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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gay and bisexual men (GBM) are disproportionately affected by anal cancer. Prevention is hindered by incomplete understanding of the natural history of its precursor, anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). METHODS: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer, conducted between 2010 and 2018, enrolled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative GBM aged ≥35 years. Anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) were performed at baseline and 3 annual visits. A composite HSIL diagnosis (cytology ± histology) was used. Cytological high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (cHSIL) incidence and clearance rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Predictors were calculated using Cox regression with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Among 617 men, 220 (35.7%) were HIV-positive, median age 49 years. And 124 incident cHSIL cases occurred over 1097.3 person-years (PY) follow-up (11.3, 95% CI 9.5-13.5 per 100 PY). Significant bivariate predictors of higher incidence included age <45 years (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11-2.41), HIV positivity (HR 1.43, 95% CI .99-2.06), prior SIL diagnosis (P-trend < .001) and human papillomavirus (HPV)16 (HR 3.39, 2.38-4.84). Over 695.3 PY follow-up, 153 HSIL cleared (clearance 22.0, 95% CI 18.8-25.8 per 100 PY). Predictors were age < 45 years (HR 1.52, 1.08-2.16), anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)2 rather than AIN3 (HR 1.79, 1.29-2.49), smaller lesions (HR 1.62, 1.11-2.36) and no persistent HPV16 (HR 1.72, 1.23-2.41). There was 1 progression to cancer (incidence 0.224, 95% CI .006-1.25 per 100 PY). CONCLUSION: These data strongly suggest that not all anal HSIL detected in screening requires treatment. Men with persistent HPV16 were less likely to clear HSIL and are more likely to benefit from effective HSIL treatments.

2.
Vaccine ; 37(46): 6907-6914, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia introduced a school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program for females aged 12-13 years in 2007, with a three-year catch-up to age 26; and for boys aged 12-13 from 2013, with a two-year catch-up to age 15. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of penile HPV between teenage heterosexual males in cohorts eligible or non-eligible for the school-based male vaccination program. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2017, sexually active heterosexual males aged 17-19 were recruited from sexual health centres and community sources across Australia. Males provided a self-collected penile swab for 37 HPV genotypes using Roche Linear Array and completed a questionnaire. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of HPV between males in two periods: 2014-2015 (preceding implementation of school-based male vaccination) and 2016-2017 (eligible for school-based male vaccination). Self-reported vaccine doses were confirmed with doses reported to the National HPV Vaccination Program Register. RESULTS: Overall, 152 males were recruited in 2014-2015 and 146 in 2016-2017. Numbers of female sex partners and condom use did not differ between the two periods. The prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-preventable [4vHPV] genotypes (6/11/16/18) was low in both periods (2.6% [2014-15] versus 0.7% [2016-17]; p = 0.371; aPR 0.28 [95% CI: 0.03-2.62]). Compared with men in 2014-2015, men in 2016-2017 had a lower prevalence of any of the 37 HPV genotypes tested (21.7% versus 11.6%; aPR 0.62 [95% CI: 0.36-1.07]) and any of the 13 high-risk genotypes tested (15.8% versus 7.5%; aPR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.30-1.19]). Prevalence of low-risk HPV genotypes did not differ between the two periods. Of the males recruited in 2016-2017, 55% had received ≥1 vaccine dose. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of 4vHPV genotypes among teenage heterosexual males in both cohorts was low, presumably due to herd protection from the female-only vaccination program. Further studies are required to determine the impact of universal HPV vaccination on HPV prevalence in males.

3.
Transplant Direct ; 5(4): e434, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993188

RESUMO

Kidney recipients have anal cancer rates 3 times higher than the general population in Australia and New Zealand. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes are implicated in the majority of anal cancers. Establishing the epidemiology of anal HPV infection and precursors of anal cancer in transplant recipient populations is 1 consideration in any potential screening program. The Transplant and Anal Neoplasia Study is a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities and HPV deoxyribonucleic acid in kidney transplant recipients, as well as evaluating the acceptability of an anal cancer screening intervention. The study aims to recruit 100 kidney transplant recipients, older than 18 years, in Australia. Transplant recipients attending for a protocol biopsy at 3 and 12 months and annually posttransplant are approached to participate. Participants undergo an anal swab, which is then analyzed using liquid-based cytological examination and tested for the detection of 37 anogenital HPV deoxyribonucleic acid genotypes. Participants also complete a demographic and behavioral questionnaire that covers sexual behavior, history of anal symptoms, and possible anal cancer risk factors. Associations will be tested using multiple regression analysis. Recruitment for the study began in 2015 and is ongoing. To date, 96 (77%) of 125 kidney transplant recipients approached have consented to the study. The mean age is 48 (median, 47 y; range, 20-76 y), 59% are male, and Northwest European (58%) represented the largest ethnic group. No participants self-identified as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. High consent rates and positive qualitative results suggest that a larger screening program may be well received by kidney transplant recipients, with increased resources and some modification to the timing of approach. Further results of the study will inform the possible implementation of a larger screening trial for prevention of anal cancers in kidney and other solid organ transplant recipients.

4.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(4): 229-233, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men living with human immunodeficiency virus have a high risk of anal cancer. We estimate the likely benefit of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among participants of the Anal Cancer Examination study. METHODS: Anal swabs were collected for the detection and genotyping of anal HPV DNA by linear array (Roche Diagnostics) in this 2-year multicenter prospective cohort. We calculated the proportion of men, stratified by age, without detectable vaccine type-specific DNA. RESULTS: Overall, 255 men, with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range, 44-56 years) contributed 488.9 person-years of follow-up. After 2 years of follow-up, 149 (58%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52-65) had at least 1 high-risk HPV (HRHPV), and 71 (28%, 95% CI, 22-34) had HPV types 16/18 detected. Assuming that DNA-negative men would receive vaccine protection, vaccination at baseline could potentially prevent HRHPV infection in 10.2% of men (95% CI, 6.8-14.6, 26 of 255) 2 years later from incident HRHPV covered by the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine, and 29.4% of men (95% CI, 23.9-35.4, 75/255) from incident HRHPV covered by the nonavalent vaccine. CONCLUSION: Though there is high prevalence of anal HPV in men who have sex with men living with human immunodeficiency virus, there was also a high incidence of HRHPV vaccine types in the 2-year follow-up, indicating potential for prevention if these men were not previously infected with HPV vaccine types and were vaccinated at their baseline visit.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/virologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Neoplasias do Ânus/virologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for trachoma-associated blindness as well as the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide, although the genovars for the former are typically A-C, whilst for the latter they are D-K and for the uncommon infection lymphogranuloma venereum they are L1-3. Nucleotide variations within the ompA gene facilitate the identification of C. trachomatis genovars. This study describes a colorimetric multiplex PCR/RLB typing assay (mPCR-RLB) directed to the VD2 region of the ompA gene for general C. trachomatis positivity and the identification of 14 individual C. trachomatis genovars. METHODOLOGY: The assay was validated by analysing 40 blinded samples that included reference strains of C. trachomatis genovars and other non-chlamydial micro-organisms that had been analysed previously using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ninety clinical samples that had previously been found to be C. trachomatis-positive by qPCR were also evaluated using the mPCR-RLB assay. RESULTS: The mPCR-RLB assay showed 100 % agreement with the qPCR in the detection of C. trachomatis reference strains and no cross-reaction of non-chlamydial micro-organisms was observed. In the analysis of the chlamydial clinical samples, 97.8 % were C. trachomatis-positive by mPCR/RLB assay and there was a 96.6 % concordance with the qPCR at the group identification level and a 92.2 % concordance at the genovar level. CONCLUSION: The mPCR-RLB assay is a rapid and sensitive methodology for the identification of C. trachomatis genovars associated with urogenital infections, trachoma or lymphogranuloma venereum diseases that can be implemented in clinical settings, helping to identify reinfections and treatment failures and establish the appropriate treatment course.

6.
J Clin Virol ; 108: 38-42, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robust clinical and analytical validation of human papillomavirus (HPV) tests is a pre-requisite for their use in cervical cancer screening given the transience of most high-risk HPV infections. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the EUROArray HPV test (PCR-based full HPV genotyping test) using the international validation of the VALGENT framework, which offers an opportunity to determine analytical and clinical performance according to internationally accepted performance metrics. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1300 consecutive and 300 abnormal cervical samples derived from the Slovenian screening programme were tested with the EUROArray HPV test. Clinical performance for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above (CIN2+) was performed and compared to a standard comparator test (Hybrid Capture 2). Intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the assay was performed in a subset of 500 samples. RESULTS: The relative clinical sensitivity and specificity of EUROArray HPV vs HC2 was 0.93 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.88-0.99; P non-inferiority(ni) = 0.1413) and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.99-1.02; Pni = 0.0001), respectively. Application of an a-posteriori cut-off for HPV16 led to relative values of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.92-1.03; Pni = 0.0076) and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.97-1.03; Pni = 0.007), respectively. The assay showed excellent intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (concordance ≥ 94%, Kappas ≥0.85). CONCLUSION: At the predefined cut-off, EUROArray HPV was less sensitive than HC2 for the detection of CIN2+. However, when an optimised cut-off was applied, EUROArray HPV fulfilled international criteria for its use in cervical cancer screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Genótipo , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/normas , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Displasia do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Displasia do Colo do Útero/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Oncol Lett ; 16(2): 2511-2516, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013645

RESUMO

Certain variants of human papillomavirus (HPV)type 58 are associated with an increased risk of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer. However, little is known about the persistence of HPV58 E6/E7 variants in women with incident HPV58 infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence and persistence of HPV58 E6/E7 variants in 71 women with incident HPV58 infection throughout their follow-up. These women belonged to a cohort examined in a longitudinal study of 1,610 Colombian women, who were HPV-negative and had normal baseline cytology. E6/E7 DNA regions of HPV58-positive samples were amplified and sequenced using automated direct sequencing. A total of 639 samples were analyzed from the 71 women, and 117 samples (18.3%) were HPV58-positive. HPV58 E6/E7 variants were detected in 85.5% of the samples. The T307/A694/G744/A761 variant was identified in 88% of the samples, the T307/G744 variant was identified in 9% of samples and the T187/T307/A367/G744/G793/T798/A801/T840/C852 was identified in 3% of the samples. Overall, 50% of the HPV58 infections were present after 1 year of follow-up and all infections were cleared after 7 years. Women who had first sexual intercourse at >15 years of age had a lower clearance rate than those who had sexual intercourse for the first time at ≤15 years of age [hazard ratio (HR)=0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.09-0.92]. Likewise, parous women had a higher clearance rate than nulliparous women (HR=3.43, 95% CI=1.23-9.60). There was no difference in clearance rates between HPV58 E6/E7 variants. In conclusion, HPV58 variants were not associated with persistence of the infection in this group of women.

8.
Vaccine ; 36(23): 3221-3230, 2018 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The VACCINE [Vaccine Against Cervical Cancer Impact and Effectiveness] study evaluated the prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) amongst young women of vaccine-eligible age. METHODS: Between October 2011 - June 2015, women aged 18-25 years from Victoria, Australia, were recruited through targeted advertising on the social networking website Facebook. Participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected vaginal swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping (Linear Array HPV genotyping assay). Self-reported HPV vaccination details were verified with the National HPV Vaccination Program Register (NHVPR). RESULTS: Of 1223 who agreed to participate, 916 (74.9%) completed the survey and, for 1007 (82.3%) sexually-active participants, 744 (73.9%) returned the self-collected swab, of which 737 contained detectable DNA. 184/737 (25.0%) were positive for HPV. Vaccine-targeted HPV genotypes were detected in only 13 (1.7%) women: 11 HPV 16 (six vaccinated after sexual debut, five unvaccinated) and two HPV 6. Prevalence of any of HPV 31/33/45 collectively was 2.9%, varying significantly by vaccination status (fully 2.0%, unvaccinated 6.8%; p = 0.01). Vaccination rates among the sexually-active cohort were high, with 65.6%, 71.6% and 74.2% of participants having received three, at least two or at least one dose of vaccine, respectively. Of women self-reporting HPV vaccination, the NHVPR confirmed one or more doses were received in 90%. Strong associations were observed between vaccination status, age, language spoken at home and country of birth, as well as between HPV detection and the number of male sexual partners. CONCLUSION: Surveillance five to eight years' post-initiation of a national HPV vaccination program demonstrated a consistent and very low prevalence of vaccine-related HPV genotypes and some evidence of cross protection against related types amongst vaccine-eligible women from Victoria, Australia.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Alphapapillomavirus/imunologia , Alphapapillomavirus/patogenicidade , Colo do Útero/virologia , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vitória/epidemiologia
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(7): 768-775, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700009

RESUMO

Background: Gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at disproportionately high risk of anal cancer. The precursor lesions, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), are very common and it is evident that not all HSIL progresses to cancer. The serologic response to anal human papillomavirus (HPV) in GBM has not been well characterized.Methods: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer is an ongoing cohort study of GBM ages 35 years and older. At six visits over three years, anal samples are collected for cytology, HPV DNA testing, and histology. Baseline serum was tested for HPV L1, E6, and E7 antibodies for 10 HPV types. Seroprevalence and associated predictors were analyzed.Results: A total of 588 of 617 participants were included in this analysis. A total of 436 (74.2%) were seropositive for at least one of the 10 HPV types. Almost half had L1 antibodies to HPV6 (48.5%), over a third to HPV11 (36.4%) and HPV16 (34.5%). HIV-positive men were more likely to be HPV L1 seropositive. HSIL detection was highest among participants who were HPV serology and DNA positive. There was a borderline significant association between presence of HPV16 E6 antibodies and prevalent HSIL (OR = 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-9.60; P = 0.068).Conclusions: HPV L1 seropositivity was common in this cohort of older GBM. These results suggest that HPV L1 seropositivity, in conjunction with anal HPV DNA detection, predicts concurrent HSIL. The apparent association between HPV16 E6 antibodies and prevalent HSIL is a finding with potential clinical significance that needs further exploration.Impact: HPV seropositivity with concurrent DNA detection predicted anal HSIL detection. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(7); 768-75. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/virologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/patologia
10.
Oncol Lett ; 15(1): 354-360, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387223

RESUMO

Epidemiological information on telomerase activity (TA) and development of cervical lesions is scarce. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort of Colombian women tested for Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Measurement of TA was done in cervical scrapes of 25 women who developed High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HGSIL) during the first 6 years of follow-up and was compared with that of 104 control women who maintained normal cytology during the entire follow-up. TA was measured by a telomerase repeat amplification protocol-ELISA. TA and HPV infections were significantly more frequent in cases than in controls. Likewise, 68% of the cases were positive for both TA and HPV compared with only 7.7% of the controls (P<0.0001). Factors independently associated with increased odds of HGSIL included TA, high risk HPV (hrHPV) infections and multiple parities. When restricted to hrHPV positive women, TA was strongly associated with increased odds of HGSIL (adjusted odds ratio=37.94, 95% confidence interval, 1.64-678.1). In addition to an infection with hrHPV, TA appears to be a significant cofactor for HGSIL.

11.
J Infect Dis ; 217(10): 1590-1600, 2018 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425358

RESUMO

Introduction: A quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination program targeting females aged 12-13 years commenced in Australia in 2007, with catch-up vaccination of 14-26 year olds through 2009. We evaluated the program's impact on HPV prevalence among women aged 18-35 in 2015. Methods: HPV prevalence among women aged 18-24 and 25-35 was compared with prevalence in these age groups in 2005-2007. For women aged 18-24, we also compared prevalence with that in a postvaccine study conducted in 2010-2012. Results: For the 2015 sample, Vaccination Register-confirmed 3-dose coverage was 53.3% (65.0% and 40.3% aged 18-24 and 25-35, respectively). Prevalence of vaccine HPV types decreased from 22.7% (2005-2007) and 7.3% (2010-2012), to 1.5% (2015) (P trend < .001) among women aged 18-24, and from 11.8% (2005-2007) to 1.1% (2015) (P = .001) among those aged 25-35. Conclusions: This study, reporting the longest surveillance follow-up to date, shows prevalence of vaccine-targeted HPV types has continued to decline among young women. A substantial fall also occurred in women aged 25-35, despite lower coverage. Strong herd protection and effectiveness of less than 3 vaccine doses likely contributed to these reductions.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Prevalência , Vacinação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1723: 167-189, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344860

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a nearly ubiquitous infectious organism. It is estimated that 80% of sexually active adults will be exposed to anogenital HPVs in their lifetime, and detection of multiple genotypes in an anogenital sample is common. Detection and genotyping of HPV is usually performed by DNA testing, and less frequently by mRNA testing. HPV genotype testing and characterization of DNA methylation patterns of HPV-related lesions can provide important biological, epidemiological, and potentially relevant clinical information in individuals and populations. The use of laser capture microdissection to isolate cells within a specific lesion allows for very precise molecular characterization and hence causal attribution. This chapter describes detailed protocols for the capture of lesion-specific tissue from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy tissue, and downstream DNA testing for lesion-specific HPV genotype and their methylation patterns.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA Viral/genética , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser/métodos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Separação Celular , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Inclusão em Parafina , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/genética , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
13.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 47(1): 18-24, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the presence and frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) nucleic acid in p16-positive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), to assess whether the virus was transcriptionally active and to assess the utility of p16 overexpression as a surrogate marker for HPV in OSCC. METHODS: Forty-six OSCC patients treated between 2007 and 2011 with available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens were included. Twenty-three patients were positive for p16 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and these were matched with 23 patients with p16-negative tumours. Laser capture microdissection of the FFPE OSCC tissues was undertaken to isolate invasive tumour tissue. DNA was extracted and tested for high-risk HPV types using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 SPF10 consensus primers, and a real-time PCR method targeting HPV-16 and HPV-18 E6 region. Genotyping of HPV-positive cases was performed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay (Inno-LiPA). RNAScope® (a chromogenic RNA in situ hybridization assay) was utilized to detect E6/E7 mRNA of known high-risk HPV types for detection of transcriptionally active virus. RESULTS: HPV DNA was found in 3 OSCC cases, all of which were p16 IHC-positive. Two cases were genotyped as HPV-16 and one as HPV-33. Only one of the HPV-16 cases was confirmed to harbour transcriptionally active virus via HPV RNA ISH. CONCLUSION: We have shown that the presence of transcriptionally active HPV rarely occurs in OSCC and that p16 is not an appropriate surrogate marker for HPV in OSCC cases. We propose that non-viral mechanisms are responsible for the majority of IHC p16 overexpression in OSCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/análise , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/química , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/química , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Papillomavirus Humano 18 , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais , Sondas de Ácido Nucleico , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Viral/análise , Fatores de Risco , Transcrição Genética
14.
Papillomavirus Res ; 4: 79-84, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179874

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare human papillomavirus genotype-specific performance of two genotyping assays, Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene) and EuroArray HPV (EuroImmun), with Linear Array HPV (Roche). METHODS: DNA extracted from clinican-collected cervical brush specimens in PreservCyt medium (Hologic), from 403 women undergoing management for detected cytological abnormalities, was tested on the three assays. Genotype-specific agreement were assessed by Cohen's kappa statistic and Fisher's z-test of significance between proportions. RESULTS: Agreement between Linear Array and the other 2 assays was substantial to almost perfect (κ = 0.60 - 1.00) for most genotypes, and was almost perfect (κ = 0.81 - 0.98) for almost all high-risk genotypes. Linear Array overall detected most genotypes more frequently, however this was only statistically significant for HPV51 (EuroArray; p = 0.0497), HPV52 (Anyplex II; p = 0.039) and HPV61 (Anyplex II; p=0.047). EuroArray detected signficantly more HPV26 (p = 0.002) and Anyplex II detected more HPV42 (p = 0.035) than Linear Array. Each assay performed differently for HPV68 detection: EuroArray and LA were in moderate to substantial agreement with Anyplex II (κ = 0.46 and 0.62, respectively), but were in poor disagreement with each other (κ = -0.01). CONCLUSIONS: EuroArray and Anyplex II had similar sensitivity to Linear Array for most high-risk genotypes, with slightly lower sensitivity for HPV 51 or 52.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/virologia , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Austrália/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Papillomavirus Res ; 3: 80-84, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HPV causes ~90% of anal cancer and HPV16 is the type most commonly associated with anal cancer. Gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at greatly increased risk. We investigated patterns of vaccine-preventable anal HPV in older GBM. METHODS: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC) is an ongoing, prospective cohort study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Australian GBM. Participants completed questionnaires and underwent an anal swab for HPV genotyping using Roche Linear Array. We analysed baseline data from SPANC by HPV type, mean number of types, stratified by age and HIV status. RESULTS: Anal HPV results from 606 (98.2%) of 617 participants (median age 49 years, 35.7% HIV-positive) showed 525 (86.7%) had ≥1 HPV type and 178 (29.4%) had HPV16. Over one third of participants (214, 35.3%) had no nonavalent vaccine-preventable types detected. Two (0.3%) participants had all quadrivalent types and none had all nonavalent vaccine types. HIV-positive participants (p<0.001) and younger participants (p=0.059) were more likely to have more vaccine-preventable HPV types detected. CONCLUSION: Anal HPV was highly prevalent in this largely community-based GBM cohort. Vaccine-preventable HPV16 was detected in approximately one third of participants. These findings suggest that the potential efficacy of HPV vaccination of older GBM should be explored.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 141(8): 1576-1584, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28677147

RESUMO

Australia has implemented a high-coverage HPV vaccination program but has not, to date, established the distribution of HPV types that occur in cervical cancers in Australia. This information is important for determining the potential for cervical cancer prevention with both current and broader spectrum HPV vaccines. We analysed 847 cervical cancers diagnosed 2005 to 2015 in tertiary centres in the three most populous Australian states with resolution of specimens containing multiple HPV types using laser-capture microdissection. Archived FFPE tissue was reviewed by specialist pathologists, sandwich sectioned, and initially whole-tissue sections genotyped for HPV. Samples were first genotyped using SPF10-LiPA25 (version 1). Negative samples were screened with DNA ELISA kit HPV SPF10, followed by genotyping with SPF+ LiPA if ELISA positive. If still negative, samples were tested on a qPCR assay targeting the E6 region of HPV16, 18, 45 and 33. Of the 847 cancers (65.1% squamous, 28.7% adenocarcinoma, 4.3% adenosquamous, 2.0% other), 92.9% had HPV detected. Of the HPV-positive cancers, 607 of 787 (77.1%) contained HPV16 or 18, 125 of 787 (15.9%) contained HPV31/33/45/52 or 58, and 55 (7.0%) another HPV type. There was a strong correlation between HPV type and age, with younger women most likely to have HPV16/18 detected and least likely HPV negative. Our findings indicate that cervical cancers diagnosed in Australia more frequently contain HPV16/18 than in international series. This could be due to cervical screening in Australia increasing the proportion of adenocarcinomas, in which types 18 and 16 more strongly predominate, due to prevention of squamous cancers.


Assuntos
Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
17.
AIDS ; 31(9): 1303-1311, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluate the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) biomarkers in prediction of anal histological high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Sydney, Australia. DESIGN: Baseline analysis of a 3-year cohort study. METHODS: The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer is natural history study of anal HPV infection in GBM aged at least 35 years. All participants completed cytological and histological assessments. Stored ThinPrep PreservCyt residua were tested for HPV genotyping (Linear Array and Cobas 4800) and viral load, E6/E7 mRNA expression (NucliSENS easyQ HPV v1) and dual cytology staining of p16/Ki 67 antibodies (CINtecPLUS). Performance of each biomarker was compared with liquid-based anal cytology. The hypothetical referral rates were defined as the proportion of men who had abnormal cytology or tested positive to each of the biomarkers. RESULTS: The median age of the 617 participants was 49 years (range: 35-79), and 35.7% were HIV-positive. All biomarkers were strongly associated with the grade of HPV-associated anal lesions (P < 0.001 for all). High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) viral load with a 33% cut-off and HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA had similar sensitivity to anal cytology (78.4 and 75.4 vs. 83.2%, respectively), improved specificity (68.0 and 69.4 vs. 52.4%, respectively) and lower referral rates (47.0 and 45.0 vs. 59.2%, respectively). Specificity was significantly higher in the HIV-negative for HR-HPV viral load (72.3 vs. 58.2%, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: HR-HPV viral load and E6/E7 mRNA had similar sensitivity and higher specificity in predicting histological anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with lower referrals in GBM than anal cytology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , DNA Viral/análise , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/análise , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral
18.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 20(1): 10-18, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27917752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary prerequisite for development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesion, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). However, HPV infection is not sufficient to drive this process, and genetic and environmental factors may also play a role. METHODS/DESIGN: The Cervical Cancer, Genetics and Environment Twin Study was established to investigate the environmental and genetic influences on variation in susceptibility to cervical pre-cancer in 25- to 69-year-old monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins recruited through the Australian Twin Registry. Reviews of Papanicolaou (Pap) screening histories were undertaken to identify individual women with a history of an abnormal Pap test. This was followed by detection of HPV in archival Pap smears of selected twin pairs to determine HPV persistence. Selected twin pairs also completed a detailed questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and HPV knowledge. In future analyses, under the assumptions of the classical twin design, case-wise concordance for persistent HPV infection and HSIL will be calculated for MZ and DZ twin pairs, and twin pairs (both MZ and DZ) who are discordant for the above outcomes will be used to assess the contributions of measured environmental risk factors. DISCUSSION: The study examines factors related to HPV persistence and development of HSIL among female MZ and DZ twins. The results will contribute to our understanding of the natural history of cervical HPV infection and the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors in disease progression.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças em Gêmeos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/patologia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/virologia , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
19.
J Infect Dis ; 215(2): 202-208, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27815379

RESUMO

Background: In Australia, high uptake of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine has led to reductions in the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 in women and girls aged ≤25 years. We evaluated the impact of the program impact on HPV prevalence in unvaccinated male subjects. Methods: Sexually active heterosexual male subjects aged 16-35 years were recruited in 2014-2016. Participants provided a self-collected penile swab sample for HPV genotyping (Roche Linear Array) and completed a demographic and risk factor questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of 4vHPV genotypes among 511 unvaccinated male subjects was significantly lower in those aged ≤25 than in those aged >25 years: 3.1% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-5.7%) versus 13.7% (8.9%-20.1%), respectively (P < .001); adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.22 (.09-.51; P < .001). By contrast, the prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes other than 16 and 18 remained the same across age groups: 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 12.6%-21.9%) in men aged ≤25 years and 17.9% (12.4%-25.0%) in those aged >25 years (P = .76); adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.98, (.57-1.37; P = .58). Conclusions: A 78% lower prevalence of 4vHPV genotypes was observed among younger male subjects. These data suggest that unvaccinated men may have benefited from herd protection as much as women from a female-only HPV vaccination program with high coverage.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/genética , Pênis/virologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160673, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27529629

RESUMO

Incidence and mortality rates of anal cancer are increasing globally. More than 90% of anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Studies on HPV-related anogenital lesions have shown that patterns of methylation of viral and cellular DNA targets could potentially be developed as disease biomarkers. Lesion-specific DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from existing or prospective patient cohorts may constitute a valuable resource for methylation analysis. However, low concentrations of DNA make these samples technically challenging to analyse using existing methods. We therefore set out to develop a sensitive and reproducible nested PCR-pyrosequencing based method to accurately quantify methylation at 10 CpG sites within the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in the viral upstream regulatory region of HPV16 genome. Methylation analyses using primary and nested PCR-pyrosequencing on 52 FFPE tissue [26 paired whole tissue sections (WTS) and laser capture microdissected (LCM) tissues] from patients with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions was performed. Using nested PCR, methylation results were obtained for the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in 86.4% of the WTS and 81.8% of the LCM samples. Methylation patterns were strongly correlated within median values of matched pairs of WTS and LCM sections, but overall methylation was higher in LCM samples at different CpG sites. High grade lesions showed low methylation levels in the E2BS1 and E2BS2 regions, with increased methylation detected in the E2BS,3,4/Sp1 regions, showing the highest methylation at CpG site 37. The method developed is highly sensitive in samples with low amounts of DNA and demonstrated to be suitable for archival samples. Our data shows a possible role of specific methylation in the HPV16 URR for detection of HSIL.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , DNA Viral/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/patologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/genética , Neoplasias do Ânus/virologia , Biópsia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/fisiologia , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/genética , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/virologia
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