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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2002927, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697378

RESUMO

C1 chemistry, which is the catalytic transformation of C1 molecules including CO, CO2 , CH4 , CH3 OH, and HCOOH, plays an important role in providing energy and chemical supplies while meeting environmental requirements. Zeolites are highly efficient solid catalysts used in the chemical industry. The design and development of zeolite-based mono-, bi-, and multifunctional catalysts has led to a booming application of zeolite-based catalysts to C1 chemistry. Combining the advantages of zeolites and metallic catalytic species has promoted the catalytic production of various hydrocarbons (e.g., methane, light olefins, aromatics, and liquid fuels) and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, dimethyl ether, formic acid, and higher alcohols) from C1 molecules. The key zeolite descriptors that influence catalytic performance, such as framework topologies, nanoconfinement effects, Brønsted acidities, secondary-pore systems, particle sizes, extraframework cations and atoms, hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity, and proximity between acid and metallic sites are discussed to provide a deep understanding of the significance of zeolites to C1 chemistry. An outlook regarding challenges and opportunities for the conversion of C1 resources using zeolite-based catalysts to meet emerging energy and environmental demands is also presented.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597576

RESUMO

The methanol-to-olefins reaction catalyzed by small-pore cage-based acid zeolites and zeotypes produces a mixture of short chain olefins, whose selectivity to ethene, propene and butene varies with the cavity architecture and with the framework composition. The product distribution of aluminosilicates and silicoaluminophosphates with the CHA and AEI structures (H-SSZ-13, H-SAPO-34, H-SSZ-39 and H-SAPO-18) has been experimentally determined, and the impact of acidity and framework flexibility on the stability of the key cationic intermediates involved in the mechanism and on the diffusion of the olefin products through the 8r windows of the catalysts has been evaluated by means of periodic DFT calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The preferential stabilization by confinement of fully methylated hydrocarbon pool intermediates favoring the paring pathway is the main factor controlling the final olefin product distribution.

3.
Chemistry ; 26(40): 8810-8818, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583927

RESUMO

The cationic complex [(JohnPhos-Au)3 (acetylide)][SbF6 ] (JohnPhos=(2-biphenyl)di-tert-butylphosphine, L1) has been characterised structurally and features an acetylide-trigold(I)-JohnPhos system; the trinuclear-acetylide unit, coordinated to the monodentate bulk phosphines, adopts an unprecedented µ,η1 ,η2 ,η1 coordination mode with an additional interaction between distal phenyl rings and gold centres. Other cationic σ,π-[(gold(I)L1)2 ] complexes have also been isolated. The reaction of trimethylsilylacetylene with various alcohols (iPrOH, nBuOH, n-HexOH) catalysed by cationic [AuI L1][SbF6 ] complexes in CH2 Cl2 at 50 °C led to the formation of acetaldehyde acetals with a high degree of chemo- and regioselectivity. The reaction mechanism was studied, and several organic and inorganic intermediates have been characterised. A comparative study with the analogous cationic [CuI L1][PF6 ] complex revealed different behaviour; the copper metal is lost from the coordination sphere leading to the formation of cationic vinylphosphonium and copper nanoparticles. Additionally, a new catalytic approach for the formation of this high-value cationic vinylphosphonium has been established.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583951

RESUMO

Preparation of supported metal catalysts with uniform particle size and coordination environment is a challenging and important topic in materials chemistry and catalysis. In this work, we report the regioselective generation of single-site Ir atoms and their evolution into stabilized subnanometric Ir clusters in MWW zeolite, which are located at the 10MR window connecting the two neighboring 12MR supercages. The size of the subnanometric Ir clusters can be controlled by the post-synthesis treatments and maintain below 1 nm even after being reduced at 650 o C, which cannot be readily achieved with samples prepared by conventional impregnation methods. The high structure sensitivity, size-dependence, of catalytic performance in the alkane hydrogenolysis reaction of Ir clusters in the subnanometric regime is evidenced.

5.
Chemistry ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427389

RESUMO

In this work, an MWW-type zeolite with pillars containing silicon and niobium oxide was synthesized to obtain a hierarchical zeolite. The effect of niobium insertion in the pillaring process was determined by combining a controllable acidity and accessibility in the final material. All pillared materials had niobium occupying framework positions in pillars and extra-framework positions. The pillared material, Pil-Nb-4.5 with 4.5 wt% niobium, did not compromise the mesoporosity formed by pillaring, while the increase of niobium in the structure gradually decreased the mesoporosity and ordering of lamellar stacking. The morphology of the pillared zeolites and the niobium content were found to directly affect the catalytic activity. Specifically, we report on the activity of the MWW-type zeolites with niobium catalyzing the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is an important reaction for clean environmental. All produced MWW-type zeolites with niobium were catalytically active, even at low temperatures and low niobium loading, and provided excellent conversion efficiencies.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453899

RESUMO

There are a large number of zeolites, such as ITH, that cannot be prepared in the aluminosilicate form. Now, the successful synthesis of aluminosilicate ITH zeolite using a simple cationic oligomer as an organic template is presented. Key to the success is that the cationic oligomer has a strong complexation ability with aluminum species combined with a structural directing ability for the ITH structure similar to that of the conventional organic template. The aluminosilicate ITH zeolite has very high crystallinity, nanosheet-like crystal morphology, large surface area, fully four-coordinated Al species, and abundant acidic sites. Methanol-to-propylene (MTP) tests reveal that the Al-ITH zeolite shows much higher selectivity for propylene and longer lifetime than commercial ZSM-5. FCC tests show that Al-ITH zeolite is a good candidate as a shape-selective FCC additive for enhancing propylene and butylene selectivity.

7.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281748

RESUMO

Organosolv pulping releases reactive monomers from both lignin and hemicellulose by the cleavage of weak C-O bonds. These monomers recombine to form undesired polymers through the formation of recalcitrant C-C bonds. Different strategies have been developed to prevent this process by stabilizing the reactive monomers (i.e., lignin-first approaches). To date, all reported approaches rely on the addition of capping agents or metal-catalyzed stabilization reactions, which usually require high pressures of hydrogen gas. Herein, a metal- and additive-free approach is reported that uses zeolites as acid catalysts to convert the reactive monomers into more stable derivatives under organosolv pulping conditions. Experiments with model lignin compounds showed that the recondensation of aldehydes and allylic alcohols produced by the cleavage of ß-O-4' bonds was efficiently inhibited by the use of protonic ß zeolite. By applying a zeolite with a preferred pore size, the bimolecular reactions of reactive monomers were effectively inhibited, resulting in stable and valuable monophenolics. The developed methodology was further extended to birch wood to yield monophenolic compounds and value-added products from carbohydrates.

8.
Acc Chem Res ; 53(2): 520-531, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027486

RESUMO

Since the advent of the first metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we have witnessed an explosion of captivating architectures with exciting physicochemical properties and applications in a wide range of fields. This, in part, can be understood under the light of their rich host-guest chemistry and the possibility to use single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) as a basic characterization tool. Moreover, chemistry on preformed MOFs, applying recent developments in template-directed synthesis and postsynthetic methodologies (PSMs), has shown to be a powerful synthetic tool to (i) tailor MOFs channels of known topology via single-crystal to single-crystal (SC-SC) processes, (ii) impart higher degrees of complexity and heterogeneity within them, and most importantly, (iii) improve their capabilities toward applications with respect to the parent MOFs. However, the unique properties of MOFs have been, somehow, limited and underestimated. This is clearly reflected on the use of MOFs as chemical nanoreactors, which has been barely uncovered. In this Account, we bring together our recent advances on the construction of MOFs with appealing properties to act as chemical nanoreactors and be used to synthesize and stabilize, within their channels, catalytically active species that otherwise could be hardly accessible. First, through two relevant examples, we present the potential of the metalloligand approach to build highly robust and crystalline oxamato- and oxamidato-MOFs with tailored channels, in terms of size, charge and functionality. These are initial requisites to have a playground where we can develop and fully take advantage of singular properties of MOFs as well as visualize/understand the processes that take place within MOFs pores and somehow make structure-functionalities correlations and develop more performant MOFs nanoreactors. Then, we describe how to exploit the unique and singular features that offer each of these MOFs confined space for (i) the incorporation and stabilization of metals salts and complexes, (ii) the in situ stepwise synthesis of subnanometric metal clusters (SNMCs), and (iii) the confined-space self-assembly of supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs), by means of PSMs and underpinned by SC-XRD. The strategy outlined here has led to unique rewards such as the highly challenging gram-scale preparation of stable and well-defined ligand-free SNMCs, exhibiting outstanding catalytic activities, and the preparation of unique SCCs, different to those assembled in solution, with enhanced stabilities, catalytic activities, recyclabilities, and selectivities. The results presented in this Accounts are just a few recent examples, but highly encouraging, of the large potential way of MOFs acting as chemical nanoreactors. More work is needed to found the boundaries and fully understand the chemistry in the confined space. In this sense, mastering the synthetic chemistry of discrete organic molecules and inorganic complexes has basically changed our way of live. Thus, achieving the same degree of control on extended hybrid networks will open new frontiers of knowledge with unforeseen possibilities. We aim to stimulate the interest of researchers working in broadly different fields to fully unleash the host-guest chemistry in MOFs as chemical nanoreactors with exclusive functional species.

9.
ChemSusChem ; 13(7): 1864-1875, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944622

RESUMO

Biobased plasticizers, as substitutes for phthalates, have been synthesized from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and carboxylic acids (or esters) through a chemoenzymatic cascade process that involves as its first step the reduction of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan (BHMF), followed by the esterification of BHMF with carboxylic acids (or esters) by using a supported lipase (Novozym 435). The reduction of HMF into BHMF is performed by using monodisperse metallic Co nanoparticles with a thin carbon shell (Co@C) with high activity and selectivity. After optimization of reaction conditions (temperature, hydrogen pressure, and solvent), it is possible to achieve 97 % conversion of HMF with 99 % selectivity to BHMF after 2 h reaction time. The reduction of HMF and esterification of BHMF using carboxylic acids or vinyl esters as acyl donors by lipase are optimized separately in batch and in fixed-bed continuous reactors. The coupling of two flow reactors (for reduction and subsequent esterification) working under optimized reaction conditions affords the diesters of BHMF in roughly 90 % yield with no loss of activity during 60 h of operation.

10.
ChemSusChem ; 13(4): 707-714, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912979

RESUMO

Biomass-derived surfactants with very good surface tension and critical micellar concentration properties were obtained by conversion of methyl levulinate into methyl 4-alkoxypentanoates through reductive etherification with aliphatic alcohols. Among different bifunctional acid/metal catalysts best results were obtained with Pd on carbon bearing acid sites. The reaction occurred through the formation of an enol ether intermediate followed by hydrogenation. Pd in high-density planes was the active hydrogenation species, and an optimum crystal size was found to be approximately 10 nm. The reductive etherification with aliphatic alcohols was extended to other aliphatic and cyclic ketones and aldehydes obtained from biomass, and excellent results were obtained on supported Pd catalysts with the reaction route and experimental conditions described in this work.

11.
ACS Catal ; 9(12): 10626-10639, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840008

RESUMO

Identification of active sites in heterogeneous metal catalysts is critical for understanding the reaction mechanism at the molecular level and for designing more efficient catalysts. Because of their structural flexibility, subnanometric metal catalysts, including single atoms and clusters with a few atoms, can exhibit dynamic structural evolution when interacting with substrate molecules, making it difficult to determine the catalytically active sites. In this work, Pt catalysts containing selected types of Pt entities (from single atoms to clusters and nanoparticles) have been prepared, and their evolution has been followed, while they were reacting in a variety of heterogeneous catalytic reactions, including selective hydrogenation reactions, CO oxidation, dehydrogenation of propane, and photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction. By in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, in situ IR spectroscopy, and high-resolution electron microscopy techniques, we will show that some characterization techniques carried out in an inadequate way can introduce confusion on the interpretation of coordination environment of highly dispersed Pt species. Finally, the combination of catalytic reactivity and in situ characterization techniques shows that, depending on the catalyst-reactant interaction and metal-support interaction, singly dispersed metal atoms can rapidly evolve into metal clusters or nanoparticles, being the working active sites for those abovementioned heterogeneous reactions.

12.
ACS Catal ; 9(12): 11530-11541, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840009

RESUMO

The catalytic subnanometric metal clusters with a few atoms can be regarded as an intermediate state between single atoms and metal nanoparticles (>1 nm). Their molecule-like electronic structures and flexible geometric structures bring rich chemistry and also a different catalytic behavior, in comparison with the single-atom or nanoparticulate counterparts. In this work, by combination of operando IR spectroscopy techniques and electronic structure calculations, we will show a comparative study on Pt catalysts for CO + NO reaction at a very low temperature range (140-200 K). It has been found that single Pt atoms immobilized on MCM-22 zeolite are not stable under reaction conditions and agglomerate into Pt nanoclusters and particles, which are the working active sites for CO + NO reaction. In the case of the catalyst containing Pt nanoparticles (∼2 nm), the oxidation of CO to CO2 occurs in a much lower extension, and Pt nanoparticles become poisoned under reaction conditions because of a strong interaction with CO and NO. Therefore, only subnanometric Pt clusters allow NO dissociation at a low temperature and CO oxidation to occur well on the surface, while CO interaction is weak enough to avoid catalyst poisoning, resulting in a good balance to achieve enhanced catalytic performance.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(49): 19304-19311, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774282

RESUMO

Ruthenium nanoparticles with a core-shell structure formed by a core of metallic ruthenium and a shell of ruthenium carbide have been synthesized by a mild and easy hydrothermal treatment. The dual structure and composition of the nanoparticles have been determined by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. According to depth profile synchrotron XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, metallic ruthenium species predominate in the inner layers of the material, ruthenium carbide species being located on the upper surface layers. The ruthenium carbon catalysts presented herein are able to activate both CO2 and H2, exhibiting exceptional high activity for CO2 hydrogenation at low temperatures (160-200 °C) with 100% selectivity to methane, surpassing by far the most active Ru catalysts reported up to now. On the basis of catalytic studies and isotopic 13CO/12CO2/H2 experiments, the active sites responsible for this unprecedented activity can be associated with surface ruthenium carbide (RuC) species, which enable CO2 activation and transformation to methane via a direct CO2 hydrogenation mechanism. Both the high activity and the absence of CO in the gas effluent confer relevance to these catalysts for the Sabatier reaction, a chemical process with renewed interest for storing surplus renewable energy in the form of methane.

14.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(10): 2971-2980, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553162

RESUMO

Zeolites are microporous crystalline materials with well-defined cavities and pores, which can be prepared under different pore topologies and chemical compositions. Their preparation is typically defined by multiple interconnected variables (e.g., reagent sources, molar ratios, aging treatments, reaction time and temperature, among others), but unfortunately their distinctive influence, particularly on the nucleation and crystallization processes, is still far from being understood. Thus, the discovery and/or optimization of specific zeolites is closely related to the exploration of the parametric space through trial-and-error methods, generally by studying the influence of each parameter individually. In the past decade, machine learning (ML) methods have rapidly evolved to address complex problems involving highly nonlinear or massively combinatorial processes that conventional approaches cannot solve. Considering the vast and interconnected multiparametric space in zeolite synthesis, coupled with our poor understanding of the mechanisms involved in their nucleation and crystallization, the use of ML is especially timely for improving zeolite synthesis. Indeed, the complex space of zeolite synthesis requires drawing inferences from incomplete and imperfect information, for which ML methods are very well-suited to replace the intuition-based approaches traditionally used to guide experimentation. In this Account, we contend that both existing and new ML approaches can provide the "missing link" needed to complete the traditional zeolite synthesis workflow used in our quest to rationalize zeolite synthesis. Within this context, we have made important efforts on developing ML tools in different critical areas, such as (1) data-mining tools to process the large amount of data generated using high-throughput platforms; (2) novel complex algorithms to predict the formation of energetically stable hypothetical zeolites and guide the synthesis of new zeolite structures; (3) new "ab initio" organic structure directing agent predictions to direct the synthesis of hypothetical or known zeolites; (4) an automated tool for nonsupervised data extraction and classification from published research articles. ML has already revolutionized many areas in materials science by enhancing our ability to map intricate behavior to process variables, especially in the absence of well-understood mechanisms. Undoubtedly, ML is a burgeoning field with many future opportunities for further breakthroughs to advance the design of molecular sieves. For this reason, this Account includes an outlook of future research directions based on current challenges and opportunities. We envision this Account will become a hallmark reference for both well-established and new researchers in the field of zeolite synthesis.

15.
Nat Mater ; 18(8): 866-873, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263227

RESUMO

Subnanometric metal species (single atoms and clusters) have been demonstrated to be unique compared with their nanoparticulate counterparts. However, the poor stabilization of subnanometric metal species towards sintering at high temperature (>500 °C) under oxidative or reductive reaction conditions limits their catalytic application. Zeolites can serve as an ideal support to stabilize subnanometric metal catalysts, but it is challenging to localize subnanometric metal species on specific sites and modulate their reactivity. We have achieved a very high preference for localization of highly stable subnanometric Pt and PtSn clusters in the sinusoidal channels of purely siliceous MFI zeolite, as revealed by atomically resolved electron microscopy combining high-angle annular dark-field and integrated differential phase contrast imaging techniques. These catalysts show very high stability, selectivity and activity for the industrially important dehydrogenation of propane to form propylene. This stabilization strategy could be extended to other crystalline porous materials.

16.
ACS Cent Sci ; 5(5): 892-899, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139725

RESUMO

Zeolites are porous, aluminosilicate materials with many industrial and "green" applications. Despite their industrial relevance, many aspects of zeolite synthesis remain poorly understood requiring costly trial and error synthesis. In this paper, we create natural language processing techniques and text markup parsing tools to automatically extract synthesis information and trends from zeolite journal articles. We further engineer a data set of germanium-containing zeolites to test the accuracy of the extracted data and to discover potential opportunities for zeolites containing germanium. We also create a regression model for a zeolite's framework density from the synthesis conditions. This model has a cross-validated root mean squared error of 0.98 T/1000 Å3, and many of the model decision boundaries correspond to known synthesis heuristics in germanium-containing zeolites. We propose that this automatic data extraction can be applied to many different problems in zeolite synthesis and enable novel zeolite morphologies.

17.
Chem Sci ; 10(10): 3130-3142, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996896

RESUMO

Nanolayered cobalt-molybdenum sulphide (Co-Mo-S) materials have been established as excellent catalysts for C-S bond construction. These catalysts allow for the preparation of a broad range of thioethers in good to excellent yields from structurally diverse thiols and readily available primary as well as secondary alcohols. Chemoselectivity in the presence of sensitive groups such as double bonds, nitriles, carboxylic esters and halogens has been demonstrated. It is also shown that the reaction takes place through a hydrogen-autotransfer (borrowing hydrogen) mechanism that involves Co-Mo-S-mediated dehydrogenation and hydrogenation reactions. A novel catalytic protocol based on the thioetherification of alcohols with hydrogen sulphide (H2S) to furnish symmetrical thioethers has also been developed using these earth-abundant metal-based sulphide catalysts.

18.
Chem Sci ; 10(7): 2053-2066, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842863

RESUMO

Novel MOF-type materials with different morphologies based on assembled 1D organic-inorganic sub-domains were prepared using specific monodentate benzylcarboxylate spacers with functional substituents in the para-position as structure modulating agents. The combination of electron-withdrawing or electron-donating functions in the organic spacers with suitable solvothermal synthesis conditions allowed modulating the structuration level (2D or 3D), vacancies, physico-chemical properties and Lewis acidity strength of the metal-organic structures. Furthermore, bimetallic (Al/Fe) MOF-type materials were synthesized by a one-pot direct process without modification of the structural framework. The activity of these hybrid materials as Lewis acid catalysts was evaluated to prepare cyanohydrins as precursors for the synthesis of biologically active compounds, and for aerobic oxidation of thiols to disulfides. The catalytic results showed that the derived MOFs exhibited modulatable Lewis acid capacities which are a function of the morphology, functionality of monodentate substituents present in the networks and a cooperative effect between metallic nodes of different nature.

19.
ACS Catal ; 9(2): 1539-1548, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775068

RESUMO

Based on theoretical calculations of CO, NH3, and pyridine adsorption at different sites in MOR and MFI zeolites, we analyze how confinement effects influence the measurement of acidity based on the interaction of probe molecules with Brönsted acid sites. Weak bases, such as CO, form neutral ZH-CO adducts with a linear configuration that can be distorted by spatial restrictions associated with the dimensions of the pore, leading to weaker interaction, but can also be stabilized by dispersion forces if a tighter fitting with the channel void is allowed. Strong bases such as NH3 and pyridine are readily protonated on Brönsted acid sites, and the experimentally determined adsorption enthalpies include not only the thermochemistry associated with the proton transfer process itself, but also the stabilization of the Z--BH+ ion pair formed upon protonation by multiple interactions with the surrounding framework oxygen atoms, leading in some cases to a heterogeneity of acidities within the same zeolite structure.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(11): 1607-1610, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657161

RESUMO

In this work, we will report the generation of Au clusters in a purely siliceous MCM-22 zeolite. The catalytic properties of these Au clusters have been tested for the selective oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone (KA-oil). The Au clusters encapsulated in the MCM-22 zeolite are highly active and selective for the oxidation of cyclohexane to KA-oil, which is superior to Au nanoparticles on the same support. These results suggest that Au clusters are highly active for the activation of oxygen to produce radical species.

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