.4) kg in the CG (P < 0.001). Reductions in BMI, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and triglycerides and an increase in HDL cholesterol were greater in IG than in CG participants (P < 0.05). We observed a decrease in Butyricicoccus, Haemophilus, Ruminiclostridium 5, and Eubacterium hallii in the IG compared with the CG. Many genera shifted in the same direction within both intervention groups, indicating an overall effect of the MedDiet. Decreases in Haemophilus, Coprococcus 3, and few other genera were associated with a decrease in adiposity parameters in both intervention groups. Changes in Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 were positively associated with changes in MedDiet adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss induced by an energy-restricted MedDiet and physical activity induce changes in gut microbiota. The role of MedDiet-induced changes on the host might be via short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria, whereas with energy restriction, these changes might be modulated with other mechanisms, which need to be explored in future studies. This trial was registered at http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870 as ISRCT 89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Ingestão de Energia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2825-2836, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Portfolio and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets have been shown to lower cardiometabolic risk factors in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, the Portfolio diet has only been assessed in RCTs of hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, to assess the Portfolio diet in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS), we conducted a longitudinal analysis of one-year data of changes in the Portfolio and DASH diet scores and their association with cardiometabolic risk factors in Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus trial. METHODS: PREDIMED-Plus is an ongoing clinical trial (Trial registration: ISRCTN89898) conducted in Spain that includes 6874 older participants (mean age 65 y, 48% women) with overweight/obesity fulfilling at least three criteria for MetS. Data for this analysis were collected at baseline, six months and one year. Adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diet scores were derived from a validated 143-item food frequency questionnaire. We used linear mixed models to examine the associations of 1-SD increase and quartile changes in the diet scores with concomitant changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for several potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in the Portfolio diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (ß [95% CI]: -0.02% [-0.02, -0.01], P < 0.001), fasting glucose (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.83, -0.11], P = 0.01), triglycerides (-1.29 mg/dL [-2.31, -0.28], P = 0.01), waist circumference (WC) (-0.51 cm [-0.59, -0.43], P < 0.001), and body mass index (BMI) (-0.17 kg/m2 [-0.19, -0.15], P < 0.001). A 1-SD increase in the DASH diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (-0.03% [-0.04, -0.02], P < 0.001), glucose (-0.84 mg/dL [-1.18, -0.51], P < 0.001), triglycerides (-3.38 mg/dL [-4.37, -2.38], P < 0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.91, -0.04], P = 0.03), WC (-0.69 cm [-0.76, -0.60 cm], P < 0.001), BMI (-0.25 kg/m2 [-0.28, -0.26 kg/m2], P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (-0.57 mmHg [-0.81, -0.32 mmHg], P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-0.15 mmHg [-0.29, -0.01 mmHg], P = 0.03), and with higher HDL-cholesterol (0.21 mg/dL [0.09, 0.34 mg/dL, P = 0.001]). Similar associations were seen when both diet scores were assessed as quartiles, comparing extreme categories of adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults at high cardiovascular risk with MetS, greater adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diets showed significant favourable prospective associations with several clinically relevant cardiometabolic risk factors. Both diets are likely beneficial for cardiometabolic risk reduction.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9144, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911087

RESUMO

This study examines if overweight/obesity are related to higher impulsivity, food addiction and depressive symptoms, and if these variables could be modified after 1 year of a multimodal intervention (diet, physical activity, psychosocial support). 342 adults (55-75 years) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) from the PREDIMED-Plus Cognition study were randomized to the intervention or to the control group (lifestyle recommendations). Cognitive and psychopathological assessments were performed at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. At baseline, higher impulsivity was linked to higher food addiction and depressive symptoms, but not to body mass index (BMI). Food addiction not only predicted higher BMI and depressive symptoms, but also achieved a mediational role between impulsivity and BMI/depressive symptoms. After 1 year, patients in both groups reported significant decreases in BMI, food addiction and impulsivity. BMI reduction and impulsivity improvements were higher in the intervention group. Higher BMI decrease was achieved in individuals with lower impulsivity. Higher scores in food addiction were also related to greater post-treatment impulsivity. To conclude, overweight/obesity are related to higher impulsivity, food addiction and depressive symptoms in mid/old age individuals with MetS. Our results also highlight the modifiable nature of the studied variables and the interest of promoting multimodal interventions within this population.

20.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802859

RESUMO

Carotenoids are pigments contained mainly in fruit and vegetables (F&V) that have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. Due to their lipophilic nature, co-ingestion of fat appears to increase their bioavailability via facilitating transfer to the aqueous micellar phase during digestion. However, the extent to which high fat intake may contribute to increased carotenoid plasma concentrations is still unclear. The objective was to examine the degree to which the consumption of different amounts of both carotenoid-rich foods and fats is associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations within a Mediterranean lifestyle context (subsample from the PREDIMED-Plus study baseline) where consumption of F&V and fat is high. The study population was categorized into four groups according to their self-reported consumption of F&V and fat. Carotenoids were extracted from plasma samples and analyzed by HPLC-UV-VIS-QqQ-MS/MS. Carotenoid systemic concentrations were greater in high consumers of F&V than in low consumers of these foods (+3.04 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.90, 5.17), p-value = 0.005), but circulating concentrations seemed to decrease when total fat intake was very high (-2.69 µmol/L (-5.54; 0.16), p-value = 0.064). High consumption of F&V is associated with greater systemic levels of total carotenoids, in particular when fat intake is low-to-moderate rather than very high.

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