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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 12 independent loci significantly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Polygenic risk scores (PRS), derived from the GWAS, can be used to assess genetic overlap between ADHD and other traits. Using ADHD samples from several international sites, we derived PRS for ADHD from the recent GWAS to test whether genetic variants that contribute to ADHD also influence two cognitive functions that show strong association with ADHD: attention regulation and response inhibition, captured by reaction time variability (RTV) and commission errors (CE). METHODS: The discovery GWAS included 19 099 ADHD cases and 34 194 control participants. The combined target sample included 845 people with ADHD (age: 8-40 years). RTV and CE were available from reaction time and response inhibition tasks. ADHD PRS were calculated from the GWAS using a leave-one-study-out approach. Regression analyses were run to investigate whether ADHD PRS were associated with CE and RTV. Results across sites were combined via random effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: When combining the studies in meta-analyses, results were significant for RTV (R2 = 0.011, ß = 0.088, p = 0.02) but not for CE (R2 = 0.011, ß = 0.013, p = 0.732). No significant association was found between ADHD PRS and RTV or CE in any sample individually (p > 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: We detected a significant association between PRS for ADHD and RTV (but not CE) in individuals with ADHD, suggesting that common genetic risk variants for ADHD influence attention regulation.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 576, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495439

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood psychiatric disorder often comorbid with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). Here, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of ADHD comorbid with DBDs (ADHD + DBDs) including 3802 cases and 31,305 controls. We identify three genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 1, 7, and 11. A meta-analysis including a Chinese cohort supports that the locus on chromosome 11 is a strong risk locus for ADHD + DBDs across European and Chinese ancestries (rs7118422, P = 3.15×10-10, OR = 1.17). We find a higher SNP heritability for ADHD + DBDs (h2SNP = 0.34) when compared to ADHD without DBDs (h2SNP = 0.20), high genetic correlations between ADHD + DBDs and aggressive (rg = 0.81) and anti-social behaviors (rg = 0.82), and an increased burden (polygenic score) of variants associated with ADHD and aggression in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs. Our results suggest an increased load of common risk variants in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs, which in part can be explained by variants associated with aggressive behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
3.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 267, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most unusual sources of phylogenetically restricted genes is the molecular domestication of transposable elements into a host genome as functional genes. Although these kinds of events are sometimes at the core of key macroevolutionary changes, their origin and organismal function are generally poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we identify several previously unreported transposable element domestication events in the human and mouse genomes. Among them, we find a remarkable molecular domestication that gave rise to a multigenic family in placental mammals, the Bex/Tceal gene cluster. These genes, which act as hub proteins within diverse signaling pathways, have been associated with neurological features of human patients carrying genomic microdeletions in chromosome X. The Bex/Tceal genes display neural-enriched patterns and are differentially expressed in human neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Two different murine alleles of the cluster member Bex3 display morphological and physiopathological brain modifications, such as reduced interneuron number and hippocampal electrophysiological imbalance, alterations that translate into distinct behavioral phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: We provide an in-depth understanding of the emergence of a gene cluster that originated by transposon domestication and gene duplication at the origin of placental mammals, an evolutionary process that transformed a non-functional transposon sequence into novel components of the eutherian genome. These genes were integrated into existing signaling pathways involved in the development, maintenance, and function of the CNS in eutherians. At least one of its members, Bex3, is relevant for higher brain functions in placental mammals and may be involved in human neurological disorders.

4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917399

RESUMO

Drug dependence is a neuropsychiatric condition that involves genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Allele-specific methylation (ASM) is a common and stable epigenetic mechanism that involves genetic variants correlating with differential levels of methylation at CpG sites. We selected 182 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) described to influence cis ASM in human brain regions to evaluate their possible contribution to drug dependence susceptibility. We performed a case-control association study in a discovery sample of 578 drug-dependent patients (including 428 cocaine-dependent subjects) and 656 controls from Spain, and then, we followed-up the significant associations in an independent sample of 1119 cases (including 589 cocaine-dependent subjects) and 1092 controls. In the discovery sample, we identified five nominal associations, one of them replicated in the follow-up sample (rs6020251). The pooled analysis revealed an association between drug dependence and rs6020251 but also rs11585570, both overcoming the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. We performed the same analysis considering only cocaine-dependent patients and obtained similar results. The rs6020251 variant correlates with differential methylation levels of cg17974185 and lies in the first intron of the CTNNBL1 gene, in a genomic region with multiple histone marks related to enhancer and promoter regions in brain. Rs11585570 is an eQTL in brain and blood for the SCP2 and ECHDC2 genes and correlates with differential methylation of cg27535305 and cg13461509, located in the promoter regions of both genes. To conclude, using an approach that combines genetic and epigenetic data, we highlighted the CTNNBL1, SCP2 and ECHDC2 genes as potential contributors to drug dependence susceptibility.

5.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545830

RESUMO

The 14-3-3 protein family are molecular chaperones involved in several biological functions and neurological diseases. We previously pinpointed YWHAZ (encoding 14-3-3ζ) as a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through a whole-exome sequencing study, which identified a frameshift variant within the gene (c.659-660insT, p.L220Ffs*18). Here, we explored the contribution of the seven human 14-3-3 family members in ASD and other psychiatric disorders by investigating the: (i) functional impact of the 14-3-3ζ mutation p.L220Ffs*18 by assessing solubility, target binding and dimerization; (ii) contribution of common risk variants in 14-3-3 genes to ASD and additional psychiatric disorders; (iii) burden of rare variants in ASD and schizophrenia; and iv) 14-3-3 gene expression using ASD and schizophrenia transcriptomic data. We found that the mutant 14-3-3ζ protein had decreased solubility and lost its ability to form heterodimers and bind to its target tyrosine hydroxylase. Gene-based analyses using publicly available datasets revealed that common variants in YWHAE contribute to schizophrenia (p = 6.6 × 10-7), whereas ultra-rare variants were found enriched in ASD across the 14-3-3 genes (p = 0.017) and in schizophrenia for YWHAZ (meta-p = 0.017). Furthermore, expression of 14-3-3 genes was altered in post-mortem brains of ASD and schizophrenia patients. Our study supports a role for the 14-3-3 family in ASD and schizophrenia.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8622, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451437

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an impairing neurodevelopmental condition highly prevalent in current populations. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this paradox, mainly in the context of the Paleolithic versus Neolithic cultural shift but especially within the framework of the mismatch theory. This theory elaborates on how a particular trait once favoured in an ancient environment might become maladaptive upon environmental changes. However, given the lack of genomic data available for ADHD, these theories have not been empirically tested. We took advantage of the largest GWAS meta-analysis available for this disorder consisting of over 20,000 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,000 controls, to assess the evolution of ADHD-associated alleles in European populations using archaic, ancient and modern human samples. We also included Approximate Bayesian computation coupled with deep learning analyses and singleton density scores to detect human adaptation. Our analyses indicate that ADHD-associated alleles are enriched in loss of function intolerant genes, supporting the role of selective pressures in this early-onset phenotype. Furthermore, we observed that the frequency of variants associated with ADHD has steadily decreased since Paleolithic times, particularly in Paleolithic European populations compared to samples from the Neolithic Fertile Crescent. We demonstrate this trend cannot be explained by African admixture nor Neanderthal introgression, since introgressed Neanderthal alleles are enriched in ADHD risk variants. All analyses performed support the presence of long-standing selective pressures acting against ADHD-associated alleles until recent times. Overall, our results are compatible with the mismatch theory for ADHD but suggest a much older time frame for the evolution of ADHD-associated alleles compared to previous hypotheses.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Homem de Neandertal/genética , Alelos , Animais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/história , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Teorema de Bayes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Aprendizado Profundo , Evolução Molecular , História Antiga , Humanos
7.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(10): 1617-1626, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279069

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that persist into adulthood in the majority of the diagnosed children. Despite several risk factors during childhood predicting the persistence of ADHD symptoms into adulthood, the genetic architecture underlying the trajectory of ADHD over time is still unclear. We set out to study the contribution of common genetic variants to the risk for ADHD across the lifespan by conducting meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies on persistent ADHD in adults and ADHD in childhood separately and jointly, and by comparing the genetic background between them in a total sample of 17,149 cases and 32,411 controls. Our results show nine new independent loci and support a shared contribution of common genetic variants to ADHD in children and adults. No subgroup heterogeneity was observed among children, while this group consists of future remitting and persistent individuals. We report similar patterns of genetic correlation of ADHD with other ADHD-related datasets and different traits and disorders among adults, children, and when combining both groups. These findings confirm that persistent ADHD in adults is a neurodevelopmental disorder and extend the existing hypothesis of a shared genetic architecture underlying ADHD and different traits to a lifespan perspective.

8.
Gene ; 742: 144569, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165301

RESUMO

The nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5), also known as tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP), is a transcription factor that regulates osmoadaptive response in multiple tissues and is highly expressed in the developing central nervous system. A former study reported that NFAT5 activation through hypertonic stress increases the expression of the dopa decarboxylase enzyme (DDC), also known as aromatic-l-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC), in human renal proximal tubule cells, leading to an increase of dopamine synthesis. In a previous study, we identified NFAT5 as a candidate gene for cocaine dependence, a complex psychiatric disorder in which dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role. Therefore, to test the hypothesis that NFAT5 may also affect dopamine levels in the nervous system through the regulation of DDC expression, we examined this regulation using two neural dopaminergic cell lines, SH-SY5Y and PC12. The effect of NFAT5 on the expression of the neuronal isoform of DDC was evaluated by qRT-PCR. Upon hypertonic stress, NFAT5 was activated and accumulated into the nuclei and, subsequently, the expression of NFAT5 and its known targets sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter 1 (SMIT) and sodium chloride/taurine cotransporter (TAUT) increased, as expected. However, the expression of DDC decreased. When silencing the expression of NFAT5 with a specific shRNA we observed that the downregulation of DDC is independent from NFAT5 in both cell lines and is due to hypertonic stress. In conclusion, NFAT5 does not regulate the expression of the neuronal isoform of DDC in neural dopaminergic cell lines and, consequently, it does not modulate dopamine synthesis through DDC.


Assuntos
Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/genética , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Simportadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação para Cima
10.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(7): 1188-1195, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896117

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obesity are frequently comorbid, genetically correlated, and share brain substrates. The biological mechanisms driving this association are unclear, but candidate systems, like dopaminergic neurotransmission and circadian rhythm, have been suggested. Our aim was to identify the biological mechanisms underpinning the genetic link between ADHD and obesity measures and investigate associations of overlapping genes with brain volumes. We tested the association of dopaminergic and circadian rhythm gene sets with ADHD, body mass index (BMI), and obesity (using GWAS data of N = 53,293, N = 681,275, and N = 98,697, respectively). We then conducted genome-wide ADHD-BMI and ADHD-obesity gene-based meta-analyses, followed by pathway enrichment analyses. Finally, we tested the association of ADHD-BMI overlapping genes with brain volumes (primary GWAS data N = 10,720-10,928; replication data N = 9428). The dopaminergic gene set was associated with both ADHD (P = 5.81 × 10-3) and BMI (P = 1.63 × 10-5); the circadian rhythm was associated with BMI (P = 1.28 × 10-3). The genome-wide approach also implicated the dopaminergic system, as the Dopamine-DARPP32 Feedback in cAMP Signaling pathway was enriched in both ADHD-BMI and ADHD-obesity results. The ADHD-BMI overlapping genes were associated with putamen volume (P = 7.7 × 10-3; replication data P = 3.9 × 10-2)-a brain region with volumetric reductions in ADHD and BMI and linked to inhibitory control. Our findings suggest that dopaminergic neurotransmission, partially through DARPP-32-dependent signaling and involving the putamen, is a key player underlying the genetic overlap between ADHD and obesity measures. Uncovering shared etiological factors underlying the frequently observed ADHD-obesity comorbidity may have important implications in terms of prevention and/or efficient treatment of these conditions.

11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(9): 2047-2057, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116028

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic background, hampering identification of underlying genetic risk factors. We hypothesized that combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in multi-generation pedigrees with multiple affected individuals can point toward novel ADHD genes. Three families with multiple ADHD-affected members (Ntotal = 70) and apparent dominant inheritance pattern were included in this study. Genotyping was performed in 37 family members, and WES was additionally carried out in 10 of those. Linkage analysis was performed using multi-point analysis in Superlink Online SNP 1.1. From prioritized linkage regions with a LOD score ≥ 2, a total of 24 genes harboring rare variants were selected. Those genes were taken forward and were jointly analyzed in gene-set analyses of exome-chip data using the MAGMA software in an independent sample of patients with persistent ADHD and healthy controls (N = 9365). The gene-set including all 24 genes together, and particularly the gene-set from one of the three families (12 genes), were significantly associated with persistent ADHD in this sample. Among the latter, gene-wide analysis for the AAED1 gene reached significance. A rare variant (rs151326868) within AAED1 segregated with ADHD in one of the families. The analytic strategy followed here is an effective approach for identifying novel ADHD risk genes. Additionally, this study suggests that both rare and more frequent variants in multiple genes act together in contributing to ADHD risk, even in individual multi-case families.

12.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 30: 44-55, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174947

RESUMO

The RBFOX1 gene (or A2BP1) encodes a splicing factor important for neuronal development that has been related to autism spectrum disorder and other neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Evidence from complementary sources suggests that this gene contributes to aggressive behavior. Suggestive associations with RBFOX1 have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of anger, conduct disorder, and aggressive behavior. Nominal association signals in RBFOX1 were also found in an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of aggressive behavior. Also, variants in this gene affect temporal lobe volume, a brain area that is altered in several aggression-related phenotypes. In animals, this gene has been shown to modulate aggressive behavior in Drosophila. RBFOX1 has also been associated with canine aggression and is upregulated in mice that show increased aggression after frustration of an expected reward. Associated common genetic variants as well as rare duplications and deletions affecting RBFOX1 have been identified in several psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders that are often comorbid with aggressive behaviors. In this paper, we comprehensively review the cumulative evidence linking RBFOX1 to aggression behavior and provide new results implicating RBFOX1 in this phenotype. Most of these studies (genetic and epigenetic analyses in humans, neuroimaging genetics, gene expression and animal models) are hypothesis-free, which strengthens the validity of the findings, although all the evidence is nominal and should therefore be taken with caution. Further studies are required to clarify in detail the role of this gene in this complex phenotype.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 242, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582733

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetics is crucial to lasting changes in gene expression in the brain. Recent studies suggest a role for DNA methylation in ADHD. We explored the contribution to ADHD of allele-specific methylation (ASM), an epigenetic mechanism that involves SNPs correlating with differential levels of DNA methylation at CpG sites. We selected 3896 tagSNPs reported to influence methylation in human brain regions and performed a case-control association study using the summary statistics from the largest GWAS meta-analysis of ADHD, comprising 20,183 cases and 35,191 controls. We observed that genetic risk variants for ADHD are enriched in ASM SNPs and identified associations with eight tagSNPs that were significant at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). These SNPs correlated with methylation of CpG sites lying in the promoter regions of six genes. Since methylation may affect gene expression, we inspected these ASM SNPs together with 52 ASM SNPs in high LD with them for eQTLs in brain tissues and observed that the expression of three of those genes was affected by them. ADHD risk alleles correlated with increased expression (and decreased methylation) of ARTN and PIDD1 and with a decreased expression (and increased methylation) of C2orf82. Furthermore, these three genes were predicted to have altered expression in ADHD, and genetic variants in C2orf82 correlated with brain volumes. In summary, we followed a systematic approach to identify risk variants for ADHD that correlated with differential cis-methylation, identifying three novel genes contributing to the disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização de Receptores de Domínio de Morte/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212010

RESUMO

Cocaine dependence is a complex psychiatric disorder that is highly comorbid with other psychiatric traits. Twin and adoption studies suggest that genetic variants contribute substantially to cocaine dependence susceptibility, which has an estimated heritability of 65-79%. Here we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of cocaine dependence using four datasets from the dbGaP repository (2085 cases and 4293 controls, all of them selected by their European ancestry). Although no genome-wide significant hits were found in the SNP-based analysis, the gene-based analysis identified HIST1H2BD as associated with cocaine-dependence (10% FDR). This gene is located in a region on chromosome 6 enriched in histone-related genes, previously associated with schizophrenia (SCZ). Furthermore, we performed LD Score regression analysis with comorbid conditions and found significant genetic correlations between cocaine dependence and SCZ, ADHD, major depressive disorder (MDD) and risk taking. We also found, through polygenic risk score analysis, that all tested phenotypes are significantly associated with cocaine dependence status: SCZ (R2 = 2.28%; P = 1.21e-26), ADHD (R2 = 1.39%; P = 4.5e-17), risk taking (R2 = 0.60%; P = 2.7e-08), MDD (R2 = 1.21%; P = 4.35e-15), children's aggressive behavior (R2 = 0.3%; P = 8.8e-05) and antisocial behavior (R2 = 1.33%; P = 2.2e-16). To our knowledge, this is the largest reported cocaine dependence GWAS meta-analysis in European-ancestry individuals. We identified suggestive associations in regions that may be related to cocaine dependence and found evidence for shared genetic risk factors between cocaine dependence and several comorbid psychiatric traits. However, the sample size is limited and further studies are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/genética , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino
15.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 44(5): 350-359, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094488

RESUMO

Background: Previous research has implicated de novo and inherited truncating mutations in autism-spectrum disorder. We aim to investigate whether the load of inherited truncating mutations contributes similarly to high-functioning autism, and to characterize genes that harbour de novo variants in high-functioning autism. Methods: We performed whole-exome sequencing in 20 high-functioning autism families (average IQ = 100). Results: We observed no difference in the number of transmitted versus nontransmitted truncating alleles for high-functioning autism (117 v. 130, p = 0.78). Transmitted truncating and de novo variants in high-functioning autism were not enriched in gene ontology (GO) or Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) categories, or in autism-related gene sets. However, in a patient with high-functioning autism we identified a de novo variant in a canonical splice site of LRP1, a postsynaptic density gene that is a target for fragile X mental retardation protein (FRMP). This de novo variant leads to in-frame skipping of exon 29, removing 2 of 6 blades of the ß-propeller domain 4 of LRP1, with putative functional consequences. Large data sets implicate LRP1 across a number of psychiatric disorders: de novo variants are associated with autism-spectrum disorder (p = 0.039) and schizophrenia (p = 0.008) from combined sequencing projects; common variants using genome-wide association study data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium show gene-based association in schizophrenia (p = 6.6 × E−07) and in a meta-analysis across 7 psychiatric disorders (p = 2.3 × E−03); and the burden of ultra-rare pathogenic variants has been shown to be higher in autism-spectrum disorder (p = 1.2 × E−05), using whole-exome sequencing from 6135 patients with schizophrenia, 1778 patients with autism-spectrum disorder and 7875 controls. Limitations: We had a limited sample of patients with high-functioning autism, related to difficulty in recruiting probands with high cognitive performance and no family history of psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Previous studies and ours suggest an effect of truncating mutations restricted to severe autism-spectrum disorder phenotypes that are associated with intellectual disability. We provide evidence for pleiotropic effects of common and rare variants in the LRP1 gene across psychiatric phenotypes.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Epilepsia/genética , Família , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Pleiotropia Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Processamento de RNA , Esquizofrenia/genética , Irmãos , Espanha , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 42, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696812

RESUMO

Genetic factors are strongly implicated in the susceptibility to develop externalizing syndromes such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and substance use disorder (SUD). Variants in the ADGRL3 (LPHN3) gene predispose to ADHD and predict ADHD severity, disruptive behaviors comorbidity, long-term outcome, and response to treatment. In this study, we investigated whether variants within ADGRL3 are associated with SUD, a disorder that is frequently co-morbid with ADHD. Using family-based, case-control, and longitudinal samples from disparate regions of the world (n = 2698), recruited either for clinical, genetic epidemiological or pharmacogenomic studies of ADHD, we assembled recursive-partitioning frameworks (classification tree analyses) with clinical, demographic, and ADGRL3 genetic information to predict SUD susceptibility. Our results indicate that SUD can be efficiently and robustly predicted in ADHD participants. The genetic models used remained highly efficient in predicting SUD in a large sample of individuals with severe SUD from a psychiatric institution that were not ascertained on the basis of ADHD diagnosis, thus identifying ADGRL3 as a risk gene for SUD. Recursive-partitioning analyses revealed that rs4860437 was the predominant predictive variant. This new methodological approach offers novel insights into higher order predictive interactions and offers a unique opportunity for translational application in the clinical assessment of patients at high risk for SUD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 24(11): 1655-1667, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858598

RESUMO

Human genome-wide association studies (GWAS), transcriptome analyses of animal models, and candidate gene studies have advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of aggressive behaviors. However, each of these methods presents unique limitations. To generate a more confident and comprehensive view of the complex genetics underlying aggression, we undertook an integrated, cross-species approach. We focused on human and rodent models to derive eight gene lists from three main categories of genetic evidence: two sets of genes identified in GWAS studies, four sets implicated by transcriptome-wide studies of rodent models, and two sets of genes with causal evidence from online Mendelian inheritance in man (OMIM) and knockout (KO) mice reports. These gene sets were evaluated for overlap and pathway enrichment to extract their similarities and differences. We identified enriched common pathways such as the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway, axon guidance, reelin signaling in neurons, and ERK/MAPK signaling. Also, individual genes were ranked based on their cumulative weights to quantify their importance as risk factors for aggressive behavior, which resulted in 40 top-ranked and highly interconnected genes. The results of our cross-species and integrated approach provide insights into the genetic etiology of aggression.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Emoções/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ratos , Fatores de Risco , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 63-75, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478444

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, finding important new information about the underlying biology of ADHD. Associations are enriched in evolutionarily constrained genomic regions and loss-of-function intolerant genes and around brain-expressed regulatory marks. Analyses of three replication studies: a cohort of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, a self-reported ADHD sample and a meta-analysis of quantitative measures of ADHD symptoms in the population, support these findings while highlighting study-specific differences on genetic overlap with educational attainment. Strong concordance with GWAS of quantitative population measures of ADHD symptoms supports that clinical diagnosis of ADHD is an extreme expression of continuous heritable traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Risco
19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 173, 2018 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166527

RESUMO

Cocaine is one of the most used psychostimulant drugs worldwide. MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are highly expressed in brain, and several studies have shown that cocaine can alter their expression. In a previous study, we identified several protein-coding genes that are differentially expressed in a dopaminergic neuron-like model after an acute exposure to cocaine. Now, we used the prediction tool WebGestalt to identify miRNA molecules potentially involved in the regulation of these genes. Using the same cellular model, we found that seven of these miRNAs are down-regulated by cocaine: miR-124-3p, miR-124-5p, miR-137, miR-101-3p, miR-9-5p, miR-369-3p and miR-153-3p, the last three not previously related to cocaine. Furthermore, we found that three of the miRNA genes that are differentially expressed in our model (hsa-miR-9-1, hsa-miR-153-1 and hsa-miR-124-3) are nominally associated with cocaine dependence in a case-control study (2,085 cases and 4,293 controls). In summary, we highlighted novel miRNAs that may be involved in those cocaine-induced changes of gene expression that underlie addiction. Moreover, we identified genetic variants that contribute to cocaine dependence in three of these miRNA genes, supporting the idea that genes differentially expressed under cocaine may play an important role in the susceptibility to cocaine dependence.


Assuntos
Cocaína/farmacologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
20.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 28(10): 1059-1088, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195575

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable and the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. In recent decades, it has been appreciated that in a substantial number of cases the disorder does not remit in puberty, but persists into adulthood. Both in childhood and adulthood, ADHD is characterised by substantial comorbidity including substance use, depression, anxiety, and accidents. However, course and symptoms of the disorder and the comorbidities may fluctuate and change over time, and even age of onset in childhood has recently been questioned. Available evidence to date is poor and largely inconsistent with regard to the predictors of persistence versus remittance. Likewise, the development of comorbid disorders cannot be foreseen early on, hampering preventive measures. These facts call for a lifespan perspective on ADHD from childhood to old age. In this selective review, we summarise current knowledge of the long-term course of ADHD, with an emphasis on clinical symptom and cognitive trajectories, treatment effects over the lifespan, and the development of comorbidities. Also, we summarise current knowledge and important unresolved issues on biological factors underlying different ADHD trajectories. We conclude that a severe lack of knowledge on lifespan aspects in ADHD still exists for nearly every aspect reviewed. We encourage large-scale research efforts to overcome those knowledge gaps through appropriately granular longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Envelhecimento , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Comorbidade , Humanos
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