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1.
Chem Sci ; 12(22): 7930-7936, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168847

RESUMO

Metalation of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) is a critical strategy to functionalize COFs for advanced applications yet largely relies on the pre-installed specific metal docking sites in the network, such as porphyrin, salen, 2,2'-bipyridine, etc. We show in this study that the imine linkage of simple imine-based COFs, one of the most popular COFs, readily chelate transition metal (Ir in this work) via cyclometalation, which has not been explored before. The iridacycle decorated COF exhibited more than 10-fold efficiency enhancement in (photo)catalytic hydrogen evolution from aqueous formate solution than its molecular counterpart under mild conditions. This work will inspire more functional cyclometallated COFs to be explored beyond catalysis considering the large imine COF library and the rich metallacycle chemistry.

2.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 72: 105401, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341073

RESUMO

The electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) on polycrystalline copper (Cu) electrode was performed in a CO2-saturated 0.10 M Na2CO3 aqueous solution at 278 K in the absence and presence of low-frequency high-power ultrasound (f = 24 kHz, PT ~ 1.23 kW/dm3) in a specially and well-characterized sonoelectrochemical reactor. It was found that in the presence of ultrasound, the cathodic current (Ic) for CO2 reduction increased significantly when compared to that in the absence of ultrasound (silent conditions). It was observed that ultrasound increased the faradaic efficiency of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4) formation and decreased the faradaic efficiency of molecular hydrogen (H2). Under ultrasonication, a ca. 40% increase in faradaic efficiency was obtained for methane formation through the CO2RR. In addition, and interestingly, water-soluble CO2 reduction products such as formic acid and ethanol were found under ultrasonic conditions whereas under silent conditions, these expected electrochemical CO2RR products were absent. It was also found that power ultrasound increases the formation of smaller hydrocarbons through the CO2RR and may initiate new chemical reaction pathways through the sonolytic di-hydrogen splitting yielding other products, and simultaneously reducing the overall molecular hydrogen gas formation.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(86): 13193-13196, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021615

RESUMO

Conformal atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is employed to make semi-transparent TaOxNy, providing the possibility to build semi-transparent oxy(nitride) heterojunction photoanodes on conductive substrates. A generalized approach was developed to manufacture semi-transparent quaternary metal oxynitrides on conductive substrates beyond semi-transparent binary Ta3N5 photoanodes aiming for wireless tandem photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(72): 10473-10476, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756676

RESUMO

Disordered nanostructures in photoelectrodes can increase light absorption in photoelectrochemical system designs. Predicting their optical properties is an elusive task due to the immensity of unique configurations and the intrinsic variance of each. A neural network trained from a small subset of simulations can emulate the complex absorption properties of the entire configuration space for a model disordered system with quantifiable accuracy and computational efficiency.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(21): 19077-19086, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067020

RESUMO

A nanowire photoanode SrTaO2N, a semiconductor suitable for overall water-splitting with a band gap of 2.3 eV, was coated with functional overlayers to yield a core-shell structure while maintaining its one-dimensional morphology. The nanowires were grown hydrothermally on tantalum, and the perovskite-related oxynitride structure was obtained by nitridation. Three functional overlayers have been deposited on the nanowires to enhance the efficiency of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. The deposition of TiO x protects the oxynitride from photocorrosion and suppresses charge-carrier recombination at the surface. Ni(OH) x acts a hole-storage layer and decreases the dark-current contribution. This leads to a significantly improved extraction of photogenerated holes to the electrode-electrolyte surface. The photocurrents can be increased by the deposition of a cobalt phosphate (CoPi) layer as a cocatalyst. The heterojunction nanowire photoanode generates a current density of 0.27 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under simulated sunlight (AM 1.5G). Simultaneously, the dark-current contribution, a common problem for oxynitride photoanodes grown on metallic substrates, is almost completely minimized. This is the first report of a quaternary oxynitride nanowire photoanode in core-shell geometry containing functional overlayers for synergetic hole extraction and an electrocatalyst.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(50): 43691-43698, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462916

RESUMO

Transparent, conductive coatings on porous, three-dimensional materials are often used as the current collector for photoelectrode designs in photoelectrochemical applications. These structures allow for improved light trapping and absorption in chemically synthesized, photoactive overlayers while minimizing parasitic absorption in the current collecting layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is particularly useful for fabricating transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) like Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) for structured materials because the deposition is specific to exposed surfaces. Unlike line-of-sight deposition methods (evaporation, spray pyrolysis, sputtering), ALD can access the entire complex interface to make a conformal transparent conductive layer. While ITO and AZO can be grown by ALD, they are intrinsically soluble in the acidic and basic environments common for electrochemical applications like water splitting. To take advantage of the unique characteristics of ALD in these applications, it is important to develop strategies for fabricating TCO layers with enhanced chemical stability. Ultrathin coatings of stable materials can be used to protect otherwise unstable electrochemical interfaces while maintaining the desired function. Here, we describe experiments to characterize the chemical and electrochemical stability of ALD-deposited AZO TCO thin films protected by a 10 nm TiO2 overlayer. The addition of a TiO2 protection layer is demonstrated to improve the chemical stability of AZO by orders of magnitude compared to unprotected, yet otherwise identically prepared, AZO films. The electrochemical stability is enhanced accordingly in both acidic and basic environments. We demonstrate that TiO2-protected AZO can be used as a TCO for both the cathodic hydrogen evolution (HER) and anodic water oxidation (OER) half-reactions of electrochemical water splitting in base and for HER in acid when the appropriate electrocatalysts are added. As a result, we show that ALD can be used to synthesize a chemically stable TCO heterostructure, expanding the range of materials and electrochemical environments available for building complex photoelectrode architectures.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(37): 24612-20, 2016 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27575549

RESUMO

Semiconductor-liquid junctions are ubiquitous in photoelectrochemical approaches to artificial photosynthesis. By analogy with the antennae and reaction centers in natural photosynthetic complexes, separating the light-absorbing semiconductor and electrocatalysts can improve catalytic efficiency. A catalytic layer can also impair the photovoltage-generating energetics of the electrode without appropriate microscopic organization of catalytically active area on the surface. Here, we have developed a method using high-speed X-ray phase contrast imaging to study in situ electrolytic bubble growth on semiconductor electrodes fabricated with isolated, micron-scale platinum electrocatalysts. X-rays are a nonperturbative probe by which gas evolution dynamics can be studied under conditions relevant to solar fuels applications. The self-limited growth of a bubble residing on the isolated electrocatalyst was measured by tracking the evolution of the gas-liquid boundary. Contrary to observations on macroscopic electrodes, bubble evolution on isolated, microscopic Pt pads on Si electrodes was insensitive to increasing overpotential. The persistence of the bubble causes mass transport limitations and inhibits the expected Tafel-like kinetics. The observed scaling of catalytic current densities with pad size implies that electrolysis is occurring predominantly on the perimeter of the active area.

8.
Nano Lett ; 14(5): 2310-7, 2014 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24678723

RESUMO

WO3 thin films have been deposited in a hierarchically structured core-shell morphology, with the cores consisting of an array of Si microwires and the shells consisting of a controlled morphology WO3 layer. Porosity was introduced into the WO3 outer shell by using a self-assembled microsphere colloidal crystal as a mask during the deposition of the WO3 shell. Compared to conformal, unstructured WO3 shells on Si microwires, the hierarchically structured core-shell photoanodes exhibited enhanced near-visible spectral response behavior, due to increased light absorption and reduced distances over which photogenerated carriers were collected. The use of structured substrates also improved the growth rate of microsphere-based colloidal crystals and suggests strategies for the use of colloidal materials in large-scale applications.

9.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 85(3 Pt 1): 031501, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22587097

RESUMO

Nanoconfined water and surface-structured water impacts a broad range of fields. For water confined between hydrophilic surfaces, measurements and simulations have shown conflicting results ranging from "liquidlike" to "solidlike" behavior, from bulklike water viscosity to viscosity orders of magnitude higher. Here, we investigate how a homogeneous fluid behaves under nanoconfinement using its bulk response function: The Green's function of water extracted from a library of S(q,ω) inelastic x-ray scattering data is used to make femtosecond movies of nanoconfined water. Between two confining surfaces, the structure undergoes drastic changes as a function of surface separation. For surface separations of ≈9 Å, although the surface-associated hydration layers are highly deformed, they are separated by a layer of bulklike water. For separations of ≈6 Å, the two surface-associated hydration layers are forced to reconstruct into a single layer that modulates between localized "frozen' and delocalized "melted" structures due to interference of density fields. These results potentially reconcile recent conflicting experiments. Importantly, we find a different delocalized wetting regime for nanoconfined water between surfaces with high spatial frequency charge densities, where water is organized into delocalized hydration layers instead of localized hydration shells, and are strongly resistant to `freezing' down to molecular distances (<6 Å).


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Difração de Raios X/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Módulo de Elasticidade
10.
Adv Mater ; 22(10): 1141-7, 2010 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20401938

RESUMO

A new method for imaging ultrafast dynamics in condensed matter using inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is described. Using the concepts of causality and irreversibility a general solution to the inverse scattering problem (or "phase problem") for IXS is illustrated, which enables direct imaging of dynamics of the electron density with resolutions of approximately 1 attosecond (10(-18) s) in time and <1 A in space. This method is not just Fourier transformation of the IXS data, but a means to impose causality on the data and reconstruct the charge propagator. The method can also be applied to inelastic electron or neutron scattering. A general outline of phenomena that can and cannot be studied with this technique and an outlook for the future is provided.


Assuntos
Espalhamento de Radiação , Algoritmos , Elasticidade , Elétrons , Análise de Fourier , Nêutrons , Raios X
11.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 21(42): 424115, 2009 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21715850

RESUMO

Recent work has shown that it is possible to use high resolution dynamical structure factor S(q,ω) data measured with inelastic x-ray scattering to reconstruct the Green's function of water, which describes its dynamical density response to a point charge. Here, we generalize this approach and describe a strategy for reconstructing hydration behavior near simple charge distributions with excluded volumes, with the long term goal of engaging hydration processes in complex molecular systems. We use this Green's function based imaging of dynamics method to generate hydration structures and show that they are consistent with those of well-studied model systems.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 103(23): 237402, 2009 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20366171

RESUMO

We use high resolution dynamical structure factor S(q,omega) data measured with inelastic x-ray scattering to reconstruct the Green's function of water, which describes its density response to a point charge, and provides a fundamental comparative model for solvation behavior at molecular time scales and length scales. Good agreement is found with simulations, scattering and spectroscopic experiments. These results suggest that a moving point charge will modify its hydration structure, evolving from a spherical closed shell to a steady-state cylindrical hydration "sleeve".

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 103(21): 7962-7, 2006 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16690742

RESUMO

Current understanding of electrostatics in water is based on mean-field theories like the Poisson-Boltzmann formalism and its approximations, which are routinely used in colloid science and computational biology. This approach, however, breaks down for highly charged systems, which exhibit counterintuitive phenomena such as overcharging and like-charge attraction. Models of counterion correlations have been proposed as possible explanations, but no experimental comparisons are available. Here, collective dynamics of counterions that mediate like-charge attraction between F-actin filaments have been directly observed in aqueous solution using high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering down to molecular length-scales. We find a previously undescribed acoustic-like phonon mode associated with correlated counterions. The excitation spectra at high wave-vector Q reveal unexpected dynamics due to ions interacting with their "cages" of nearest neighbors. We examine this behavior in the context of intrinsic charge density variations on F-actin. The measured speed of sound and collective relaxation rates in this liquid agree surprisingly well with simple model calculations.


Assuntos
Físico-Química/métodos , Polímeros , Actinas/química , Biofísica/métodos , Biopolímeros , Eletrólitos , Íons , Modelos Moleculares , Espalhamento de Radiação , Eletricidade Estática , Raios X
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