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1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-9, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708007

RESUMO

The Colorado Twin Registry (CTR) is a population-based registry formed from birth and school records including twins born between 1968 and the present. Two previous reports on the CTR [Rhea et al., (2006). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 941-949; Rhea et al., (2013).Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 351-357] covered developments in the CTR through 2012. This report briefly summarizes previously presented material on ascertainment and recruitment and the relationships between samples and studies, discusses developments since 2012 for four previously described twin samples, describes two new samples and their complementary studies and expands on two subjects briefly mentioned in the last report: a history of genotyping efforts involving CTR samples, and a survey of collaborations and consortia in which CTR twins have been included. The CTR remains an active resource for both ongoing, longitudinal research and the recruitment of new twin samples for newly identified research opportunities.

2.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-12, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547893

RESUMO

The purpose of this update is to provide the most current information about both the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP) and the Longitudinal Twin Study (LTS) and to introduce the Colorado Adoption/Twin Study of Lifespan behavioral development and cognitive aging (CATSLife), a product of their merger and a unique study of lifespan behavioral development and cognitive aging. The primary objective of CATSLife is to assess the unique saliency of early childhood genetic and environmental factors to adult cognitive maintenance and change, as well as proximal influences and innovations that emerge across development. CATSLife is currently assessing up to 1600 individuals on the cusp of middle age, targeting those between 30 and 40 years of age. The ongoing CATSLife data collection is described as well as the longitudinal data available from the earlier CAP and LTS assessments. We illustrate CATSLife via current projects and publications, highlighting the measurement of genetic, biochemical, social, sociodemographic and environmental indices, including geospatial features, and their impact on cognitive maintenance in middle adulthood. CATSLife provides an unparalleled opportunity to assess prospectively the etiologies of cognitive change and test the saliency of early childhood versus proximal influences on the genesis of cognitive decline.

3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 202: 104-110, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research indicates that early tobacco initiation increases risk for dependence, but despite this, early initiation is associated with slower transitions to escalated tobacco use. In contrast to these findings, other studies suggest that rapid escalated tobacco use is associated with increased dependence outcomes. METHODS: Our sample was comprised of 5668 twins (2834 twin-pairs, mean age: 26.89, s.d = 4.42, 53.67% female, 57.69% monozygotic) from Colorado and Minnesota twin cohorts. We assessed the associations between 1) age of tobacco initiation and the speed of transitions (latency) to tobacco problem use and dependence and the associations between 2) age of initiation and latencies to tobacco problem use and dependence with tobacco dependence symptom severity. To further understand the etiological unfolding of these processes, we conducted univariate twin models and causally informative co-twin control models. RESULTS: After adjustment for covariates, we found that early tobacco initiation was associated with a slower transition from initiation to problem use but a faster transition from problem use to dependence. Additionally, we found that earlier initiation and faster transitions to tobacco problem use and dependence predicted greater tobacco dependence severity within twin pairs (consistent with causal influences). The contribution of shared genetic and environmental factors was also evident for these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Our study further disentangles the role of early initiation with transition times to tobacco problem use and dependence. In addition to common risk factors, we found potential causal roles for early tobacco initiation and rapid escalated tobacco use with increased risk for tobacco dependence severity.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 256: 550-559, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280080

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Both rumination, a pattern of repetitive, self-focused thought in response to distress, and deficits in executive functions (EFs), a set of cognitive abilities that facilitate higher-order thinking, have transdiagnostic associations with psychopathology. Although empirical studies suggest associations between EFs and rumination, this literature has not examined subtypes of rumination and different components of EFs. It also has not examined whether rumination and EFs explain overlapping variance in psychopathology, which is relevant to theoretical models suggesting that rumination might mediate the EF-psychopathology association. METHODS: We used structural equation modeling to examine the association between latent factors for two types of rumination (anger and depressive) and three components of EF (a Common EF factor, and factors specific to updating working memory and shifting mental sets) and whether they independently relate to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in a population sample of 764 young adults (mean age 23 years) from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study. RESULTS: Depressive and Anger Rumination showed small correlations with a Common EF factor (rs = -.09 to -.11). Anger Rumination and Common EF ability were associated with independent variance in externalizing psychopathology, whereas Depressive Rumination, but not Common EF, was associated with internalizing psychopathology. LIMITATIONS: Examination of cross-sectional relations in a population sample led to low symptom endorsement for psychopathology and necessitated examination of lifetime, rather than past-year, psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Inconsistent with mediation hypotheses, Common EF abilities and rumination are correlated yet largely independent constructs that both predict psychopathology.

5.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126628

RESUMO

The ε4 allele of APOE is a well-established genetic risk factor for cognitive aging and dementia, but its influence on early life cognition is unknown. Consequently, we assessed associations of APOE genotypes with cognitive performance during 7, 12, and 16 year-assessments in our ongoing Colorado Adoption/Twin Study of Lifespan behavioral development (CATSLife). In general, APOE ε4 was associated with lower Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores during childhood and adolescence (e.g., Full Scale IQ was lower by 1.91 points per ε4 allele, d = -0.13), with larger effects in females (e.g., average Full Scale IQ scores were 3.41 points lower in females per each ε4 allele vs. 0.33 points lower in males). Thus, these results suggest that deleterious effects of the APOE ε4 allele are manifested before adulthood, especially in females, and support both early origin theories and differential life-course vulnerabilities for later cognitive impairment.

6.
Health Psychol ; 38(7): 648-657, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Illness behaviors-or responses to bodily symptoms-predict individuals' recovery and functioning; however, there has been little research on the early life personality antecedents of illness behavior. This study's primary aims were to evaluate (a) childhood temperament traits (i.e., emotionality and sociability) as predictors of adult illness behaviors, independent of objective health; and (b) adult temperament traits for mediation of childhood temperament's associations. METHOD: Participants included 714 (53% male; 350 adoptive family and 364 control family) children and siblings from the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP; Plomin & DeFries, 1983). Structural regression analyses evaluated paths from childhood temperament to illness behavior (i.e., somatic complaints, sick days, and medication use) at two adulthood assessments (CAP years 21 and 30). Analyses controlled for participant age, sex, family type (adoptive or control), adopted status, parent education/occupation, and middle childhood illnesses, doctor visits, and life events stress. RESULTS: Latent illness behavior factors were established across 2 adulthood assessments. Multilevel path analyses revealed that higher emotionality (fearfulness) in adulthood-but not childhood temperament-predicted higher levels of illness behavior at both assessments. Lastly, lower emotionality-fearfulness partially mediated the effect of higher childhood sociability on adult illness behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest the importance of childhood illness experiences and adult emotionality (fearfulness) in shaping illness behavior in early adulthood. They also suggest a small, protective role of childhood sociability on reduced trait fearfulness in adulthood. These findings broaden our understanding of the prospective links between temperament and illness behavior development, suggesting distinct associations from early life illness experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Comportamento de Doença , Temperamento , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento de Doença/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Personalidade/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Temperamento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(5): 385-396, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985175

RESUMO

Neuroticism, a dispositional trait of heightened negative emotionality, is a vulnerability factor for psychopathology. Given neuroticism's strong association with rumination, a repetitive thought pattern that intensifies and prolongs emotions, some question whether these constructs capture the same or unique information about vulnerability for psychopathology. The present study examined whether neuroticism is genetically and environmentally distinct from two clinically relevant ruminative subtypes-anger and depressive rumination-and whether genetic and environmental influences specific to rumination versus shared with neuroticism overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. These analyses were conducted on 439 same-sex twin pairs in the Colorado Longitudinal Twin study. Rumination and neuroticism latent variables were created from multiple rumination questionnaires administered at age 23 and shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaires administered at ages 17 and 21, respectively. Lifetime psychopathology symptoms, assessed by two structured clinical interviews, were used to create ordinal composite variables. Multivariate Cholesky decompositions indicated that neuroticism, anger rumination, and depressive rumination have common genetic and nonshared environmental influences but are differentiated by nonshared environmental influences specific to each ruminative subtype. Genetic influences common to rumination and neuroticism explained considerable variance in internalizing psychopathology, suggesting possible genetic mediation or common genetic causes. Genetic and environmental influences on externalizing psychopathology did not substantially overlap with those on neuroticism and rumination. These findings suggest that rumination and neuroticism share most genetic influences yet are influenced by distinct environmental influences. Furthermore, our results indicate that a comprehensive understanding of transdiagnostic risk factors must include an examination of both genetic and environmental influences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

8.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(5): 855-865, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze how parental education modifies the genetic and environmental variances of BMI from infancy to old age in three geographic-cultural regions. METHODS: A pooled sample of 29 cohorts including 143,499 twin individuals with information on parental education and BMI from age 1 to 79 years (299,201 BMI measures) was analyzed by genetic twin modeling. RESULTS: Until 4 years of age, parental education was not consistently associated with BMI. Thereafter, higher parental education level was associated with lower BMI in males and females. Total and additive genetic variances of BMI were smaller in the offspring of highly educated parents than in those whose parents had low education levels. Especially in North American and Australian children, environmental factors shared by co-twins also contributed to the higher BMI variation in the low education level category. In Europe and East Asia, the associations of parental education with mean BMI and BMI variance were weaker than in North America and Australia. CONCLUSIONS: Lower parental education level is associated with higher mean BMI and larger genetic variance of BMI after early childhood, especially in the obesogenic macro-environment. The interplay among genetic predisposition, childhood social environment, and macro-social context is important for socioeconomic differences in BMI.

9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 198: 95-99, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a correlation between language abilities and alcohol use; however, results are inconsistent. A recent study using a discordant twin design showed an association between early child language development and later alcohol use behaviors; i.e., the twin with more advanced language abilities was more likely to try alcohol earlier in adolescence (Latvala et al., 2014). The authors suggested that this could result from better socialization of individuals with greater language abilities, which could lead to more opportunities for alcohol experimentation. The findings by Latvala et al. raise interesting questions, but the study has limitations, and replication is needed. METHOD: We aimed to replicate and build upon these results utilizing 488 same sex twin pairs from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study, a longitudinal sample with quantitative measures of language abilities starting when the twins were 14 months old. RESULTS: We found no significant correlations between a latent measure of child language abilities or measures of general cognitive ability at ages 14, 20, and 24 months and a latent alcohol use variable at ages 17 and 22 years. CONCLUSION: Our results did not replicate the association between early language ability and later alcohol use reported by Latvala et al. Possible reasons for differing results across samples, including varying cultural norms as well as differences in educational attainment, peer influences, and novelty seeking, were discussed.

10.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896200

RESUMO

The relationship of verbal fluency to executive functions (EFs) remains somewhat unclear. Verbal fluency is sometimes considered an EF ability, but is not often included in the same models as other well-studied EFs (inhibition, shifting, and working memory updating). We examined the associations between verbal fluency and EFs at 2 ages with the unity/diversity model, which includes common and domain-specific EF factors. Participants were 813 adolescent twins from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Sample (mean age 17 years) and 1,290 middle-aged twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (mean age 56 years) who completed multiple measures of EFs, verbal fluency, vocabulary, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Results revealed that, in both samples, a General Fluency factor (i.e., comprising both phonemic and semantic fluency measures) was associated with the Common EF factor, but also with variance unique to working memory updating, working memory span, and set-shifting. In adolescents, semantic fluency also had unique associations with shifting beyond its shared variance with phonemic fluency and Common EF. After accounting for EFs and other cognitive abilities, there were unique genetic and environmental influences on the General Fluency and Semantic-Specific latent factors. These results suggest that verbal fluency ability may best be viewed as an amalgamation of general EF variance (i.e., Common EF ability), variance shared with other EFs (e.g., Updating-Specific ability), and multiple sources of unique genetic/environmental variance (i.e., General Fluency and Semantic-Specific abilities). These associations between verbal fluency and EFs generalize to populations that differ in age by approximately 40 years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

11.
Eat Behav ; 33: 18-22, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785025

RESUMO

Youth with loss of control eating (LOC) have poorer social relationships than youth without LOC. However, perceived family functioning among youth reporting LOC is relatively unexplored. We examined perceived family functioning among 990 twins (age = 17.47 ±â€¯0.71 years, 53% female) from the Colorado Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence with (n = 158) and without (n = 832) LOC. LOC was assessed with one binary item. Associations between family functioning and LOC were examined using general linear models that accounted for dependence in twin data. Girls with greater family conflict had higher odds of endorsing LOC (p = .02), but not after accounting for depressive symptoms (p = .26). Further analysis indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the association between LOC and family conflict (p = .04). This finding is consistent with an interpersonal model, which proposes that interpersonal difficulties lead to negative emotional states, which promotes LOC as a method of coping with negative affect. Family cohesion and expressiveness were not associated with LOC in girls, and none of the family functioning variables were associated with LOC in boys (ps > .05). Future studies are needed to clarify these relations and to determine any relevant treatment indications.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 963-969, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723318

RESUMO

Some of the most widely studied variants in psychiatric genetics include variable number tandem repeat variants (VNTRs) in SLC6A3, DRD4, SLC6A4, and MAOA. While initial findings suggested large effects, their importance with respect to psychiatric phenotypes is the subject of much debate with broadly conflicting results. Despite broad interest, these loci remain absent from the largest available samples, such as the UK Biobank, limiting researchers' ability to test these contentious hypotheses rigorously in large samples. Here, using two independent reference datasets, we report out-of-sample imputation accuracy estimates of >0.96 for all four VNTR variants and one modifying SNP, depending on the reference and target dataset. We describe the imputation procedures of these candidate variants in 486,551 UK Biobank individuals, and have made the imputed variant data available to UK Biobank researchers. This resource, provided to the scientific community, will allow the most rigorous tests to-date of the roles of these variants in behavioral and psychiatric phenotypes.

13.
Addict Behav ; 93: 173-179, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716592

RESUMO

Human laboratory studies and twin research investigating relationships between alcohol use/pathology and gambling generally have yielded contradictory results, sometimes suggesting causal relationships and common genetic risk factors. 2860 individuals (mean age: 25.60, s.d = 3.21, 50.62% female) from separate clinical (n = 636) and community based (twin) samples (n = 2224) were used to assess associations between past year alcohol use and frequency of past year gambling behaviors (gambling frequency). After adjustment for demographic and psychiatric covariates, individual-level analyses detected that increased alcohol use was associated with more frequent gambling behaviors in twin and clinical samples. Co-twin control models were then used to test potential causal (direct) relationships between alcohol use and gambling frequency. Controlling for all covariates and shared genetic/environmental factors, we found increased alcohol use directly predicted more frequent gambling behaviors (consistent with causality). Our study also suggests shared genetic and/or environmental risk factors contribute to the association between increased alcohol use and frequent gambling behavior, a finding that may be more pronounced in males. The present study helps bridge the gap between twin research and human laboratory studies on gambling and alcohol use and corroborates findings across community and clinical samples. Overall, our findings support both common risk factors between alcohol use and gambling as well as a direct relationship between alcohol use and gambling frequency. Recognizing these dual processes could prove useful for gambling-related prevention/intervention programs.

14.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 438-446, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611961

RESUMO

Exposure to stressful life events increases risk for both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, but less is known about moderators of the association between stressful life events and psychopathology. The present study examined the influence of stressful life events, psychopathy, and their interaction on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in 3877 individuals from the community. We hypothesized that (1) exposure to stressful life events would be a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology, (2) primary and secondary psychopathy would be differentially associated with internalizing psychopathology, and (3) primary psychopathy would moderate the association between stressful life events and internalizing psychopathology. Confirming existing findings, our results were consistent with the first and second hypotheses. In contrast to our third hypothesis, primary psychopathy was not associated with stressful life events in childhood, inconsistently associated with stressful life events in adolescence, and did not moderate the association between stressful life events and internalizing psychopathology. Furthermore, stressful life events across development were associated with secondary psychopathy and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. We also found similar associations between stressful life events, psychopathy, and psychopathology in females and males. Future studies investigating the impact of stressful life events on psychopathology should include psychopathic traits and stress-reactivity.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/tendências , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576766

RESUMO

Meta-analytic findings suggest that antisocial behavior, broadly defined, may relate to a Common Executive Function (EF) factor that captures covariance across response inhibition, working memory updating, and mental set shifting tasks. However, it is unclear whether this common factor, which is isomorphic with individual differences in response inhibition, accounts for all of the EF variance in antisocial behavior and psychopathy, or if they also relate to updating- and shifting-specific abilities. Moreover, findings that antisocial behavior and lower cognitive ability are particularly associated with the psychopathy dimension reflecting impulsivity and irresponsibility, compared to the dimension reflecting affective-interpersonal functioning, raise the possibility that EF relates to the variance shared between the impulsive-irresponsible psychopathy dimension and antisocial personality disorder. We examined these questions in a young adult twin sample (N = 765) with measures of multiple EF latent variables, Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) Primary (affective-interpersonal) and Secondary (impulsive-irresponsible) scales, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms (ASPDsx). Phenotypically, higher ASPDsx and LSRP Secondary psychopathy, but not LSRP Primary psychopathy, were associated with lower Common EF. Moreover, both psychopathy dimensions were negatively correlated with Updating-Specific ability, which was unrelated to ASPDsx. Results from twin models indicated that the association between LSRP Secondary psychopathy and ASPDsx was due to both genetic and nonshared environmental influences; however, Common EF's association with ASPDsx was primarily genetic, whereas its association with LSRP Secondary psychopathy had a significant environmental component. Thus, the interrelations among these constructs may reflect heterogeneous etiological pathways.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206442, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383806

RESUMO

Externalizing problems (EP), including rule-breaking, aggression, and criminal involvement, are highly prevalent during adolescence, but the adult outcomes of adolescents exhibiting EP are characterized by heterogeneity. Although many youths' EP subside after adolescence, others' persists into adulthood. Characterizing the development of severe EP is essential to prevention and intervention efforts. Multiple predictors of adult antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and legal outcomes of a large sample (N = 1205) of clinically- or legally-ascertained adolescents (ages 12-19 years) with severe EP were examined. Many psychosocial predictors hypothesized to predict persistence of EP demonstrated zero-order associations with adult outcomes, but accounted for little unique variation after accounting for baseline conduct disorder symptoms (CD) and demographic factors. Baseline measures of intelligence, which explained independent variation in legal outcomes, provided the only consistent exception to this pattern, though future work is needed to parse these effects from those of socioeconomic factors. CD severity during adolescence is a parsimonious index of liability for persistence of EP into adulthood that explains outcome variance above and beyond all other demographic and psychosocial predictors in this sample.

17.
Child Dev ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347108

RESUMO

Developing self-restraint, or the inhibition of behavior in response to a prohibition, is an important process during toddlerhood. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of individual differences in the development of self-restraint during toddlerhood by examining stable elements and growth of temperament (i.e., attentional control, behavioral inhibition, negative emotionality), general intelligence, and self-restraint. Participants were 412 same-sex twin pairs (approximately 90% European American) from predominately middle-class households in Colorado. Data were collected at 14, 20, 24, and 36 months. Results indicated that higher behavioral inhibition, attentional control, and intelligence were independently associated with better self-restraint, whereas higher negative emotionality was an independent predictor of lower self-restraint. The associations between temperament and self-restraint generally appeared to be stable from 14 to 36 months.

18.
Clin Psychol Sci ; 6(4): 543-560, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250762

RESUMO

Depression is associated with deficits in executive functions (EFs)-cognitive control abilities that regulate goal-directed thoughts and actions-but the etiology of these associations is unclear. We examined the relations between depressive symptoms and multiple EF latent variables in a population-based sample of 439 twin pairs assessed at mean ages 12, 17, and 23 years. Greater depressive symptoms negatively related to a Common EF factor capturing shared variance across response inhibition, working memory updating, and mental set shifting tasks, and also negatively related to an Updating-Specific factor, but not a Shifting-Specific factor. Cross-lagged panel models suggested that the Common EF correlations reflected within-wave associations rather than prospective effects, whereas the Updating-Specific correlations reflected associations of earlier depression levels with later Updating-Specific ability. Twin models were consistent with a model in which Common EF and Updating-Specific abilities relate to depression through correlated genetic risk, with no significant environmental correlations.

19.
Addiction ; 113(11): 2107-2115, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adolescents with conduct and substance use problems are at increased risk for premature mortality, but the extent to which these risk factors reflect family- or individual-level differences and account for shared or unique variance is unknown. This study examined common and independent contributions to mortality hazard in adolescents ascertained for conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorder (SUD), their siblings and community controls, hypothesizing that individual differences in CD and SUD severity would explain unique variation in mortality risk beyond that due to clinical/control status and demographic factors. DESIGN: Mortality analysis in a prospective study (Genetics of Antisocial Drug Dependence Study) that began in 1993. SETTING: Multi-site sample recruited in San Diego, California and Denver, Colorado, USA. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1463 clinical probands were recruited through the juvenile correctional system, court-mandated substance abuse treatment programs and correctional schools, along with 1399 of their siblings, and 904 controls. MEASUREMENTS: Mortality and cause-of-death were assessed via National Death Index search (released October, 2017). FINDINGS: There were 104 deaths documented among 3766 (1168 female) adolescents and young adults (average age 16.79 years at assessment, 32.69 years at death/censoring). Mortality hazard for clinical probands and their siblings was 4.99 times greater than that of controls (95% confidence interval = 2.40-10.40; P < 0.001). After accounting for demographic characteristics, site, clinical status, familial dependence and shared contributions of CD and SUD, CD independently predicted mortality hazard, whereas SUD severity did not. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, youth with conduct and substance use disorders and their siblings face far greater risk of premature death than demographically similar community controls. In contrast to substance use disorder severity, conduct disorder is a robust predictor of unique variance in all-cause mortality hazard beyond other risk factors.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200140, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18-69 years of age. Individual-based data (230,378 measurements) and data of smoking discordant twin pairs (altogether 30,014 pairwise measurements, 36% from monozygotic [MZ] pairs) were analysed with linear fixed-effects regression models by 10-year periods. In MZ pairs, the smoking co-twin had, on average, 0.57 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.70) and 0.65 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (95% CI: 0.52, 0.79) than the never smoking co-twin. Former smokers had 0.70 kg/m2 higher BMI among men (95% CI: 0.63, 0.78) and 0.62 kg/m2 higher BMI among women (95% CI: 0.51, 0.73) than their currently smoking MZ co-twins. Little difference in BMI was observed when comparing former smoking co-twins with their never smoking MZ co-twins (0.13 kg/m2, 95% CI 0.04, 0.23 among men; -0.04 kg/m2, 95% CI -0.16, 0.09 among women). The associations were similar within dizygotic pairs and when analysing twins as individuals. The observed series of cross-sectional associations were independent of sex, age, and measurement decade. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is associated with lower BMI and smoking cessation with higher BMI. However, the net effect of smoking and subsequent cessation on weight development appears to be minimal, i.e. never more than an average of 0.7 kg/m2.

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