Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 65
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(24): 13440-13455, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519689

RESUMO

The prototropic tautomeric equilibrium in 2-hydroxypyridine serves as a prototype model for the study of nucleobases' behaviour. The position of such an equilibrium in parent and chlorine monosubstituted 2-hydroxypyridine compounds in the gas phase was determined using synchrotron based techniques. The lactim tautomer is dominant for the 5- and 6-substituted compounds, whereas the parent, 3- and 4-substituted isomers have comparable populations for both tautomers. Information was obtained by measuring valence band and core level photoemission spectra at the chlorine L-edge and carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen K-edges. The effect of chlorine on the core ionization potentials of the atoms in the heterocycle was evaluated and reasonable agreement with a simple model was obtained. Basic considerations of resonance structures correctly predicts the tautomeric equilibrium for the 5- and 6-substituted compounds. The vibrationally resolved structure of the low energy portion of the valence band photoionization spectra is assigned based on quantum-chemical calculations of the neutral and charged species followed by simulation of the vibronic structure. It is shown that the first ionization occurs from a π orbital of similar shape for both tautomers. In addition, the highly distinctive vibronic structure observed just above the first ionization of the lactim, for three of the five species investigated, is assigned to the second ionization of the lactam.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(20): 4025-4035, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336097

RESUMO

The valence and core electronic structure of nicotine, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide have been studied by photoelectron and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, supported by theoretical calculations, which take into account conformational isomerism. The core-level photoionization spectra of all molecules have been assigned, and theory indicates that the effects of conformational differences are small, generally less than the natural line widths of the core ionic states. However, in the case of nicotinamide, the theoretical valence ionization potentials of cis and trans conformers differ significantly in the outer valence space, and the experimental spectrum is in agreement with the calculated outer valence cis conformer spectrum. In addition, the C, N, and O K edge near-edge absorption fine structure spectra are reported and interpreted by comparison with reference compounds. We find evidence at the N and O K edges of interaction between the delocalized orbitals of the pyridine ring and the substituents for nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. The strength of the interaction varies because the first is planar, while the second is twisted, reducing the extent of orbital mixing.

3.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329341

RESUMO

The valence and core-level photoelectron spectra of gaseous indole, 2,3-dihydro-7-azaindole, and 3-formylindole have been investigated using VUV and soft X-ray radiation supported by both an ab initio electron propagator and density functional theory calculations. Three methods were used to calculate the outer valence band photoemission spectra: outer valence Green function, partial third order, and renormalized partial third order. While all gave an acceptable description of the valence spectra, the last method yielded very accurate agreement, especially for indole and 3-formylindole. The carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen 1s core-level spectra of these heterocycles were measured and assigned. The double ionization appearance potential for indole has been determined to be 21.8 ± 0.2 eV by C 1s and N 1s Auger photoelectron spectroscopy. Theoretical analysis identifies the doubly ionized states as a band consisting of two overlapping singlet states and one triplet state with dominant configurations corresponding to holes in the two uppermost molecular orbitals. One of the singlet states and the triplet state can be described as consisting largely of a single configuration, but other doubly ionized states are heavily mixed by configuration interactions. This work provides full assignment of the relative binding energies of the core level features and an analysis of the electronic structure of substituted indoles in comparison with the parent indole.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(15): 7828-7834, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248221

RESUMO

High intensity XUV radiation from a free-electron laser (FEL) was used to create a nanoplasma inside ammonia clusters with the intent of studying the resulting electron-ion interactions and their interplay with plasma evolution. In a plasma-like state, electrons with kinetic energy lower than the local collective Coulomb potential of the positive ionic core are trapped in the cluster and take part in secondary processes (e.g. electron-impact excitation/ionization and electron-ion recombination) which lead to subsequent excited and neutral molecular fragmentation. Using a time-delayed UV laser, the dynamics of the excited atomic and molecular states are probed from -0.1 ps to 18 ps. We identify three different phases of molecular fragmentation that are clearly distinguished by the effect of the probe laser on the ionic and electronic yield. We propose a simple model to rationalize our data and further identify two separate channels leading to the formation of excited hydrogen.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129435

RESUMO

The work function is the parameter of greatest interest in many technological applications involving charge exchange mechanisms at the surface. The possibility to produce samples with a controlled work function is then particularly interesting, albeit challenging. We synthetized nanostructured vanadium oxide films by a room temperature supersonic cluster beam deposition method, obtaining samples with tunable stoichiometry and work function (3.7-7 eV). We present an investigation of the electronic structure of several vanadium oxide films as a function of the oxygen content via in situ Auger, valence-band photoemission spectroscopy and work function measurements. The experiments probed the partial 3d density of states, highlighting the presence of strong V 3d-O 2p and V 3d-V 4s hybridizations which influence 3d occupation. We show how controlling the stoichiometry of the sample implies control over work function, and that the access to nanoscale quantum confinement can be exploited to increase the work function of the sample relative to the bulk analogue. In general, the knowledge of the interplay among work function, electronic structure, and stoichiometry is strategic to match nanostructured oxides to their target applications.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 58(24): 16411-16423, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756086

RESUMO

The unoccupied electronic structures of three closed-shell, highly popular organoiron complexes ([Fe(CO)5], [(η5-C5H5)Fe(CO)(µ-CO)]2, and [(η5-C5H5)2Fe]; 0, I, and II, respectively) have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically by combining original gas-phase X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) outcomes recorded at the C and O K-edge with results of scalar relativistic time-dependent density functional calculations carried out within the zeroth order regular approximation. Experimental evidence herein discussed complement the Fe L2,3-edges XAS ones we recently recorded, modeled, and assigned for the same complexes (Carlotto et al. Inorg. Chem. 2019, 58, 5844). The first-principle simulation of the C and O K-edge features allowed us to univocally identify the electronic states associated to the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) transitions both in I and in II. At variance to that, LMCT transitions with sizable oscillator strengths do not play any role in determining neither the C nor the O K-edge spectral pattern of 0. The higher π-acceptor capability of the CO ligand, regardless of its terminal or bridging coordination, with respect to [(η5-C5H5)]- is herein ultimately confirmed.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 151(13): 134306, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594342

RESUMO

We performed a theoretical investigation on the influence of electronic correlation effects on the B1s NEXAFS spectrum of boronic acid derivatives, namely, boric acid [B(OH)3], phenyl boronic acid (PBA), and 1,4-phenyl diboronic acid (PDBA), employing different computational schemes of increasing complexity, ranging from the purely one-electron scheme based on the transition potential method of density functional theory (DFT-TP), time-dependent DFT (TDDFT), and multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF). We also report experimental measurements of the B1s NEXAFS spectra of the aforementioned molecules together with the high-resolution C1s NEXAFS spectrum of PBA. We demonstrate that due to the shallow B1s core energy levels compared to C, O, and N, the inclusion of static correlation effects, which can be incorporated by using multireference approaches to excited states, assumes a decisive role in reconciling experiment and theory on B1s core-electron excitation energies and oscillator strengths to valence states. This claim is corroborated by the good agreement that we find between the DFT-TP calculated C1s NEXAFS spectrum and that experimentally measured for PBA and by the failure of both DFT-TP and TDDFT approaches with a selection of xc functionals kernels to properly describe the B1s NEXAFS spectrum of PBA and PDBA, at variance with the good agreement with the experiment that is found by employing the MCSCF wave function approach.

8.
J Chem Phys ; 151(8): 084304, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470696

RESUMO

A new synchrotron-based study of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectrum for cyclooctatetraene (COT) shows a series of broad peaks. A significant sharp structure was extracted from the strongest band between 5.9 and 6.3 eV by fitting this range of the spectrum to a polynomial; the regular residuals show a set of sharp peaks. Comparison of this region of the VUV with the photoelectron spectrum demonstrates the presence of several Rydberg states, all based on the lowest observed ionization energy ionic state. The UV onset contains a broad band in the range 4.0 eV-5.3 eV. Theoretical vertical excitation energies, determined by configuration interaction (CI) studies at the multireference multiroot singles and doubles CI level, enabled interpretation of the principal absorption bands of the VUV spectrum. Adiabatic excitation energies (AEEs) for several singlet and triplet valence states (V) were evaluated by multiconfiguration self-consistent field methods. Theoretical Rydberg series AEEs were obtained by use of extremely diffuse Gaussian orbitals in highly correlated wave-functions. The second moments of the charge distribution identify which roots are valence or Rydberg states. A contrast was found between some density functional methods and Hartree-Fock (HF) wave-functions during single-excitation CI, when degenerate orbitals were involved in the leading configurations. The 7a16e* state contained the expected 8-membered ring in the density functional theory calculations. The HF wave-functions led to a 1,5-cross-ring interaction which converged on a singlet excited state of a bicyclo[3,3,0]octatriene; this is reminiscent of the photochemical conversion of COT to semibullvalene.

9.
J Chem Phys ; 150(19): 194305, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117784

RESUMO

A synchrotron-based study of the photoelectron spectrum (PES) for cyclooctatetraene (COT) is reported, and this has been subjected to theoretical analysis in unprecedented detail. Weak vibrational structure was observed on the lowest ionization energy (IE1), but the peaks generally show very broad features. Multiconfiguration self-consistent field study confirms that the adiabatic IE (AIE) sequence is 12A1 < 12B1 < 22A1 < 12A2 < 22B1 < 32A1. The Tamm-Dancoff approximation gives an acceptable interpretation of the PES below 20 eV. Vibrational analysis of the PES bands by Franck-Condon methods predicts well-defined vibrational structure for these ionic states. The principal contributors to the PES envelopes are the a1 modes, and only a few are responsible for the overall shape of most bands. The high density of vibrational states, together with the known D2d ⇆ D2d interconversion process, where the C=C and C-C bonds interchange, is attributed to the lack of the observed structure. The transition state (TS) structures for the interconversion above of several ionic states of COT have been elucidated. The intrinsic reaction coordinate procedure gave a planar TS for the X1A1 (D2d) ⇆ 1A1g (D4h) ⇆ X1A1 (D2d) process; this shows alternating C-C (1.4791 Å), C=C (1.3261 Å), and C-H (1.0780 Å) bond lengths. The planar TS is a very shallow maximum, with energy varying with the method used, Hartree-Fock 0.575 eV and second order Møller-Plesset 0.653 eV. A polynomial containing quadratic, quartic, and sextic terms gives an effectively exact fit to the surface. The lowest ionic state of COT (X2A1) shows a similar TS for the process X2A1 (D2d) ⇆ 2B2u (D4h). This structure has alternating C-C (1.4366 Å), C=C (1.3572 Å), and C-H (1.0756 Å) bonds.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 58(9): 5844-5857, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998004

RESUMO

The occupied and unoccupied electronic structures of three highly popular, closed shell organoiron complexes ([Fe(CO)5], [(η5-C5H5)Fe(CO)(µ-CO)]2, and [(η5-C5H5)2Fe]) have been theoretically investigated by taking advantage of density functional theory (DFT) calculations coupled to the isolobal analogy ( Elian et al. Inorg. Chem. 1976 , 15 , 1148 ). The adopted approach allowed us to look into the relative role played by the ligand → Fe donation and the Fe → ligand back-donation in title molecules, as well as to investigate how CO- (terminal or bridging) and [(η5-C5H5)]--based π* orbitals compete when these two ligands are simultaneously present as in [(η5-C5H5)Fe(CO)(µ-CO)]2. Insights into the nature and the strength of the bonding between Fe and the C donor atoms have been gained by exploiting the Nalewajski-Mrozek bond multiplicity index ( Nalewajski et al. Int. J. Quantum Chem. 1994 , 51 , 187 ), which have been found especially sensitive even to tiny bond distance variations. The bonding picture emerging from ground state DFT results proved fruitful to guide the assignment of original, high-resolution, gas-phase L2,3-edges X-ray absorption spectra of the title molecules, which have been modeled by the two-component relativistic time-dependent DFT including spin orbit coupling and correlation effects and taking advantage of the full use of symmetry. Assignments alternative to those reported in the literature for both [Fe(CO)5] and [(η5-C5H5)2Fe] are herein proposed. Despite the high popularity of the investigated molecules, the complementary use of symmetry, orbital, and spectroscopy allowed us to further look into the metal-ligand symmetry-restricted-covalency and the differential-orbital covalency, which characterize them.

11.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 2): 386-392, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855247

RESUMO

The improved performance of third-generation light sources and the advent of next-generation synchrotron radiation facilities require the use of extremely precise monitoring of the main photon-beam parameters, such as position, absolute and relative intensity, and temporal structure. These parameters, and associated real-time feedbacks, are fundamental at the beamline control level and at the machine control level, to improve the stability of the photon beams and to provide bunch-to-bunch quantitative information. Fast response time, high radiation hardness and visible-blind response are main features of photon-beam monitors for VUV and X-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines; hence diamond-based detectors are outstanding candidates. Here, results are presented of an extensive measurement campaign aiming at optimizing the capabilities of diamond detectors to discern time structures below the 100 ps timescale. A custom-built device has been fabricated and tested at the Italian Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Elettra in Trieste. The results obtained show that diamond is an excellent material for ultra-fast photon pulses with picosecond time resolution; finally the possibilities for application at free-electron laser sources are discussed.

12.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(7): 1295-1302, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668129

RESUMO

The initial deactivation pathways of gaseous 2-nitrophenol excited at 268 nm were investigated by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) with femtosecond-VUV light, produced by a monochromatized high harmonic generation source. TRPES allowed us to obtain new, valuable experimental information about the ultrafast excited-state dynamics of 2-nitrophenol in the gas phase. In accord with recent ab initio on-the-fly nonadiabatic molecular dynamic simulations, our results validate the occurrence of an ultrafast intersystem crossing leading to an intermediate state that decays on a subpicosecond time scale with a branched mechanisms. Two decay pathways are experimentally observed. One probably involves proton transfer, leading to the most stable triplet aci-form of 2-nitrophenol; the second pathway may involve OH rotation. We propose that following intersystem crossing, an ultrafast fragmentation channel leading to OH or HONO loss could also be operative.

13.
Chemistry ; 24(53): 14198-14206, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009392

RESUMO

The effect of intermolecular H-bonding interactions on the local electronic structure of N-containing functional groups (amino group and pyridine-like N) that are characteristic of polymeric carbon nitride materials p-CN(H), a new class of metal-free organophotocatalysts, was investigated. Specifically, the melamine molecule, a building block of p-CN(H), was characterized by X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The molecule was studied as a noninteracting system in the gas phase and in the solid state within a H-bonded network. With the support of DFT simulations of the spectra, it was found that the H-bonds mainly affect the N 1s level of the amino group, leaving the N 1s level of the pyridine-like N mostly unperturbed. This is responsible for a reduction of the chemical shift between the two XPS N 1s levels relative to free melamine. Consequently, N K-edge NEXAFS resonances involving the amino N 1s level also shift to lower photon energies. Moreover, the solid-state absorption spectra showed significant modification/quenching of resonances related to transitions from the amino N 1s level to σ* orbitals involving the NH2 termini.

14.
J Chem Phys ; 149(3): 034305, 2018 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037262

RESUMO

New synchrotron based studies of the photoelectron ionization spectra (PES) for the isomeric 1- and 2-methyltetrazoles (1- and 2-MeTet) show markedly higher resolution than previous reports. The unusual spectral profiles suggest that a considerable overlay of the ionic states occurs for both molecules. Under these circumstances of near degeneracy of two or more ionic states, mutual annihilation of vibrational fine structure occurs for all except the strongest vibrational states; the PES just reflects the resultants rather than full spectra. Theoretical determination of the adiabatic ionization energies (AIEs) proved a challenge; the most successful method was second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). These calculations suggest that the lowest PES bands for both isomers contain ionization both from lone pair σ-orbitals (2A') on the N-atoms (LPN) and π-orbitals (2A″). The lowest experimental AIEs are as follows: 1-MeTet is 10.315 eV assigned to 12A', while 2-MeTet is 10.543 eV assigned to 12A″. Franck-Condon analysis shows that the lowest ionization energy regions of both spectra are dominated by IE from the LPN2A' manifold, even though the 2A″ states have a higher absolute intensity. In this example, we have utilized a VUV Rydberg state to assist simplification of the PES; more frequently, the PES assignment is simpler and assists the location of Rydberg states in the VUV. The very slow spectral onset for 2-MeTet demonstrates the importance of vertical ionization energy calculations since maxima are more readily measured than slow onsets. These were performed at the equilibrium structure of the X1A' state, using both multi-reference multi-root configuration interaction and the ionization potential variant of the equations-of-motion coupled cluster method, with single and double excitations (EOMIP-CCSD). This enabled the principal ionization bands to be identified over a wider range of energy. Attempts to study the higher ionic states by EOMIP-CCSD showed that several states of each symmetry are close to degenerate for 1-MeTet, in particular. A multi-configuration self-consistent field study confirmed the small separation of ionic states, but state switching during the optimization process largely disabled this method.

15.
J Chem Phys ; 148(21): 214304, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884032

RESUMO

The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrum for CH2F2 from a new synchrotron study has been combined with earlier data and subjected to detailed scrutiny. The onset of absorption, band I and also band IV, is resolved into broad vibrational peaks, which contrast with the continuous absorption previously claimed. A new theoretical analysis, using a combination of time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations and complete active space self-consistent field, leads to a major new interpretation. Adiabatic excitation energies (AEEs) and vertical excitation energies, evaluated by these methods, are used to interpret the spectra in unprecedented detail using theoretical vibronic analysis. This includes both Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) effects on cold and hot bands. These results lead to the re-assignment of several known excited states and the identification of new ones. The lowest calculated AEE sequence for singlet states is 11B1 ∼ 11A2 < 21B1 < 11A1 < 21A1 < 11B2 < 31A1 < 31B1. These, together with calculated higher energy states, give a satisfactory account of the principal maxima observed in the VUV spectrum. Basis sets up to quadruple zeta valence with extensive polarization are used. The diffuse functions within this type of basis generate both valence and low-lying Rydberg excited states. The optimum position for the site of further diffuse functions in the calculations of Rydberg states is shown to lie on the H-atoms. The routine choice on the F-atoms is shown to be inadequate for both CHF3 and CH2F2. The lowest excitation energy region has mixed valence and Rydberg character. TDDFT calculations show that the unusual structure of the onset arises from the near degeneracy of 11B1 and 11A2 valence states, which mix in symmetric and antisymmetric combinations. The absence of fluorescence in the 10.8-11 eV region contrasts with strong absorption. This is interpreted by the 21B1 and 11A1 states where no fluorescence is calculated for these two states, which are only active in absorption. The nature of the two states, 11B1 and 21B1, is fundamentally different, but both are complex owing to the presence of FC and HT effects occurring in different ways. The two most intense bands, close to 12.5 and 15.5 eV, contain valence states as expected; the onset of the 15.5 eV band shows a set of vibrational peaks, but the vibration frequency does not correspond to any of the photoelectron spectral (PES) structure and is clearly valence in nature. The routine use of PES footprints to detect Rydberg states in VUV spectra is shown to be inadequate. The combined effects of FC and HT in the VUV spectral bands lead to additional vibrations when compared with the PES.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(4): 2480-2491, 2018 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313539

RESUMO

Insights into the electronic structure of galvinoxyl - a prototype persistent free radical species - are of interest to elucidate its attractive photophysical and magnetic properties and to pave way for a sensible design of novel applications. To this end, we study the photoionization and photoexcitation UPS, XPS and NEXAFS spectra of the gas-phase galvinoxyl in the valence and core (C 1s and O 1s) regions using synchrotron X-ray radiation. We observe significant variations of relative band intensities with photon energy for valence ionizations below 10 eV which are rationalized in terms of the properties of the corresponding valence molecular orbitals. We calculate the core electron binding energies and core-excited states by employing the spin-unrestricted ΔDFT (B3LYP, M06-2X, and ωB97xD) and time-dependent DFT (SRC2-BLYP) methods. A good correlation between the calculations and the measured C 1s and O 1s XPS and NEXAFS spectra is obtained if one assumes that the galvinoxyl sample has undergone a partial degradation (around 50%) to the saturated (closed-shell) phenolic-quinonic derivative known as galvinol. We carry out a comparative theoretical analysis of the XPS and NEXAFS spectra of galvinoxyl and galvinol by assigning the relevant absorptions and pointing out the most important relative differences. The calculations identify a band in the O 1s NEXAFS spectrum whose diminishing intensity is a most manifest indicator of the extent of the degradation. Such a feature may thus prove useful in monitoring the scavenging dynamics of galvinoxyl using the core-excitation spectroscopy.

17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(3): 521-526, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314844

RESUMO

We have performed core level photoemission spectroscopy of gaseous acetylacetone, its fully deuterated form, and two derivatives, benzoylacetone and dibenzoylmethane. These molecules show intramolecular hydrogen bonds, with a proton located in a double-well potential, whose barrier height is different for the three compounds. This has allowed us to examine the effect of the double-well potential on photoemission spectra. Two distinct O 1s core hole peaks are observed, previously assigned to two chemical states of oxygen. We provide an alternative assignment of the double-peak structure of O 1s spectra by taking full account of the extended nature of the wave function associated with the nuclear motion of the proton, the shape of the ground and final state potentials in which the proton is located, and the nonzero temperature of the samples. The peaks are explained in terms of an unusual Franck-Condon factor distribution.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(25): 255301, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608832

RESUMO

A significant fraction of superfluid helium nanodroplets produced in a free-jet expansion has been observed to gain high angular momentum resulting in large centrifugal deformation. We measured single-shot diffraction patterns of individual rotating helium nanodroplets up to large scattering angles using intense extreme ultraviolet light pulses from the FERMI free-electron laser. Distinct asymmetric features in the wide-angle diffraction patterns enable the unique and systematic identification of the three-dimensional droplet shapes. The analysis of a large data set allows us to follow the evolution from axisymmetric oblate to triaxial prolate and two-lobed droplets. We find that the shapes of spinning superfluid helium droplets exhibit the same stages as classical rotating droplets while the previously reported metastable, oblate shapes of quantum droplets are not observed. Our three-dimensional analysis represents a valuable landmark for clarifying the interrelation between morphology and superfluidity on the nanometer scale.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 147(7): 074305, 2017 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28830186

RESUMO

A new synchrotron-based study of the photoelectron spectrum (PES) of difluoromethane is interpreted by an ab initio analysis of the ionic states, which includes Franck-Condon (FC) factors. Double differentiation of the spectrum leads to significant spectral sharpening; the vibrational structure observed is now measured with greater accuracy than in previous studies. Several electronic structure methods are used, including equation of motion coupled cluster calculations with single and double excitations (EOM-CCSD), its ionization potential variant EOM-IP-CCSD, 4th order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP4SDQ) configuration interaction (CI), and complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) methods. The adiabatic ionization energies (AIEs) confirm the assignments as band I, one state 12B1 (12.671 eV); band II, three states, 12B2 (14.259) < 12A1 (15.030) < 12A2 (15.478 eV); and band III, three states, 22B2 (18.055) < 22A1 (18.257) < 22B1 (18.808 eV). The three ionizations in each of the bands II and III lead to selective line broadening of the PES structure, which is attributed to vibronic overlap. The apparent lack of a vibrational structure attributable to both the 12A1 and 22A1 states in the PES arises from line broadening with the preceding states 12B2 and 22B2, respectively. Although these 2A1 states clearly overlap with their adjacent higher IE, some vibrational structure is observed on the higher IE. The effects of vibronic coupling are evident since the observed structure does not fit closely with the calculated Born-Oppenheimer FC profiles. Correlation of the lowest group of four AIEs in the PES of other members of the CH2X2 group, where X = F, Cl, Br, and I, clearly indicate these effects are more general.

20.
J Chem Phys ; 146(17): 174301, 2017 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28477584

RESUMO

A new ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrum for iodopentafluorobenzene (C6F5I) using synchrotron radiation is reported. The measurements have been combined with those from a recent high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopic study. A major theoretical study, which includes both Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) analyses, leads to conclusions, which are compatible with both experimental studies. Our observation that the VUV multiplet at 7.926 eV in the VUV spectrum is a Rydberg state rather than a valence state leads to a fundamental reassignment of the VUV Rydberg spectrum over previous studies and removes an anomaly where some previously assigned Rydberg states were to optically forbidden states. Adiabatic excitation energies (AEEs) were determined from equations-of-motion coupled cluster with singles and doubles excitation; these were combined with time dependent density functional theoretical methods. Frequencies from these two methods are very similar, and this enabled the evaluation of both FC and HT contributions in the lower valence states. Multi-reference multi-root configuration interaction gave a satisfactory account of the principal UV+VUV spectral profile of C6F5I, with vertical band positions and intensities. The UV spectral onset consists of two very weak transitions assigned to 11B1 (πσ*) and 11B2 (σσ*) symmetries. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of a σ*(a1) symmetry has a significant C-I* antibonding character. This results in considerable lengthening of the C-I bond for both these excited states. The vibrational intensity of the lowest 11B1 state is dominated by HT contributions; the 11B2 state contains both HT and FC contributions; the third band, which contains three states, two ππ*(11A1, 21B2) and one πσ*(21B1), is dominated by FC contributions in the 1A1 state. In this 1A1 state, and the spectrally dominant bands near 6.7 (1A1) and 7.3 eV (1A1 + 1B2), the C-I bond length is in the normal range, and FC components dominate.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA