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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 5895-5923, 2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422385

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) is associated with several aging-related diseases. Here, we present a DNA methylation estimator of TL (DNAmTL) based on 140 CpGs. Leukocyte DNAmTL is applicable across the entire age spectrum and is more strongly associated with age than measured leukocyte TL (LTL) (r ~-0.75 for DNAmTL versus r ~ -0.35 for LTL). Leukocyte DNAmTL outperforms LTL in predicting: i) time-to-death (p=2.5E-20), ii) time-to-coronary heart disease (p=6.6E-5), iii) time-to-congestive heart failure (p=3.5E-6), and iv) association with smoking history (p=1.21E-17). These associations are further validated in large scale methylation data (n=10k samples) from the Framingham Heart Study, Women's Health Initiative, Jackson Heart Study, InChianti, Lothian Birth Cohorts, Twins UK, and Bogalusa Heart Study. Leukocyte DNAmTL is also associated with measures of physical fitness/functioning (p=0.029), age-at-menopause (p=0.039), dietary variables (omega 3, fish, vegetable intake), educational attainment (p=3.3E-8) and income (p=3.1E-5). Experiments in cultured somatic cells show that DNAmTL dynamics reflect in part cell replication rather than TL per se. DNAmTL is not only an epigenetic biomarker of replicative history of cells, but a useful marker of age-related pathologies that are associated with it.

2.
Neuropsychology ; 33(5): 642-657, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mean speed of responding is the most commonly used measure in the assessment of reaction time (RT). An alternative measure is intraindividual variability (IIV): the inconsistency of responding across multiple trials of a test. IIV has been suggested as an important indicator of central nervous system functioning, and as such, there has been increasing interest in the associations between IIV and brain imaging metrics. Results however, have been inconsistent. The present seeks to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the associations between a variety of measures of brain white matter integrity and individual differences in choice RT (CRT) IIV. METHOD: MRI brain scans of members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 were assessed to obtain measures of the volume and severity of white matter hyperintensities, and the integrity of brain white matter tracts. CRT was assessed with a 4 CRT task on a separate occasion. Data were analyzed using multiple regression (N range = 358-670). RESULTS: Greater volume of hyperintensities and more severe hyperintensities in frontal regions were associated with higher CRT IIV. White matter tract integrity, as assessed by both fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, showed the smallest effect sizes in associations with CRT IIV. Associations with hyperintensities were attenuated and no longer significant after controlling for M CRT. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that IIV was not incrementally predictive of white matter integrity over mean speed. This is in contrast to previous reports, and highlights the need for further study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760887

RESUMO

Polygenic scores can be used to distil the knowledge gained in genome-wide association studies for prediction of health, lifestyle, and psychological factors in independent samples. In this preregistered study, we used fourteen polygenic scores to predict variation in cognitive ability level at age 70, and cognitive change from age 70 to age 79, in the longitudinal Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. The polygenic scores were created for phenotypes that have been suggested as risk or protective factors for cognitive ageing. Cognitive abilities within older age were indexed using a latent general factor estimated from thirteen varied cognitive tests taken at four waves, each three years apart (initial n = 1091 age 70; final n = 550 age 79). The general factor indexed over two-thirds of the variance in longitudinal cognitive change. We ran additional analyses using an age-11 intelligence test to index cognitive change from age 11 to age 70. Several polygenic scores were associated with the level of cognitive ability at age-70 baseline (range of standardized ß-values = -0.178 to 0.302), and the polygenic score for education was associated with cognitive change from childhood to age 70 (standardized ß = 0.100). No polygenic scores were statistically significantly associated with variation in cognitive change between ages 70 and 79, and effect sizes were small. However, APOE e4 status made a significant prediction of the rate of cognitive decline from age 70 to 79 (standardized ß = -0.319 for carriers vs. non-carriers). The results suggest that the predictive validity for cognitive ageing of polygenic scores derived from genome-wide association study summary statistics is not yet on a par with APOE e4, a better-established predictor.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617275

RESUMO

Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 112-138, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595373

RESUMO

Mitochondria (MT), the major site of cellular energy production, are under dual genetic control by 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and numerous nuclear genes (MT-nDNA). In the CHARGEmtDNA+ Consortium, we studied genetic associations of mtDNA and MT-nDNA associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. This 45-cohort collaboration comprised 70,775 (insulin) to 170,202 (BMI) pan-ancestry individuals. Validation and imputation of mtDNA variants was followed by single-variant and gene-based association testing. We report two significant common variants, one in MT-ATP6 associated (p ≤ 5E-04) with WHR and one in the D-loop with glucose. Five rare variants in MT-ATP6, MT-ND5, and MT-ND6 associated with BMI, WHR, or insulin. Gene-based meta-analysis identified MT-ND3 associated with BMI (p ≤ 1E-03). We considered 2,282 MT-nDNA candidate gene associations compiled from online summary results for our traits (20 unique studies with 31 dataset consortia's genome-wide associations [GWASs]). Of these, 109 genes associated (p ≤ 1E-06) with at least 1 of our 7 traits. We assessed regulatory features of variants in the 109 genes, cis- and trans-gene expression regulation, and performed enrichment and protein-protein interactions analyses. Of the identified mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes, 79 associated with adipose measures, 49 with glucose/insulin, 13 with risk for type 2 diabetes, and 18 with cardiovascular disease, indicating for pleiotropic effects with health implications. Additionally, 21 genes related to cholesterol, suggesting additional important roles for the genes identified. Our results suggest that mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes and variants reported make important contributions to glucose and insulin metabolism, adipocyte regulation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

6.
Psychol Sci ; : 956797618804501, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359210

RESUMO

We examined reciprocal, time-ordered associations between age-related changes in fluid intelligence and depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,091 community-dwelling older adults from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study who were assessed repeatedly at 3-year intervals between the ages of 70 and 79 years. On average, fluid intelligence and depressive symptoms worsened with age. There was also a dynamic-coupling effect, in which low fluid intelligence at a given age predicted increasing depressive symptoms across the following 3-year interval, whereas the converse did not hold. Model comparisons showed that this coupling parameter significantly improved overall fit and had a correspondingly moderately strong effect size, accounting on average for an accumulated 0.9 standard-deviation increase in depressive symptoms, following lower cognitive performance, across the observed age range. Adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related covariates did not significantly attenuate this association. This implies that monitoring for cognitive decrements in later life may expedite interventions to reduce related increases in depression risk.

7.
Ann Neurol ; 84(4): 576-587, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between carotid atherosclerosis and cerebral cortical thickness and investigate whether cortical thickness mediates the association between carotid atheroma and relative cognitive decline. METHODS: We assessed 554 community-dwelling subjects (male/female: 296/258) from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and carotid Doppler ultrasound studies at age 73 years. The relationship between carotid atherosclerosis markers (internal carotid artery stenosis, intima-media thickness, velocity, pulsatility, and resistivity indexes) and vertex-wide cerebral cortical thickness was examined cross-sectionally, controlling for gender, extensive vascular risk factors (VRFs), and intelligence quotient at age 11 (IQ-11). We also determined the association between carotid stenosis and a composite measure of fluid intelligence at age 73 years. A mediation model was applied to examine whether cortical thickness mediated the relationship between carotid stenosis and cognitive function. RESULTS: A widespread negative association was identified between carotid stenosis (median = 15%) and cerebral cortical thickness at age 73 years, independent of the side of carotid stenosis, other carotid measures, VRFs, and IQ-11. This association increased in an almost dose-response relationship from mild to severe degrees of carotid stenosis, across the anterior and posterior circulation territories. A negative association was also noted between carotid stenosis and fluid intelligence (standardized beta coefficient = -0.151, p = 0.001), which appeared partly (approximately 22%) mediated by carotid stenosis-related thinning of the cerebral cortex. INTERPRETATION: The findings suggest that carotid stenosis represents a marker of processes that accelerate aging of the cerebral cortex and cognition that is in part independent of measurable VRFs. Cortical thinning within the anterior and posterior circulation territories partially mediated the relationship between carotid atheroma and fluid intelligence. Ann Neurol 2018;84:576-587.

8.
Brain Behav ; 8(2): e00838, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484252

RESUMO

Introduction: The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive abilities which often decline with advancing age. Methods: In a longitudinal study of community-dwelling adults, we investigated whether there were coupled changes in hippocampal structure and verbal memory, working memory, and processing speed between the ages of 73 (N = 655) and 76 years (N = 469). Hippocampal structure was indexed by hippocampal volume, hippocampal volume as a percentage of intracranial volume (H_ICV), fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and longitudinal relaxation time (T1). Results: Mean levels of hippocampal volume, H_ICV, FA, T1, and all three cognitive abilities domains decreased, whereas MD increased, from age 73 to 76. At baseline, higher hippocampal volume was associated with better working memory and verbal memory, but none of these correlations survived correction for multiple comparisons. Higher FA, lower MD, and lower T1 at baseline were associated with better cognitive abilities in all three domains; only the correlation between baseline hippocampal MD and T1, and change in the three cognitive domains, survived correction for multiple comparisons. Individuals with higher hippocampal MD at age 73 experienced a greater decline in all three cognitive abilities between ages 73 and 76. However, no significant associations with changes in cognitive abilities were found with hippocampal volume, FA, and T1 measures at baseline. Similarly, no significant associations were found between cognitive abilities at age 73 and changes in the hippocampal MRI biomarkers between ages 73 and 76. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence to better understand how the hippocampus ages in healthy adults in relation to the cognitive domains in which it is involved, suggesting that better hippocampal MD at age 73 predicts less relative decline in three important cognitive domains across the next 3 years. It can potentially assist in diagnosing early stages of aging-related neuropathologies, because in some cases, accelerated decline could predict pathologies.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192604, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this replication-and-extension study, we tested whether depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and allostatic load (multisystem physiological dysregulation) were related to lower baseline cognitive ability and greater subsequent cognitive decline in older adults, and whether these relationships were moderated by the E4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene. We also tested whether allostatic load mediated the relationships between neuroticism and cognitive outcomes. METHODS: We used data from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n at Waves 1-3: 1,028 [M age = 69.5 y]; 820 [M duration since Wave 1 = 2.98 y]; 659 [M duration since Wave 1 = 6.74 y]). We fitted latent growth curve models of general cognitive ability (modeled using five cognitive tests) with groups of APOE E4 non-carriers and carriers. In separate models, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and allostatic load predicted baseline cognitive ability and subsequent cognitive decline. In addition, models tested whether allostatic load mediated relationships between neuroticism and cognitive outcomes. RESULTS: Baseline cognitive ability had small-to-moderate negative associations with depressive symptoms (ß range = -0.20 to -0.17), neuroticism (ß range = -0.27 to -0.23), and allostatic load (ß range = -0.11 to 0.09). Greater cognitive decline was linked to baseline allostatic load (ß range = -0.98 to -0.83) and depressive symptoms (ß range = -1.00 to -0.88). However, APOE E4 allele possession did not moderate the relationships of depressive symptoms, neuroticism and allostatic load with cognitive ability and cognitive decline. Additionally, the associations of neuroticism with cognitive ability and cognitive decline were not mediated through allostatic load. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that APOE E4 status does not moderate the relationships of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and allostatic load with cognitive ability and cognitive decline in healthy older adults. The most notable positive finding in the current research was the strong association between allostatic load and cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Depressão/psicologia , Neuroticismo , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 10(1): 144-153, 2018 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356686

RESUMO

We aimed to assess whether and how changes in brain volume and increases in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume over three years predict gait speed and its change independently of demographics, vascular risk factors and physical status. We analyzed 443 individuals from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, at mean age 73 and 76 years. Gait speed at age 76 was predicted by age, grip strength and body mass index at mean age 73, three-year brain volume decrease and WMH volume increase, explaining 26.1% of variance. Decline in gait speed to age 76 was predicted by the same five variables explaining 40.9% of variance. In both analyses, grip strength and body mass index explained the most variance. A clinically significant decline in gait speed (≥ 0.1 m/s per year) occurred in 24.4%. These individuals had more structural brain changes. Brain volume and WMH changes were independent predictors of gait dysfunction and its three-year change, but the impact of malleable physical factors such as grip strength or body mass index was greater.

11.
Brain Struct Funct ; 223(1): 509-518, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28879544

RESUMO

Regional cortical brain volume is the product of surface area and thickness. These measures exhibit partially distinct trajectories of change across the brain's cortex in older age, but it is unclear which cortical characteristics at which loci are sensitive to cognitive ageing differences. We examine associations between change in intelligence from age 11 to 73 years and regional cortical volume, surface area, and thickness measured at age 73 years in 568 community-dwelling older adults, all born in 1936. A relative positive change in intelligence from 11 to 73 was associated with larger volume and surface area in selective frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions (r < 0.180, FDR-corrected q < 0.05). There were no significant associations between cognitive ageing and a thinner cortex for any region. Interestingly, thickness and surface area were phenotypically independent across bilateral lateral temporal loci, whose surface area was significantly related to change in intelligence. These findings suggest that associations between regional cortical volume and cognitive ageing differences are predominantly driven by surface area rather than thickness among healthy older adults. Regional brain surface area has been relatively underexplored, and is a potentially informative biomarker for identifying determinants of cognitive ageing differences.

12.
Neurobiol Aging ; 62: 146-158, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149632

RESUMO

Fully characterizing age differences in the brain is a key task for combating aging-related cognitive decline. Using propensity score matching on 2 independent, narrow-age cohorts, we used data on childhood cognitive ability, socioeconomic background, and intracranial volume to match participants at mean age of 92 years (n = 42) to very similar participants at mean age of 73 years (n = 126). Examining a variety of global and regional structural neuroimaging variables, there were large differences in gray and white matter volumes, cortical surface area, cortical thickness, and white matter hyperintensity volume and spatial extent. In a mediation analysis, the total volume of white matter hyperintensities and total cortical surface area jointly mediated 24.9% of the relation between age and general cognitive ability (tissue volumes and cortical thickness were not significant mediators in this analysis). These findings provide an unusual and valuable perspective on neurostructural aging, in which brains from the 8th and 10th decades of life differ widely despite the same cognitive, socioeconomic, and brain-volumetric starting points.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Tamanho do Órgão , Pontuação de Propensão , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 9(12): 2489-2503, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207374

RESUMO

Gene expression is influenced by both genetic variants and the environment. As individuals age, changes in gene expression may be associated with decline in physical and cognitive abilities. We measured transcriptome-wide expression levels in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 at mean ages 70 and 76 years. Changes in gene expression levels were identified for 1,741 transcripts in 434 individuals. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated an enrichment of biological processes involved in the immune system. Transcriptome-wide association analysis was performed for eleven cognitive, fitness, and biomedical aging-related traits at age 70 years (N=665 to 781) and with mortality. Transcripts for genes (F2RL3, EMILIN1 and CDC42BPA) previously identified as being differentially methylated or expressed in smoking or smoking-related cancers were overexpressed in smokers compared to non-smokers and the expression of transcripts for genes (HERPUD1, GAB2, FAM167A and GLS) previously associated with stress response, autoimmune disease and cancer were associated with telomere length. No associations between expression levels and other traits, or mortality were identified.

15.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 101(7): 993-998, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400371

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the relationship between retinal vascular morphology and cognitive abilities in a narrow-age cohort of community-dwelling older people. METHODS: Digital retinal images taken at age ∼73 years from 683 participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) were analysed with Singapore I Vessel Assessment (SIVA) software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine cross-sectional associations between retinal vascular parameters and general cognitive ability (g), memory, processing speed, visuospatial ability, crystallised cognitive ability and change in IQ from childhood to older age. RESULTS: After adjustment for cognitive ability at age 11 years and cardiovascular risk factors, venular length-to-diameter ratio was nominally significantly associated with processing speed (ß=-0.116, p=0.01) and g (ß=-0.079, p=0.04). Arteriolar length-to-diameter ratio was associated with visuospatial ability (ß=0.092, p=0.04). Decreased arteriolar junctional exponent deviation and increased arteriolar branching coefficient values were associated with less relative decline in IQ between childhood and older age (arteriolar junctional exponent deviation: ß=-0.101, p=0.02; arteriolar branching coefficient: ß=0.089, p=0.04). Data are presented as standardised ß coefficients (ß) reflecting change in cognitive domain score associated with an increase of 1 SD unit in retinal parameter. None of these nominally significant associations remained significant after correction for multiple statistical testing. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal parameters contributed <1% of the variance in the majority of associations observed. Whereas retinal analysis may have potential for early detection of some types of age-related cognitive decline and dementia, our results present little evidence that retinal vascular features are associated with non-pathological cognitive ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Cognição/fisiologia , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Arteríolas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Singapura , Vênulas/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Brain Struct Funct ; 222(8): 3477-3490, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28424895

RESUMO

Individuals differ markedly in brain structure, and in how this structure degenerates during ageing. In a large sample of human participants (baseline n = 731 at age 73 years; follow-up n = 488 at age 76 years), we estimated the magnitude of mean change and variability in changes in MRI measures of brain macrostructure (grey matter, white matter, and white matter hyperintensity volumes) and microstructure (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity from diffusion tensor MRI). All indices showed significant average change with age, with considerable heterogeneity in those changes. We then tested eleven socioeconomic, physical, health, cognitive, allostatic (inflammatory and metabolic), and genetic variables for their value in predicting these differences in changes. Many of these variables were significantly correlated with baseline brain structure, but few could account for significant portions of the heterogeneity in subsequent brain change. Physical fitness was an exception, being correlated both with brain level and changes. The results suggest that only a subset of correlates of brain structure are also predictive of differences in brain ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Idoso , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Neurobiol Aging ; 54: 54-58, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28324763

RESUMO

We examined whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) status interacts with vascular risk factors (VRFs) to predict the progression of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on brain MRI scans over a specific period of life in older age when the risk of dementia increases. At age 73 years, baseline VRFs were assessed via self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia, and via objective measures of blood HbA1c, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and blood high-density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (HDL) ratio. APOE e4 allele was coded as either present or absent. WMH progression was measured on MRI over 3 years in 434 older adults, in a same-year-of-birth cohort. APOE e4 carriers with either a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes (ß = 0.160, p = 0.002) or higher glycated hemoglobin levels (ß = 0.114, p = 0.014) exhibited greater WMH progression, and the former survived correction for multiple testing. All other APOE-VRF interactions were nonsignificant (ßinteraction < 0.056, p > 0.228). The results suggest that carrying the APOE "risk" e4 allele increases the risk of greater age-related WMH progression over the early part of the eighth decade of life, when combined with poorer glycemic control. The interaction effect was robust to co-occurring VRFs, suggesting a possible target for mitigating brain and cognitive aging at this age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Glicemia , Demência/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
18.
Neurology ; 88(5): 449-455, 2017 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) and change in brain MRI volumetric measures and mean cortical thickness across a 3-year period in older age (73-76 years). METHODS: We focused on 2 longitudinal brain volumes (total and gray matter; n = 401 and 398, respectively) plus a longitudinal measurement of cortical thickness (n = 323), for which the previous cross-sectional evidence of an association with the MeDi was strongest. Adherence to the MeDi was calculated from data gathered from a food frequency questionnaire at age 70, 3 years prior to the baseline imaging data collection. RESULTS: In regression models adjusting for relevant demographic and physical health indicators, we found that lower adherence to the MeDi was associated with greater 3-year reduction in total brain volume (explaining 0.5% of variance, p < 0.05). This effect was half the size of the largest covariate effect (i.e., age). Cross-sectional associations between MeDi and baseline MRI measures in 562 participants were not significant. Targeted analyses of meat and fish consumption did not replicate previous associations with total brain volume or total gray matter volume. CONCLUSIONS: Lower adherence to the MeDi in an older Scottish cohort is predictive of total brain atrophy over a 3-year interval. Fish and meat consumption does not drive this change, suggesting that other components of the MeDi or, possibly, all of its components in combination are responsible for the association.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dieta Mediterrânea , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Escócia , Caracteres Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Sci Rep ; 7: 41637, 2017 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28134332

RESUMO

Gait and balance impairment is highly prevalent in older people. We aimed to assess whether and how single markers of small vessel disease (SVD) or a combination thereof explain gait and balance function in the elderly. We analysed 678 community-dwelling healthy subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 at the age of 71-74 years who had undergone comprehensive risk factor assessment, gait and balance assessment as well as brain MRI. We investigated the impact of individual SVD markers (white matter hyperintensity - WMH, microbleeds, lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces, brain atrophy) as seen on structural brain MRI and of a global SVD score on the patients' performance. A regression model revealed that age, sex, and hypertension significantly explained gait speed. Among SVD markers white matter hyperintensity (WMH) score or volume were additional significant and independent predictors of gait speed in the regression model. A similar association was seen with the global SVD score. Our study confirms a negative impact of SVD-related morphologic brain changes on gait speed in addition to age, sex and hypertension independent from brain atrophy. The presence of WMH seems to be the major driving force for SVD on gait impairment in healthy elderly subjects.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Marcha , Equilíbrio Postural , Idoso , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
20.
PLoS Med ; 14(1): e1002215, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28095459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases in the general population remains uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an association study of body mass index (BMI) and differential methylation for over 400,000 CpGs assayed by microarray in whole-blood-derived DNA from 3,743 participants in the Framingham Heart Study and the Lothian Birth Cohorts, with independent replication in three external cohorts of 4,055 participants. We examined variations in whole blood gene expression and conducted Mendelian randomization analyses to investigate the functional and clinical relevance of the findings. We identified novel and previously reported BMI-related differential methylation at 83 CpGs that replicated across cohorts; BMI-related differential methylation was associated with concurrent changes in the expression of genes in lipid metabolism pathways. Genetic instrumental variable analysis of alterations in methylation at one of the 83 replicated CpGs, cg11024682 (intronic to sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 [SREBF1]), demonstrated links to BMI, adiposity-related traits, and coronary artery disease. Independent genetic instruments for expression of SREBF1 supported the findings linking methylation to adiposity and cardiometabolic disease. Methylation at a substantial proportion (16 of 83) of the identified loci was found to be secondary to differences in BMI. However, the cross-sectional nature of the data limits definitive causal determination. CONCLUSIONS: We present robust associations of BMI with differential DNA methylation at numerous loci in blood cells. BMI-related DNA methylation and gene expression provide mechanistic insights into the relationship between DNA methylation, obesity, and adiposity-related diseases.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/complicações , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
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