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2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2889-2903, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463240

RESUMO

Intense transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Africa might promote emergence of variants. We describe 10 SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Benin during early 2021 that harbored mutations associated with variants of concern. Benin-derived SARS-CoV-2 strains were more efficiently neutralized by antibodies derived from vaccinees than patients, warranting accelerated vaccination in Africa.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benin/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mutação
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1255-1265, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterologous vaccine regimens have been widely discussed as a way to mitigate intermittent supply shortages and to improve immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of heterologous immunisations with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNtech, Mainz, Germany) compared with homologous BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 immunisation. METHODS: This is an interim analysis of a prospective observational cohort study enrolling health-care workers in Berlin (Germany) who received either homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination with a 10-12-week vaccine interval or homologous BNT162b2 vaccination with a 3-week vaccine interval. We assessed reactogenicity after the first and second vaccination by use of electronic questionnaires on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Immunogenicity was measured by the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies (full spike-IgG, S1-IgG, and RBD-IgG), by an RBD-ACE2 binding inhibition assay (surrogate SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation test), a pseudovirus neutralisation assay against two variants of concerns (alpha [B.1.1.7] and beta [B.1.351]), and anti-S1-IgG avidity. T-cell reactivity was measured by IFN-γ release assay. FINDINGS: Between Dec 27, 2020, and June 14, 2021, 380 participants were enrolled in the study, with 174 receiving homologous BNT162b2 vaccination, 38 receiving homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination, and 104 receiving ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination. Systemic symptoms were reported by 103 (65%, 95% CI 57·1-71·8) of 159 recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 14 (39%, 24·8-55·1) of 36 recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 51 (49%, 39·6-58·5) of 104 recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 after the booster immunisation. Median anti-RBD IgG levels 3 weeks after boost immunisation were 5·4 signal to cutoff ratio (S/co; IQR 4·8-5·9) in recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 4·9 S/co (4·3-5·6) in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 5·6 S/co (5·1-6·1) in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19- BNT162b2. Geometric mean of 50% inhibitory dose against alpha and beta variants were highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (956·6, 95% CI 835·6-1095, against alpha and 417·1, 349·3-498·2, against beta) compared with those in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (212·5, 131·2-344·4, against alpha and 48·5, 28·4-82·8, against beta; both p<0·0001) or homologous BNT162b2 (369·2, 310·7-438·6, against alpha and 72·4, 60·5-86·5, against beta; both p<0·0001). SARS-CoV-2 S1 T-cell reactivity 3 weeks after boost immunisation was highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (median IFN-γ concentration 4762 mIU/mL, IQR 2723-8403) compared with that in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (1061 mIU/mL, 599-2274, p<0·0001) and homologous BNT162b2 (2026 mIU/mL, 1459-4621, p=0·0008) vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 immunisation with 10-12-week interval, recommended in Germany, is well tolerated and improves immunogenicity compared with homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination with 10-12-week interval and BNT162b2 vaccination with 3-week interval. Heterologous prime-boost immunisation strategies for COVID-19 might be generally applicable. FUNDING: Forschungsnetzwerk der Universitätsmedizin zu COVID-19, the German Ministry of Education and Research, Zalando SE.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690698, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276681

RESUMO

Patients with kidney failure have notoriously weak responses to common vaccines. Thus, immunogenicity of novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccines might be impaired in this group. To determine immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with chronic dialysis, we analyzed the humoral and T-cell response after two doses of mRNA vaccine Tozinameran (BNT162b2 BioNTech/Pfizer). This observational study included 43 patients on dialysis before vaccination with two doses of Tozinameran 21 days apart. Overall, 36 patients completed the observation period until three weeks after the second dose and 32 patients were further analyzed at week 10. Serum samples were analyzed by SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgA antibodies ~1, ~3-4 and ~10 weeks after the second vaccination. In addition, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses were assessed at ~3-4 weeks by an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Antibody and T cell outcomes at this timepoint were compared to a group of 44 elderly patients not on dialysis, after immunization with Tozinameran. Median age of patients on chronic dialysis was 74.0 years (IQR 66.0, 82.0). The proportion of males was higher (69.4%) than females. Only 20/36 patients (55.6%, 95%CI: 38.29-71.67) developed SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibodies at the first sampling, whereas 32/36 patients (88.9%, 95%CI: 73.00-96.38) demonstrated IgG detection at the second sampling. In a longitudinal follow-up at ~10 weeks after the second dose, the proportion of dialysis patients reactive for anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG decreased to 27/32 (84.37%, 95%CI: 66.46-94.10) The proportion of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgA decreased from 33/36 (91.67%; 95%CI: 76.41-97.82) at weeks 3-4 down to 19/32 (59.38; 95%CI: 40.79-75.78). Compared to a cohort of vaccinees with similar age but not on chronic dialysis seroconversion rates and antibody titers were significantly lower. SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses 3 weeks after second vaccination were detected in 21/31 vaccinated dialysis patients (67.7%, 95%CI: 48.53-82.68) compared to 42/44 (93.3%, 95%CI: 76.49-98.84) in controls of similar age. Patients on dialysis demonstrate a delayed, but robust immune response three to four weeks after the second dose, which indicates effective vaccination of this vulnerable group. However, the lower immunogenicity of Tozinameran in these patients needs further attention to develop potential countermeasures such as an additional booster vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Diálise Renal , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331389

RESUMO

Dog-mediated rabies is responsible for approximately 60,000 human deaths annually worldwide. Although dog slaughter for human consumption and its potential risk for rabies transmission has been reported, mainly in some parts of Western Africa and South-East Asia, more information on this and factors that influence dog meat consumption is required for a better understanding from places like Ghana where the practice is common. We tested 144 brain tissues from apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption for the presence of rabies viruses using a Lyssavirus-specific real-Time RT-PCR. Positive samples were confirmed by virus genome sequencing. We also administered questionnaires to 541 dog owners from three regions in Ghana and evaluated factors that could influence dog meat consumption. We interacted with butchers and observed slaughtering and meat preparation procedures. Three out of 144 (2.1%) brain tissues from apparently healthy dogs tested positive for rabies virus RNA. Two of the viruses with complete genomes were distinct from one another, but both belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. The third virus with a partial genome fragment had high sequence identity to the other two and also belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. Almost half of the study participants practiced dog consumption [49% (265/541)]. Males were almost twice (cOR = 1.72, 95% CI (1.17-2.52), p-value = .006) as likely to consume dog meat compared to females. Likewise, the Frafra tribe from northern Ghana [cOR = 825.1, 95% CI (185.3-3672.9), p-value < .0001] and those with non-specific tribes [cOR = 47.05, 95% CI (10.18-217.41), p-value < .0001] presented with higher odds of dog consumption compared to Ewes. The butchers used bare hands in meat preparation. This study demonstrates the presence of rabies virus RNA in apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption in Ghana and suggests a potential risk for rabies transmission. Veterinary departments and local assemblies are recommended to monitor and regulate this practice.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 274-281, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) usually focus on middle-aged and older adults. However, younger patients may present with severe COVID-19 with potentially fatal outcomes. For optimized, more specialized therapeutic regimens in this particular patient group, a better understanding of the underlying pathomechanisms is of utmost importance. METHODS: Our study investigated relevant, pre-existing medical conditions, clinical histories, and autopsy findings, together with SARS-CoV-2-RNA, determined by qPCR, and laboratory data in six COVID-19 decedents aged 50 years or younger, who were autopsied at the Charité University Hospital. RESULTS: From a total of 76 COVID-19 patients who underwent an autopsy at our institution, six (7.9%) were 50 years old or younger. Most of these younger COVID-19 decedents presented with pre-existing medical conditions prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection. These included overweight and obesity, arterial hypertension, asthma, and obstructive sleep apnea, as well as graft-versus-host disease following cancer and bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, clinical histories and autopsy results revealed a disproportionally high prevalence of thromboembolism and ischemic organ damage in this patient cohort. Histopathology and laboratory results indicated coagulopathies, signs of immune dysregulation, and liver damage. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, pre-existing health conditions may increase the risk of severe and fatal COVID-19 in younger patients, who may be especially prone to developing thromboembolic complications, immune dysregulation, and liver damage.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Idoso , Autopsia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso , SARS-CoV-2
7.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(8): 948-960, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115106

RESUMO

Importance: Myalgia, increased levels of creatine kinase, and persistent muscle weakness have been reported in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To study skeletal muscle and myocardial inflammation in patients with COVID-19 who had died. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control autopsy series was conducted in a university hospital as a multidisciplinary postmortem investigation. Patients with COVID-19 or other critical illnesses who had died between March 2020 and February 2021 and on whom an autopsy was performed were included. Individuals for whom informed consent to autopsy was available and the postmortem interval was less than 6 days were randomly selected. Individuals who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 per polymerase chain reaction test results and had clinical features suggestive of COVID-19 were compared with individuals with negative SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test results and an absence of clinical features suggestive of COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Inflammation of skeletal muscle tissue was assessed by quantification of immune cell infiltrates, expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II antigens on the sarcolemma, and a blinded evaluation on a visual analog scale ranging from absence of pathology to the most pronounced pathology. Inflammation of cardiac muscles was assessed by quantification of immune cell infiltrates. Results: Forty-three patients with COVID-19 (median [interquartile range] age, 72 [16] years; 31 men [72%]) and 11 patients with diseases other than COVID-19 (median [interquartile range] age, 71 [5] years; 7 men [64%]) were included. Skeletal muscle samples from the patients who died with COVID-19 showed a higher overall pathology score (mean [SD], 3.4 [1.8] vs 1.5 [1.0]; 95% CI, 0-3; P < .001) and a higher inflammation score (mean [SD], 3.5 [2.1] vs 1.0 [0.6]; 95% CI, 0-4; P < .001). Relevant expression of MHC class I antigens on the sarcolemma was present in 23 of 42 specimens from patients with COVID-19 (55%) and upregulation of MHC class II antigens in 7 of 42 specimens from patients with COVID-19 (17%), but neither were found in any of the controls. Increased numbers of natural killer cells (median [interquartile range], 8 [8] vs 3 [4] cells per 10 high-power fields; 95% CI, 1-10 cells per 10 high-power fields; P < .001) were found. Skeletal muscles showed more inflammatory features than cardiac muscles, and inflammation was most pronounced in patients with COVID-19 with chronic courses. In some muscle specimens, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, but no evidence for a direct viral infection of myofibers was found by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study of patients who had died with and without COVID-19, most individuals with severe COVID-19 showed signs of myositis ranging from mild to severe. Inflammation of skeletal muscles was associated with the duration of illness and was more pronounced than cardiac inflammation. Detection of viral load was low or negative in most skeletal and cardiac muscles and probably attributable to circulating viral RNA rather than genuine infection of myocytes. This suggests that SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a postinfectious, immune-mediated myopathy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Miocardite/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Miosite/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocardite/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miosite/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcolema/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Science ; 373(6551)2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035154

RESUMO

Two elementary parameters for quantifying viral infection and shedding are viral load and whether samples yield a replicating virus isolate in cell culture. We examined 25,381 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Germany, including 6110 from test centers attended by presymptomatic, asymptomatic, and mildly symptomatic (PAMS) subjects, 9519 who were hospitalized, and 1533 B.1.1.7 lineage infections. The viral load of the youngest subjects was lower than that of the older subjects by 0.5 (or fewer) log10 units, and they displayed an estimated ~78% of the peak cell culture replication probability; in part this was due to smaller swab sizes and unlikely to be clinically relevant. Viral loads above 109 copies per swab were found in 8% of subjects, one-third of whom were PAMS, with a mean age of 37.6 years. We estimate 4.3 days from onset of shedding to peak viral load (108.1 RNA copies per swab) and peak cell culture isolation probability (0.75). B.1.1.7 subjects had mean log10 viral load 1.05 higher than that of non-B.1.1.7 subjects, and the estimated cell culture replication probability of B.1.1.7 subjects was higher by a factor of 2.6.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Células CACO-2 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Immunol ; 206(11): 2614-2622, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980583

RESUMO

The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has triggered the development of various SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests. A wild-type virus (using African green monkey VeroE6 cells), a pseudovirus (using human Caco-2 cells), and a surrogate neutralization test platform were applied to characterize the SARS-CoV-2 neutralization potential of a cohort of 111 convalescent plasma donors over a period of seven months after diagnosis. This allowed an in-depth validation and assay performance analysis of these platforms. More importantly, we found that SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers were stable or even increased within the observation period, which contradicts earlier studies reporting a rapid waning of Ab titers after three to four months. Moreover, we observed a positive correlation of neutralization titers with increasing age, number of symptoms reported, and the presence of the Rhesus Ag RhD. Validation of the platforms revealed that highest assay performances were obtained with the wild-type virus and the surrogate neutralization platforms. However, our data also suggested that selection of cutoff titers had a strong impact on the evaluation of neutralization potency. When taking strong neutralization potency, as demonstrated by the wild-type virus platform as the gold standard, up to 55% of plasma products had low neutralization titers. However, a significant portion of these products were overrated in their potency when using the surrogate assay with the recommended cutoff titer. In summary, our study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers are stable for at least seven months after diagnosis and offers a testing strategy for rapid selection of high-titer convalescent plasma products in a biosafety level 1 environment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Masculino , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/imunologia
10.
J Clin Virol ; 138: 104796, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773413

RESUMO

Antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) can complement molecular diagnostics for COVID-19. The recommended temperature for storage of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs ranges between 2-30 °C. In the global South, mean temperatures can exceed 30 °C. In the global North, Ag-RDTs are often used in external testing facilities at low ambient temperatures. We assessed analytical sensitivity and specificity of eleven commercially-available SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs using different storage and operational temperatures, including short- or long-term storage and operation at recommended temperatures or at either 2-4 °C or at 37 °C. The limits of detection of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs under recommended conditions ranged from 1.0×106- 5.5×107 genome copies/mL of infectious SARS-CoV-2 cell culture supernatant. Despite long-term storage at recommended conditions, 10 min pre-incubation of Ag-RDTs and testing at 37 °C resulted in about ten-fold reduced sensitivity for five out of 11 SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs, including both Ag-RDTs currently listed for emergency use by the World Health Organization. After 3 weeks of storage at 37 °C, eight of the 11 SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs exhibited about ten-fold reduced sensitivity. Specificity of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs using cell culture supernatant from common respiratory viruses was not affected by storage and testing at 37 °C, whereas false-positive results occurred at outside temperatures of 2-4 °C for two out of six tested Ag-RDTs, again including an Ag-RDT recommended by the WHO. In summary, elevated temperatures impair sensitivity, whereas low temperatures impair specificity of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs. Consequences may include false-negative test results at clinically relevant virus concentrations compatible with transmission and false-positive results entailing unwarranted quarantine assignments. Storage and operation of SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDTs at recommended conditions is essential for successful usage during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Arch Virol ; 166(5): 1385-1393, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723631

RESUMO

Following the detection of the first imported case of COVID-19 in the northern sector of Ghana, we molecularly characterized and phylogenetically analysed sequences, including three complete genome sequences, of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 obtained from nine patients in Ghana. We performed high-throughput sequencing on nine samples that were found to have a high concentration of viral RNA. We also assessed the potential impact that long-distance transport of samples to testing centres may have on sequencing results. Here, two samples that were similar in terms of viral RNA concentration but were transported from sites that are over 400 km apart were analyzed. All sequences were compared to previous sequences from Ghana and representative sequences from regions where our patients had previously travelled. Three complete genome sequences and another nearly complete genome sequence with 95.6% coverage were obtained. Sequences with coverage in excess of 80% were found to belong to three lineages, namely A, B.1 and B.2. Our sequences clustered in two different clades, with the majority falling within a clade composed of sequences from sub-Saharan Africa. Less RNA fragmentation was seen in sample KATH23, which was collected 9 km from the testing site, than in sample TTH6, which was collected and transported over a distance of 400 km to the testing site. The clustering of several sequences from sub-Saharan Africa suggests regional circulation of the viruses in the subregion. Importantly, there may be a need to decentralize testing sites and build more capacity across Africa to boost the sequencing output of the subregion.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1961, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785765

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 reflects an inefficient immune reaction to SARS-CoV-2. Here we analyze, at the single cell level, plasmablasts egressed into the blood to study the dynamics of adaptive immune response in COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care. Before seroconversion in response to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, peripheral plasmablasts display a type 1 interferon-induced gene expression signature; however, following seroconversion, plasmablasts lose this signature, express instead gene signatures induced by IL-21 and TGF-ß, and produce mostly IgG1 and IgA1. In the sustained immune reaction from COVID-19 patients, plasmablasts shift to the expression of IgA2, thereby reflecting an instruction by TGF-ß. Despite their continued presence in the blood, plasmablasts are not found in the lungs of deceased COVID-19 patients, nor does patient IgA2 binds to the dominant antigens of SARS-CoV-2. Our results thus suggest that, in severe COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 triggers a chronic immune reaction that is instructed by TGF-ß, and is distracted from itself.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmócitos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4263, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608563

RESUMO

Infection by the new corona virus strain SARS-CoV-2 and its related syndrome COVID-19 has been associated with more than two million deaths worldwide. Patients of higher age and with preexisting chronic health conditions are at an increased risk of fatal disease outcome. However, detailed information on causes of death and the contribution of pre-existing health conditions to death yet is missing, which can be reliably established by autopsy only. We performed full body autopsies on 26 patients that had died after SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 at the Charité University Hospital Berlin, Germany, or at associated teaching hospitals. We systematically evaluated causes of death and pre-existing health conditions. Additionally, clinical records and death certificates were evaluated. We report findings on causes of death and comorbidities of 26 decedents that had clinically presented with severe COVID-19. We found that septic shock and multi organ failure was the most common immediate cause of death, often due to suppurative pulmonary infection. Respiratory failure due to diffuse alveolar damage presented as immediate cause of death in fewer cases. Several comorbidities, such as hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and obesity were present in the vast majority of patients. Our findings reveal that causes of death were directly related to COVID-19 in the majority of decedents, while they appear not to be an immediate result of preexisting health conditions and comorbidities. We therefore suggest that the majority of patients had died of COVID-19 with only contributory implications of preexisting health conditions to the mechanism of death.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Berlim/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/virologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/virologia
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 628-635, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the adaptive immune response is of considerable importance, and detailed cellular immune reactions in the hematological system of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are yet to be clarified. METHODS: This study reports the morphological characterization of both bone marrow and spleen in 11 COVID-19 decedents with respect to findings in the peripheral blood and pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 burden. RESULTS: In the bone marrow, activation and left shift were found in at least 55% of patients, which was mirrored by peripheral anaemia, granulocytic immaturity and multiple thromboembolic events. Signs of sepsis-acquired immunodeficiency were found in the setting of an abscess-forming superinfection of viral COVID-19 pneumonia. Furthermore, a severe B cell loss was observed in the bone marrow and/or spleen in 64% of COVID-19 patients. This was reflected by lymphocytopenia in the peripheral blood. As compared to B cell preservation, B cell loss was associated with a higher pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 burden and only a marginal decrease of of T cell counts. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest the presence of sepsis-related immunodeficiency in severe COVID-19 pneumonia with superinfection. Furthermore, our findings indicate that lymphocytopenia in COVID-19 is accompanied by B cell depletion in hematopoietic tissue, which might impede the durability of the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Medula Óssea/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Linfopenia/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepse/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468689

RESUMO

Bats host many viruses pathogenic to humans, and increasing evidence suggests that rotavirus A (RVA) also belongs to this list. Rotaviruses cause diarrheal disease in many mammals and birds, and their segmented genomes allow them to reassort and increase their genetic diversity. Eighteen out of 2,142 bat fecal samples (0.8%) collected from Europe, Central America, and Africa were PCR-positive for RVA, and 11 of those were fully characterized using viral metagenomics. Upon contrasting their genomes with publicly available data, at least 7 distinct bat RVA genotype constellations (GCs) were identified, which included evidence of reassortments and 6 novel genotypes. Some of these constellations are spread across the world, whereas others appear to be geographically restricted. Our analyses also suggest that several unusual human and equine RVA strains might be of bat RVA origin, based on their phylogenetic clustering, despite various levels of nucleotide sequence identities between them. Although SA11 is one of the most widely used reference strains for RVA research and forms the backbone of a reverse genetics system, its origin remained enigmatic. Remarkably, the majority of the genotypes of SA11-like strains were shared with Gabonese bat RVAs, suggesting a potential common origin. Overall, our findings suggest an underexplored genetic diversity of RVAs in bats, which is likely only the tip of the iceberg. Increasing contact between humans and bat wildlife will further increase the zoonosis risk, which warrants closer attention to these viruses.IMPORTANCE The increased research on bat coronaviruses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) allowed the very rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2. This is an excellent example of the importance of knowing viruses harbored by wildlife in general, and bats in particular, for global preparedness against emerging viral pathogens. The current effort to characterize bat rotavirus strains from 3 continents sheds light on the vast genetic diversity of rotaviruses and also hints at a bat origin for several atypical rotaviruses in humans and animals, implying that zoonoses of bat rotaviruses might occur more frequently than currently realized.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Diarreia/virologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Cavalos , Humanos , Metagenômica , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
17.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(2): 168-175, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257876

RESUMO

The newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a pandemic respiratory disease. Moreover, thromboembolic events throughout the body, including in the CNS, have been described. Given the neurological symptoms observed in a large majority of individuals with COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 penetrance of the CNS is likely. By various means, we demonstrate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and protein in anatomically distinct regions of the nasopharynx and brain. Furthermore, we describe the morphological changes associated with infection such as thromboembolic ischemic infarction of the CNS and present evidence of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism. SARS-CoV-2 can enter the nervous system by crossing the neural-mucosal interface in olfactory mucosa, exploiting the close vicinity of olfactory mucosal, endothelial and nervous tissue, including delicate olfactory and sensory nerve endings. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 appears to follow neuroanatomical structures, penetrating defined neuroanatomical areas including the primary respiratory and cardiovascular control center in the medulla oblongata.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/virologia , COVID-19/virologia , Mucosa Olfatória/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Sistema Nervoso Central , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Olfato/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus
18.
J Infect Dis ; 223(5): 796-801, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064789

RESUMO

Highly sensitive and specific platforms for the detection of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies are becoming increasingly important for evaluating potential SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma donors, studying the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections, and identifying individuals with seroconversion. This study provides a comparative validation of 4 anti-SARS-CoV-2 platforms. A unique feature of the study is the use of a representative cohort of convalescent patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and a mild to moderate disease course. All platforms showed significant correlations with a SARS-CoV-2 plaque reduction neutralization test, with highest sensitivities for the Euroimmun and the Roche platforms, suggesting their preferential use for screening persons at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/normas , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(6): 705-716, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361824

RESUMO

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are major risk factors for critical disease progression. However, the underlying causes and the effects of the main anti-hypertensive therapies-angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)-remain unclear. Combining clinical data (n = 144) and single-cell sequencing data of airway samples (n = 48) with in vitro experiments, we observed a distinct inflammatory predisposition of immune cells in patients with hypertension that correlated with critical COVID-19 progression. ACEI treatment was associated with dampened COVID-19-related hyperinflammation and with increased cell intrinsic antiviral responses, whereas ARB treatment related to enhanced epithelial-immune cell interactions. Macrophages and neutrophils of patients with hypertension, in particular under ARB treatment, exhibited higher expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines CCL3 and CCL4 and the chemokine receptor CCR1. Although the limited size of our cohort does not allow us to establish clinical efficacy, our data suggest that the clinical benefits of ACEI treatment in patients with COVID-19 who have hypertension warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Quimiocina CCL3/genética , Quimiocina CCL4/genética , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores CCR1/genética , Adulto , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/patologia , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA-Seq , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Análise de Célula Única
20.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114149

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 denotes a global health issue. Data regarding COVID-19 incidence in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) are sparse. From 19 March to 19 May 2020, we performed a systematic screening for COVID-19 in KTR. Tests included serum analysis for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using S protein-based immunofluorescence, anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and/or quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from nasal-throat swabs. Outpatient serum samples from KTR with PCR confirmed COVID-19, and swab samples from recipients (+donors) undergoing kidney transplantation were analyzed. Out of 223 samples from outpatients, 13 patients were positive with solely anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgA and 3 with both anti-IgA and anti-IgG. In total, 53 patients were symptomatic in the past, but positive results could be found in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. After an in depth analysis using immunofluorescence and neutralization tests in 2 KTR, recent COVID-19 infection remained highly suspicious. Apart from outpatient visits, only 5 out of 2044 KTR were symptomatic and tested positive via PCR, of which 4 recovered and one died. All patients showed seroconversion during the course of the disease. This study demonstrated a low seroprevalence in a German KTR cohort, and seroconversion of IgA and IgG after COVID-19 could be demonstrated. Effective containment strategies enabled us to continue our transplant program.

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