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2.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinical guidelines for people with diabetes recommend chronic kidney disease (CKD) testing at least annually using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR). We aimed to understand CKD testing among people with type 2 diabetes in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Electronic health record data were analyzed from 513,165 adults with type 2 diabetes receiving primary care from 24 health care organizations and 1,164 clinical practice sites. We assessed the percentage of patients with both one or more eGFRs and one or more uACRs and each test individually in the 1, 2, and 3 years ending September 2019 by health care organization and clinical practice site. Elevated albuminuria was defined as uACR ≥30 mg/g. RESULTS: The 1-year median testing rate across organizations was 51.6% for both uACR and eGFR, 89.5% for eGFR, and 52.9% for uACR. uACR testing varied (10th-90th percentile) from 44.7 to 63.3% across organizations and from 13.3 to 75.4% across sites. Over 3 years, the median testing rate for uACR across organizations was 73.7%. Overall, the prevalence of detected elevated albuminuria was 15%. The average prevalence of detected elevated albuminuria increased linearly with uACR testing rates at sites, with estimated prevalence of 6%, 15%, and 30% at uACR testing rates of 20%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: While eGFR testing rates are uniformly high among people with type 2 diabetes, testing rates for uACR are suboptimal and highly variable across and within the organizations examined. Guideline-recommended uACR testing should increase detection of CKD.

3.
J Nutr ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), healthy dietary patterns are inversely associated with CKD progression. Metabolomics, an approach that measures many small molecules in biofluids, can identify biomarkers of healthy dietary patterns. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify known metabolites associated with greater adherence to 4 healthy dietary patterns in CKD patients. METHODS: We examined associations between 486 known plasma metabolites and Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015, Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED) in 1056 participants (aged 21-74 y at baseline) in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative FFQ. We conducted multivariable linear regression models to study associations between healthy dietary patterns and individual plasma metabolites, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and clinical factors. We used principal component analysis to identify groups of metabolites associated with individual food components within healthy dietary patterns. RESULTS: After Bonferroni correction, we identified 266 statistically significant diet-metabolite associations (HEI: n = 60; AHEI: n = 78; DASH: n = 77; aMED: n = 51); 78 metabolites were associated with >1 dietary pattern. Lipids with a longer acyl chain length and double bonds (unsaturated) were positively associated with all 4 dietary patterns. A metabolite pattern low in saturated diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols, and a pattern high in unsaturated triacylglycerols was positively associated with intake of healthy food components. Plasmalogens were negatively associated with the consumption of nuts and legumes and healthy fat, and positively associated with the intake of red and processed meat. CONCLUSIONS: We identified many metabolites associated with healthy dietary patterns, indicative of food consumption. If replicated, these metabolites may be considered biomarkers of healthy dietary patterns in patients with CKD.

4.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether lower serum albumin in community-dwelling, older adults is associated with increased risk of hospitalization and death independent of pre-existing disease. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of participants in the fifth visit of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Baseline data were collected from 2011 to 2013. Follow-up was available to December 31, 2017. Replication was performed in Geisinger, a health system in rural Pennsylvania. SETTING: For ARIC, four US communities: Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; and suburbs of Minneapolis, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4947 community-dwelling men and women aged 66 to 90 years. EXPOSURE: Serum albumin. MAIN OUTCOMES: Incident all-cause hospitalization and death. RESULTS: Among the 4947 participants, mean age was 75.5 years (SD: 5.12) and mean baseline serum albumin concentration was 4.05 g/dL (SD: 0.30). Over a median follow-up period of 4.42 years (interquartile interval: 4.16-5.05), 553 participants (11.2%) died and 2457 participants (49.7%) were hospitalized at least once. The total number of hospitalizations was 5725. In analyses adjusted for demographics and numerous clinical characteristics, including tobacco use, obesity, frailty, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, diabetes C-reactive protein (CRP), cognitive status, alcohol use, medication use, respiratory disease, and systolic blood pressure, 1 g/dL lower baseline serum albumin concentration was associated with higher risk of both hospitalization (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-1.82; p < 0.001) and death (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.24-2.24; p < 0.001). Associations were weaker with older age but not different by frailty status or level of high-sensitivity CRP. Associations between serum albumin, hospitalizations, and death were also similar in a real-world cohort of primary care patients. CONCLUSIONS: Lower baseline serum albumin was significantly associated with increased risk of both all-cause hospitalization and death, independent of pre-existing disease. Older adults with low serum albumin should be considered a high-risk population and targeted for interventions to reduce the risk of adverse outcomes.

5.
J Ren Nutr ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Blood biomarkers of dietary intake are more objective than self-reported dietary intake. Metabolites associated with dietary acid load were previously identified in 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations. We aimed to extend these findings to a general population, replicating their association with dietary acid load, and investigating whether the individual biomarkers were prospectively associated with incident CKD. METHODS: Among 15,792 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort followed up from 1987 to 1989 (baseline) to 2019, we evaluated 3,844 black and white men and women with dietary and metabolomic data in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. We hypothesized that a higher dietary acid load (using equations for potential renal acid load and net endogenous acid production) was associated with lower serum levels of 12 previously identified metabolites: indolepropionylglycine, indolepropionate, N-methylproline, N-δ-acetylornithine, threonate, oxalate, chiro-inositol, methyl glucopyranoside, stachydrine, catechol sulfate, hippurate, and tartronate. In addition, we hypothesized that lower serum levels of these 12 metabolites were associated with higher risk of incident CKD. RESULTS: Eleven out of 12 metabolites were significantly inversely associated with dietary acid load, after adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, health status, and estimated glomerular filtration rate: indolepropionylglycine, indolepropionate, N-methylproline, threonate, oxalate, chiro-inositol, catechol sulfate, hippurate, methyl glucopyranoside (α + ß), stachydrine, and tartronate. N-methylproline was inversely associated with incident CKD (hazard ratio: 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.99, P = .01). The metabolomic biomarkers of dietary acid load significantly improved prediction of elevated dietary acid load estimated using dietary data, beyond covariates (difference in C statistics: 0.021-0.077, P ≤ 1.08 × 10-3). CONCLUSION: Inverse associations between candidate biomarkers of dietary acid load were replicated in a general population. N-methylproline, representative of citrus fruit consumption, is a promising marker of dietary acid load and could represent an important pathway between dietary acid load and CKD.

6.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(4): 306-315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077937

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemostasis depends on the delicate balance between coagulants and anticoagulants. Higher levels of circulating coagulants have been associated with higher risk of cerebral infarctions and dementia. In contrast, higher levels of circulating protein C, an endogenous anticoagulant, have been associated with lower risk of cerebral infarctions, and the association between protein C levels and the risk of dementia is unknown. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of circulating protein C levels in midlife and late life with incident dementia. METHODS: Circulating protein C levels were measured using blood samples collected at the midlife baseline (1987-1989) and the late-life baseline (2011-2013) among 14,462 and 3,614 participants, respectively, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Protein C levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at midlife and a modified aptamer-based assay at late life. Participants were followed up to 2013 from midlife and up to 2017 from late life. Incident dementia was ascertained during the follow-up periods using in-person cognitive and functional assessment, informant interviews, and International Classification of Diseases codes at hospitalization discharge and on death certificates. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association between quintiles of circulating protein C and incident dementia. RESULTS: From midlife (mean age of 54), 1,389 incident dementia events were observed over a median follow-up of 23 years. From late life (mean age of 75), 353 incident dementia events were observed over a median follow-up of 4.9 years. At both midlife and late life, circulating protein C had an inverse association with incident dementia after adjusting for demographic, vascular, and hemostatic risk factors, incident stroke as time-dependent covariate, and incorporating stabilized weights based on propensity scores (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 as the reference, midlife hazard ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.96, p value for trend 0.04; late-life hazard ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval: 0.55-1.28, p value for trend 0.04). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Circulating protein C has an inverse association with incident dementia independent of established risk factors, including stroke. Our results suggest studying anticoagulants in addition to coagulants can increase our understanding on the relationship between hemostasis and dementia.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(23): 2939-2959, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112321

RESUMO

ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) initiated community-based surveillance in 1987 for myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence and mortality and created a prospective cohort of 15,792 Black and White adults ages 45 to 64 years. The primary aims were to improve understanding of the decline in CHD mortality and identify determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis and CHD in Black and White middle-age adults. ARIC has examined areas including health disparities, genomics, heart failure, and prevention, producing more than 2,300 publications. Results have had strong clinical impact and demonstrate the importance of population-based research in the spectrum of biomedical research to improve health.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 384(23): 2219-2228, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Documenting current trends in diabetes treatment and risk-factor control may inform public health policy and planning. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from adults with diabetes in the United States participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess national trends in diabetes treatment and risk-factor control from 1999 through 2018. RESULTS: Diabetes control improved from 1999 to the early 2010s among the participants but subsequently stalled and declined. Between the 2007-2010 period and the 2015-2018 period, the percentage of adult NHANES participants with diabetes in whom glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin level, <7%) was achieved declined from 57.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.9 to 61.8) to 50.5% (95% CI, 45.8 to 55.3). After major improvements in lipid control (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, <130 mg per deciliter) in the early 2000s, minimal improvement was seen from 2007-2010 (52.3%; 95% CI, 49.2 to 55.3) to 2015-2018 (55.7%; 95% CI, 50.8 to 60.5). From 2011-2014 to 2015-2018, the percentage of participants in whom blood-pressure control (<140/90 mm Hg) was achieved decreased from 74.2% (95% CI, 70.7 to 77.4) to 70.4% (95% CI, 66.7 to 73.8). The percentage of participants in whom all three targets were simultaneously achieved plateaued after 2010 and was 22.2% (95% CI, 17.9 to 27.3) in 2015-2018. The percentages of participants who used any glucose-lowering medication or any blood-pressure-lowering medication were unchanged after 2010, and the percentage who used statins plateaued after 2014. After 2010, the use of combination therapy declined in participants with uncontrolled blood pressure and plateaued for those with poor glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: After more than a decade of progress from 1999 to the early 2010s, glycemic and blood-pressure control declined in adult NHANES participants with diabetes, while lipid control leveled off. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191599

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides nuanced information on glucose patterns, but data in very old adults are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate CGM patterns in very old adults. DESIGN: Pilot study. SETTING: Participants recruited from one center during visit 7 (2019) of the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 27 adults (8 with type 2 and 19 without diabetes) who wore a CGM sensor (Abbott Libre Pro) for up to 14 days. Clinical and laboratory measures including HbA1c were obtained. MAIN OUTCOMES: Mean CGM glucose, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), time-in-range (TIR) 70-180 mg/dL, and hypoglycemia. RESULTS: Mean age was 81 (range, 77-91 years) and mean CGM wear time was 13.2 days. In persons without diabetes, there was a wide range of CGM parameters: range of mean glucose, 83.7-124.5 mg/dL, SD 12.2-27.3 mg/dL, CV 14.0-26.7%, TIR 71.1-99.5%. In persons with diabetes, the range of mean CGM glucose was 105.5-223.0 mg/dL, SD, 22.3-86.6 mg/dL, CV 18.2-38.8%, TIR 38.7-98.3%. The Pearson's correlation of mean glucose with HbA1c was high overall (0.90); but, for some participants with similar HbA1c, glucose patterns differed substantially. There was a high prevalence of hypoglycemia (glucose <70 or <54 mg/dL) in both persons with and without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: There was high feasibility and acceptability of CGM in very old adults. Low readings on CGM are common, even in nondiabetic older adults; the clinical relevance of these low values is unclear. CGM may provide complementary information to HbA1c in some older adults.

11.
Atherosclerosis ; 329: 36-43, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Psychosocial factors are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, associations with peripheral artery disease (PAD) remain uncharacterized. We aimed to compare associations of psychosocial factors with the risk of PAD and two other major atherosclerotic CVD: coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. METHODS: In 11,104 participants (mean age 56.7 [SD 5.7] years) without a clinical history of PAD and CHD/stroke at baseline (1990-1992), we evaluated four psychosocial domains: depressive/fatigue symptoms by the Maastricht Questionnaire, social support by the Interpersonal Evaluation List, social networks by the Lubben Scale, and trait anger by the Spielberger Scale. PAD was defined as hospitalizations with diagnosis or related procedures. CHD included adjudicated coronary heart disease and stroke included ischemic stroke. RESULTS: We observed 397 PAD and 1940 CHD/stroke events during a median follow-up of 23.1 years. Higher depressive/fatigue symptoms and less social support were significantly associated with incident PAD (adjusted hazard ratios for top vs. bottom quartile 1.65 [95%CI, 1.25-2.19] and 1.40 [1.05-1.87], respectively). When these factors were simultaneously modeled, only depressive/fatigue symptoms remained significant. Incident CHD/stroke was not associated with either of depressive/fatigue symptoms or social support. Social networks and trait anger were not independently associated with PAD or CHD/stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive/fatigue symptoms and social support (especially the former) were independently associated with the risk of hospitalizations with PAD but not CHD/stroke in the general population. Our results support the importance of depressive/fatigue symptoms in vascular health and suggest the need of including PAD when studying the impact of psychosocial factors on CVD.

12.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009667

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Accumulated vascular damage contributes to the onset and progression of vascular dementia and possibly to Alzheimer's disease. Here we evaluate the feasibility and utility of using retinal imaging of microvascular markers to identify older adults at risk of cognitive disease. METHODS: The "Eye Determinants of Cognition" (EyeDOC) study recruited a biracial, population-based sample of participants from two sites: Jackson, MS, and Washington Co, MD. Optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) was used to capture vessel density (VD) from a 6 × 6 mm scan of the macula in several vascular layers from 2017 to 2019. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area was also estimated. Image quality was assessed by trained graders at a reading center. A neurocognitive battery of 10 tests was administered at three time points from 2011 to 2019 and incident mild cognitive impairement (MCI)/dementia cases were ascertained. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations of retinal vascular markers with cognitive factor score change over time. RESULTS: Nine-hundred and seventy-six older adults (mean age of 78.7 (± 4.4) years, 44% black) were imaged. Gradable images were obtained in 55% (535/976), with low signal strength (66%) and motion artifact (22%) being the largest contributors to poor quality. Among the 297 participants with both high-quality images and no clinically significant retinal pathology, the average decline in global cognitive function factor score was -0.03 standard deviations per year. In adjusted analyses, no associations of VD or FAZ with longitudinal changes in either global cognitive function or with incident MCI/dementia were found. CONCLUSIONS: In this large biracial community sample of older adults representative of the target population for retinal screening of cognitive risk, we found that obtaining high-quality OCTA scans was infeasible in a nearly half of older adults. Among the select sample of healthier older adults with scans, OCTA markers were not predictive of cognitive impairment.

13.
Kidney Int ; 100(2): 430-439, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838163

RESUMO

The genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful means to study genetic determinants of disease traits and generate insights into disease pathophysiology. To date, few GWAS of circulating metabolite levels have been performed in African Americans with chronic kidney disease. Hypothesizing that novel genetic-metabolite associations may be identified in a unique population of African Americans with a lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we conducted a GWAS of 652 serum metabolites in 619 participants (mean measured glomerular filtration rate 45 mL/min/1.73m2) in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension, a clinical trial of blood pressure lowering and antihypertensive medication in African Americans with chronic kidney disease. We identified 42 significant variant metabolite associations. Twenty associations had been previously identified in published GWAS, and eleven novel associations were replicated in a separate cohort of 818 African Americans with genetic and metabolomic data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The replicated novel variant-metabolite associations comprised eight metabolites and eleven distinct genomic loci. Nine of the replicated associations represented clear enzyme-metabolite interactions, with high expression in the kidneys as well as the liver. Three loci (ACY1, ACY3, and NAT8) were associated with a common pool of metabolites, acetylated amino acids, but with different individual affinities. Thus, extensive metabolite profiling in an African American population with chronic kidney disease aided identification of novel genome-wide metabolite associations, providing clues about substrate specificity and the key roles of enzymes in modulating systemic levels of metabolites.

14.
Atherosclerosis ; 324: 52-57, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous community-based studies have demonstrated sex and race-based disparities in the risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to examine the association of sex and race with incident peripheral artery disease (PAD-) and critical limb ischemia (CLI-) related hospitalizations. METHODS: In 13,451 Black and White ARIC participants without prevalent PAD at baseline (1987-89), we estimated the cumulative incidence of PAD- and CLI-related hospitalization over a median follow-up of 26 years. We quantified hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox models across four sex- and race-groups. PAD and CLI were defined by hospitalization discharge codes. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of PAD-related hospitalization was higher in males than females in Whites (5.1% vs. 2.7%; p<0.001) but not in Blacks (5.7% vs. 5.0%; p=0.39). The cumulative incidence of CLI-related hospitalization differed significantly by race more than sex, occurring in 3.1% Black males, 3.1% Black females, 1.4% White males, and 0.8% White females (p<0.001). After risk factor adjustment, the risk of incident PAD-related hospitalization was similar for White males vs. White females [HR 1.14, 95%CI 0.90-1.45], and slightly higher for Black males [HR 1.26, 95%CI 0.92-1.72] and Black females [HR 1.39, 95%CI 1.03-1.87] compared to White females. The adjusted risk of incident CLI-related hospitalization was similar for White males vs. White females [HR 1.15, 95%CI 0.75-1.76], and significantly higher for Black males [HR 1.96, 95%CI 1.22-3.16] and Black females [HR 2.06, 95%CI 1.31-3.24] compared to White females. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that there are both sex- and race-specific patterns of PAD-related hospitalization that lead to differences in clinical disease risk and presentation.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doença Arterial Periférica , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(5): 1147-1156, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of premature atrial contraction (PAC) frequency with cognitive test scores and prevalence of dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study visit 6 (January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2017) data. We included 2163 participants without atrial fibrillation (AF) (age mean ± SD, 79±4 years; 1273 (58.9%) female; and 604 (27.97.0% Black) who underwent cognitive testing and wore a leadless, ambulatory electrocardiogram monitor for 14 days. We categorized PAC frequency based on the percent of beats: less than 1%, minimal; 1% to <5%, occasional; greater than or equal to 5%, frequent. We derived cognitive domain-specific factor scores (memory, executive function, language, and global z-score). Dementia and MCI were adjudicated. RESULTS: During a mean analyzable time of 12.6±2.6 days, 339 (15.7%) had occasional PACs and 107 (4.9%) had frequent PACs. Individuals with frequent PACs (vs minimal) had lower executive function factor scores by 0.30 (95% CI, -0.46 to -0.14) and lower global factor scores by 0.20 (95% CI, -0.33 to -0.07) after multivariable adjustment. Individuals with frequent PACs (vs minimal) had higher odds of prevalent dementia or MCI after multivariable adjustment (odds ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.79). These associations were unchanged with additional adjustment for stroke. CONCLUSION: In community-dwelling older adults without AF, frequent PACs were cross-sectionally associated with lower executive and global cognitive function and greater prevalence of dementia or MCI, independently of stroke. Our findings lend support to the notion that atrial cardiomyopathy may be a driver of AF-related outcomes. Further research to confirm these associations prospectively and to elucidate underlying mechanisms is warranted.


Assuntos
Complexos Atriais Prematuros/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Demência/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/diagnóstico , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
16.
Transplantation ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early steroid withdrawal (ESW) is a viable maintenance immunosuppression strategy in low-risk kidney transplant recipients. A low panel reactive antibody (PRA) may indicate low-risk condition amenable to ESW. We aimed to identify the threshold value of PRA above which ESW may pose additional risk, and to compare the association of ESW with transplant outcomes across PRA strata. METHODS: We studied 121,699 deceased-donor kidney-only recipients in 2002-2017 from SRTR. Using natural splines and ESW-PRA interaction terms, we explored how the associations of ESW with transplant outcomes change with increasing PRA values, and identified a threshold value for PRA. Then, we assessed whether PRA exceeding the threshold modified the associations of ESW with 1-year acute rejection, death-censored graft failure, and death. RESULTS: The association of ESW with acute rejection exacerbated rapidly when PRA exceeded 60. Among PRA≤60 recipients, ESW was associated with a minor increase in rejection (aOR=1.001.051.10) and with a tendency of decreased graft failure (aHR=0.910.971.03). However, among PRA>60 recipients, ESW was associated with a substantial increase in rejection (aOR=1.191.271.36; interaction p<0.001) and with a tendency of increased graft failure (aHR=0.981.081.20; interaction p=0.028). The association of ESW with death was similar between PRA strata (PRA≤60, aHR=0.910.961.01; and PRA>60, aHR=0.900.991.09; interaction p=0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that the association of ESW with transplant outcomes is less favorable in recipients with higher PRA, especially those with PRA>60, suggesting a possible role of PRA in the risk assessment for ESW.

17.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844443

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hearing impairment is associated with poor cognitive test performance in older adults. However, hearing's impact on cognitive test completion is poorly described, and missing cognitive data due to hearing impairment could misestimate the association. METHODS: We investigated if hearing impairment is associated with missing neurocognitive scores in 3678 adults (72-94 years). Hearing impairment was defined by the better-ear pure tone average of speech-frequency thresholds (0.5-4 kHz) >25 decibels. RESULTS: Hearing impairment was associated with greater missingness on all auditory-only tests, including Logical Memory (prevalence ratio [PR] comparing ≥ moderate impairment vs normal hearing:1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26, 2.25) and Digits Backwards (PR 1.62; 95% CI 1.21, 2.17); and two non-auditory tests, Boston Naming (PR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21, 2.17) and Trail Making B (PR 1.55; 95% CI 1.29, 1.86). Models that imputed missing cognitive scores showed the strongest hearing-cognition associations. DISCUSSION: Older adults with hearing impairment are less likely to complete cognitive testing, thereby underestimating the hearing impairment-cognition relationship.

18.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687142

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Head injury is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Long-term associations of head injury with dementia in community-based populations are less clear. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 14,376 participants (mean age 54 years at baseline, 56% female, 27% Black, 24% with head injury) enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Head injury was defined using self-report and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth/Tenth Revision (ICD-9/10) codes. Dementia was defined using cognitive assessments, informant interviews, and ICD-9/10 and death certificate codes. RESULTS: Head injury was associated with risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-1.57), with evidence of dose-response (1 head injury: HR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.13-1.39, 2+ head injuries: HR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.86-2.46). There was evidence for stronger associations among female participants (HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.51-1.90) versus male participants (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00-1.32), P-for-interaction < .001, and among White participants (HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.40-1.72) versus Black participants (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.02-1.45), P-for-interaction = .008. DISCUSSION: In this community-based cohort with 25-year follow-up, head injury was associated with increased dementia risk in a dose-dependent manner, with stronger associations among female participants and White participants.

19.
Stroke ; 52(6): 2086-2095, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The association of physical activity (PA) before stroke (prestroke PA) with long-term prognosis after stroke is still unclear. We examined the association of prestroke PA with adverse health outcomes in the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). METHODS: We included 881 participants with incident stroke occurring between 1993 and 1995 (visit 3) and December 31, 2016. Follow-up continued until December 31, 2017 to allow for at least 1-year after incident stroke. Prestroke PA was assessed using a modified version of the Baecke questionnaire in 1987 to 1989 (visit 1) and 1993 to 1995 (visit 3), evaluating PA domains (work, leisure, and sports) and total PA. We used Cox proportional hazards models to quantify the association between tertiles of accumulated prestroke PA levels over the 6-year period between visits 1 and 3 and mortality, risk of cardiovascular disease, and recurrent stroke after incident stroke. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 3.1 years after incident stroke, 676 (77%) participants had adverse outcomes. Highest prestroke total PA was associated with decreased risks of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.63-0.97]) compared with lowest tertile. In the analysis by domain-specific PA, highest levels of work PA were associated with lower risk for all-cause (hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.62-0.96]) and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.29-0.70]), and highest levels of leisure PA were associated with lower all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.58-0.89]) compared with lowest tertile of PA. No significant associations for sports PA were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of total prestroke PA as well as work and leisure PA were associated with lower risk of mortality after incident stroke. Public health strategies to increase lifetime PA should be encouraged to decrease long-term mortality after stroke.

20.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(4): 511-519, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555311

RESUMO

Importance: The term prediabetes is used to identify individuals at increased risk for diabetes. However, the natural history of prediabetes in older age is not well characterized. Objectives: To compare different prediabetes definitions and characterize the risks of prediabetes and diabetes among older adults in a community-based setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective cohort analysis of 3412 older adults without diabetes from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (baseline, 2011-2013), participants were contacted semiannually through December 31, 2017, and attended a follow-up visit between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017 (median [range] follow-up, 5.0 [0.1-6.5] years). Exposures: Prediabetes defined by a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 5.7% to 6.4%, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) level (FG level of 100-125 mg/dL), either, or both. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident total diabetes (physician diagnosis, glucose-lowering medication use, HbA1c level ≥6.5%, or FG level ≥126 mg/dL). Results: A total of 3412 participants without diabetes (mean [SD] age, 75.6 [5.2] years; 2040 [60%] female; and 572 [17%] Black) attended visit 5 (2011-2013, baseline). Of the 3412 participants at baseline, a total of 2497 participants attended the follow-up visit or died. During the 6.5-year follow-up period, there were 156 incident total diabetes cases (118 diagnosed) and 434 deaths. A total of 1490 participants (44%) had HbA1c levels of 5.7% to 6.4%, 1996 (59%) had IFG, 2482 (73%) met the HbA1c or IFG criteria, and 1004 (29%) met both the HbA1c and IFG criteria. Among participants with HbA1c levels of 5.7% to 6.4% at baseline, 97 (9%) progressed to diabetes, 148 (13%) regressed to normoglycemia (HbA1c, <5.7%), and 207 (19%) died. Of those with IFG at baseline, 112 (8%) progressed to diabetes, 647 (44%) regressed to normoglycemia (FG, <100 mg/dL), and 236 (16%) died. Of those with baseline HbA1c levels less than 5.7%, 239 (17%) progressed to HbA1c levels of 5.7% to 6.4% and 41 (3%) developed diabetes. Of those with baseline FG levels less than 100 mg/dL, 80 (8%) progressed to IFG (FG, 100-125 mg/dL) and 26 (3%) developed diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this community-based cohort study of older adults, the prevalence of prediabetes was high; however, during the study period, regression to normoglycemia or death was more frequent than progression to diabetes. These findings suggest that prediabetes may not be a robust diagnostic entity in older age.

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