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1.
Z Gastroenterol ; 59(9): 954-960, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant impact on the medical care of many diseases and has led to reduced presentations to the emergency department. Reduced presentations may be due to overwhelmed capacities of hospitals or collateral damage from fear of infection, lockdown regulations, or other reasons. The effect on patients with liver cirrhosis is not established. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the impact on the care of patients with liver cirrhosis in a tertiary center in Northern Germany. METHODS: All patients presenting to the emergency department with a diagnosis of cirrhosis between March 1 and May 31 from 2015-2020 were included. Reasons for presentation, duration of symptoms, the severity of liver disease, and 30-day mortality were assessed and compared between patients presenting during the COVID-19 pandemic and pre-COVID-19. RESULTS: Overall, 235 patients were included. Despite an overall decline in presentations to the emergency department by 11.7%, the frequency of patients presenting with liver cirrhosis has remained stable (non-significant increase by 19.5%). No significant difference could be detected for the MELD score, the CLIF-organ failure subscores, and the 30-day mortality before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Up to 75% of patients with liver cirrhosis had symptoms >24 h before presenting to the emergency department. CONCLUSION: Despite the overall trend of reduced emergency presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic, the frequency of presentations of patients with liver cirrhosis did not decline. Morbidity and mortality were not affected in a setting of disposable healthcare resources. The late presentation to the emergency department in many cirrhotic patients may open opportunities for interventions (i.e., with early telemedicine intervention).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 60: 232-240, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474210

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae remain a global health challenge. Current treatments are effective in controlling HBV replication, but complete eradication or 'cure' of HBV remains a rare event and is difficult to assess because of the intrahepatic reservoir of covalently closed circular DNA. Based on the understanding of the HBV life cycle and the deciphering of immune responses to HBV, therapeutic strategies to target HBV eradication are in principle possible. This article reviews current developments in new therapies aimed at HBV cure.

3.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585537

RESUMO

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an effective treatment for portal hypertension-related complications. However, careful selection of patients is crucial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of serum cholinesterase (CHE) for outcomes and mortality after TIPS insertion. In this multicenter study, 389 consecutive patients with cirrhosis receiving a TIPS at Hannover Medical School, University Hospital Essen, or Medical University of Vienna were included. The Hannover cohort (n = 200) was used to initially explore the role of CHE, whereas patients from Essen and Vienna served as a validation cohort (n = 189). Median age of the patients was 58 years and median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 12. Multivariable analysis identified MELD score (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.16; P < 0.001) and CHE (HR: 0.61; P = 0.008) as independent predictors for 1-year survival. Using the Youden Index, a CHE of 2.5 kU/L was identified as optimal threshold to predict post-TIPS survival in the Hannover cohort (P < 0.001), which was confirmed in the validation cohort (P = 0.010). CHE < 2.5 kU/L was significantly associated with development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (P < 0.001) and hepatic encephalopathy (P = 0.006). Of note, CHE was also significantly linked to mortality in the subgroup of patients with refractory ascites (P = 0.001) as well as in patients with high MELD scores (P = 0.012) and with high-risk FIPS scores (P = 0.004). After propensity score matching, mortality was similar in patients with ascites and CHE < 2.5 kU/L if treated by TIPS or by paracentesis. Contrarily, in patients with CHE ≥ 2.5 kU/L survival was significantly improved by TIPS as compared to treatment with paracentesis (P < 0.001). Conclusion: CHE is significantly associated with mortality and complications after TIPS insertion. Therefore, we suggest that CHE should be evaluated as an additional parameter for selecting patients for TIPS implantation.

4.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561972

RESUMO

Standard treatment of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection remains pegylated-interferon alfa (peg-IFNα) in most centers, which is not only associated with rather low efficacy but several adverse events. Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) is linked to intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA levels and has previously been suggested as response predictor in IFN-based treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mono-infection. This study aimed to investigate the value of HBcrAg in the management of patients with HBV/HDV co-infection undergoing peg-IFNα treatment. The Hep-Net-International-Delta-Hepatitis-Intervention Trial-2 study included 120 patients co-infected with HBV/HDV. Patients were treated for 96 weeks with peg-IFNα and either tenofovir or placebo. Ninety-nine patients with HDV-RNA results 24 weeks after end of treatment (FU24) were included in this analysis, of whom 32 patients (32.3%) had undetectable HDV RNA at FU24. HBcrAg was measured at baseline, week 12, 24, 48, 96, and FU24. HBcrAg levels showed no significant correlation with HDV RNA but were significantly linked to treatment outcome. HBcrAg levels < 4.5 log IU/mL at baseline, week 24, and week 48 had high negative predictive value (NPV) for achieving undetectable HDV RNA at FU24 (81.8%, 87.1% and 95.0%, respectively). Similarly, HBcrAg levels at week 96 were significantly higher in patients with viral relapse until FU24 (3.0 vs. 3.63 log IU/mL; P = 0.0089). Baseline, week 24, and week 48 HBcrAg levels were also associated with the likelihood of achieving HBsAg level < 100 IU/mL at FU24 (HBcrAg < 3.0 log IU/mL: NPV 91.7%, 90.4% and 92.3%, respectively). Test statistics improved when combining HBcrAg with additional viral and clinical parameters. Conclusion: HBcrAg is linked to treatment response to peg-IFNα in patients with HBV/HDV co-infection and could be a promising marker to determine treatment futility.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 721738, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456929

RESUMO

Here, we described the case of a B cell-deficient patient after CD19 CAR-T cell therapy for refractory B cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with protracted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). For weeks, this patient only inefficiently contained the virus while convalescent plasma transfusion correlated with virus clearance. Interestingly, following convalescent plasma therapy natural killer cells matured and virus-specific T cells expanded, presumably allowing virus clearance and recovery from the disease. Our findings, thus, suggest that convalescent plasma therapy can activate cellular immune responses to clear SARS-CoV-2 infections. If confirmed in larger clinical studies, these data could be of general importance for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , COVID-19/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfopoese , SARS-CoV-2 , Carga Viral
6.
J Clin Virol ; 142: 104932, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Quantification of plasma hepatitis D virus (HDV) RNA is the essential tool for patient management under antiviral therapy. The aim of this European multicenter study was to improve the comparability of quantitative results reported by different laboratories using the CE/IVD-labeled RoboGene HDV RNA Quantification Kit 2.0 (Roboscreen GmbH) with different manual or automated nucleic acid extraction protocols/platforms and amplification/detection devices. METHODS: For harmonization of HDV RNA concentrations obtained by different protocols, correction factors (CF) were determined using the 1st WHO International Standard for HDV RNA. The limit of detection (LOD) and accuracy were determined for each protocol by using reference material. Furthermore, clinical samples were analyzed and results compared. RESULTS: The CF ranged from 20 to 1,870 depending on the protocol used. The LOD was found between 4 and 450 IU/ml. When accuracy was tested, external quality control (EQC) samples containing low HDV RNA concentrations were not detected by those protocols with higher LODs. For EQC samples, the maximum standard deviation of HDV RNA concentrations was found to be 0.53 log10 IU/ml, for clinical samples 0.87 log10 IU/mL. CONCLUSION: To ensure reliability in quantification of HDV RNA, any modification of the extraction and amplification/detection protocol validated by the manufacturer requires revalidation. With the 1st WHO International Standard for HDV RNA, the CF could easily be calculated leading to harmonization of quantitative results. This warrants both accurate monitoring of response to existing anti-HDV treatment and comparability of study results investigating novel anti-HDV drugs.

7.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 296, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bacterial infections are common in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and a leading cause of death. Reliable data on antibiotic resistance are required to initiate effective empiric therapy. We here aim to assess the antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria among patients with liver cirrhosis and infection. METHODS: Overall, 666 cirrhotic patients admitted to Hannover Medical School between January 2012 and April 2018 with ascites were assessed for bacterial infection. In case of infection, bacteria cultured from microbiological specimens of ascites, blood or urine were identified and analyzed for resistances against common antibiotic agents. Furthermore, analyses compared two periods of time and community-acquired vs. nosocomial infections. RESULTS: In 281 patients with infection, microbiological sampling was performed and culture-positive results were obtained in 56.9%. Multidrug-resistant (MDR)-bacteria were found in 54 patients (19.2%). Gram-positive organisms were more common (n = 141/261, 54.0%) and detected in 116/192 culture-positive infections (60.4%). Comparing infections before and after 2015, a numerical decline for MDR-bacteria (23.8% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.08) was observed with a significant decline in meropenem resistance (34.9% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.03). MDR-bacteria were more frequent in the case of nosocomial infections. Of note, in ascites the majority of the tested bacteria were resistant against ceftriaxone (73.8%) whereas significantly less were resistant against meropenem (27.0%) and vancomycin (25.9%). CONCLUSIONS: In our tertiary center, distinct ratios of gram-positive infection with overall low ratios of MDR-bacteria were found. Adequate gram-positive coverage in the empiric therapy should be considered. Carbapenem treatment may be omitted even in nosocomial infection. In contrast, 3rd generation cephalosporins cannot be recommended even in community-acquired infection in our cirrhotic population.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Bacterianas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(4): 275-287, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074880

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is considered one of the most promising and socioeconomically sustainable strategy to help control the pandemic and several vaccines are currently being distributed in nationwide mass immunization campaigns. Very limited data are available on benefits and risks of COVID-19 vaccination in immunocompromised patients and in particular in solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients as they were excluded from phase III trials. This review summarizes current knowledge, international guidelines and controversies regarding COVID-19 vaccination in these vulnerable populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Various COVID-19 vaccine platforms showed good efficacy in phase III trials in the immunocompetent and there are data arising on the safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines in the immunocompromised population. SUMMARY: Transplant recipients could benefit significantly from COVID-19 vaccination, both through active immunization provided they elicit protective vaccine responses, and probably through cocooning by immunization of caregivers and healthcare personnel and thus reducing the risk of SARS-coronavirus-2 exposure. Although awaiting more data on the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines to inform potential adaptations of vaccine regimens, we strongly recommend prioritizing COVID-19 vaccination of solid and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients to decrease COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Transplantados , COVID-19/etiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/classificação , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Órgãos/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 667253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095070

RESUMO

Background: Germany is a low prevalence country for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with higher prevalence in vulnerable groups. The number of treated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is unknown. We aimed to determine the number of CHB patients treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs), the treatment costs within the statutory health insurance (SHI) in Germany and per patient per month. Methods: Data on pharmacy bills of NUCs to patients with SHI between 2008 and 2019 were purchased from Insight Health™ and described. Negative binomial regression was used for trend analysis. Results: Number of patients increased between 2008 and 2019 (4.9% per year) with little changes in treatment options. Overall prescription costs were increasing (6.7% per year on average) until the introduction of tenofovir and entecavir generics in 2017 after which costs decreased by 31% in 2019. Average therapy costs peaked at 498 Euro per patient per month in 2016 and decreased to 214 Euro in 2019. Prescriptions changed from 30 to 90 pills per pack over time. HBV therapy was prescribed to 97% by three medical specialist groups, mainly specialists in internal medicine (63%), followed by hospital-based outpatient clinics (20%) and general practitioners (15%). Contrary to guideline recommendation, adefovir was still prescribed after 2011 for 1-5% of patients albeit with decreasing tendency. Prescriptions per 100,000 inhabitants were highest in Berlin and Hamburg. Conclusion: Our data shows, that the number of treated CHB patients increased steadily, while NUC therapy costs decreased. We recommend continued testing and treatment for those eligible to prevent advanced liver disease and possibly decrease further transmission of HBV.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Berlim , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
15.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(8): 1206-1218, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003549

RESUMO

Improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is frequently reported as a benefit when treating hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) with direct acting antivirals (DAA). As most of the available data were obtained from clinical trials, limited generalizability to the real-world population might exist. This study aimed to investigate the impact of DAA therapy on changes in HRQoL in a real-world setting. HRQoL of 1180 participants of the German Hepatitis C-Registry was assessed by Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires. Scores at post-treatment weeks 12-24 (FU12/24) were compared to baseline (BL). Changes of ≥2.5 in mental and physical component summary scores (MCS and PCS) were defined as a minimal clinical important difference (MCID). Potential predictors of HRQoL changes were analysed. Overall, a statistically significant increase in HRQoL after DAA therapy was observed, that was robust among various subgroups. However, roughly half of all patients failed to achieve a clinically important improvement in MCS and PCS. Low MCS (p < .001, OR = 0.925) and PCS (p < .001, OR = 0.899) BL levels were identified as predictors for achieving a clinically important improvement. In contrast, presence of fatigue (p = .023, OR = 1.518), increased GPT levels (p = .005, OR = 0.626) and RBV containing therapy regimens (p = .001, OR = 1.692) were associated with a clinically important decline in HRQoL after DAA therapy. In conclusion, DAA treatment is associated with an overall increase of HRQoL in HCV-infected patients. Nevertheless, roughly half of the patients fail to achieve a clinically important improvement. Especially patients with a low HRQoL seem to benefit most from the modern therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Liver Int ; 41(7): 1518-1522, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966349

RESUMO

Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir, a pangenotypic, direct-acting antiviral combination approved for chronic hepatitis C virus treatment, has limited real-world evidence supporting 8-week therapy in compensated cirrhosis. We investigated effectiveness and safety of 187 hepatitis C virus-infected, treatment-naïve, patients with compensated cirrhosis receiving 8-week glecaprevir/pibrentasvir therapy in the German Hepatitis C-Registry between 2 August 2017 and 1 January 2020. Sustained virologic response was 98.4% (127/129) in the per-protocol analysis (excluding patients lost to follow-up or who discontinued treatment due to compliance) and was 85.8% (127/148) in patients with data available in an intention-to-treat analysis. Nineteen patients were lost to follow-up; nine genotype 3 patients, nine nongenotype 3 patients and one mixed genotype patient. One patient relapsed, and one died, unrelated to treatment. Adverse events (>5%) were fatigue and headache. Two serious adverse events occurred; no adverse events resulted in drug discontinuation. An 8-week glecaprevir/pibrentasvir therapy was effective and well-tolerated in this real-world analysis.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Ácidos Aminoisobutíricos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis , Ciclopropanos , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactamas Macrocíclicas , Leucina/análogos & derivados , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Quinoxalinas/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Sulfonamidas , Resposta Viral Sustentada
18.
Liver Int ; 41(9): 2046-2058, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: During chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, suppressed functionality of natural killer (NK) cells might contribute to HBV persistence but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. A peculiar feature of HBV is the secretion of large amount of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However, the effect of HBsAg quantities on NK cells is unclear. The aim was to determine the effects of HBsAg quantities on NK cell functionality in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: Eighty CHB patients were included and categorized into four groups based on their HBsAg levels. As a control, 30 healthy donors were enrolled. NK cell frequency, phenotype and function were assessed using flow cytometry and correlated with HBsAg levels and liver enzymes. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, a reshaping of NK cell pool towards more CD56bright NK cells was observed during CHB infection. Importantly, NK cells in patients with low HBsAg levels (<100 IU/mL) displayed an activated phenotype with increased expression of activation makers CD38, granzyme B and proliferation marker Ki-67 while presenting with defective functional responses (MIP-1ß, CD107a) at the same time. Furthermore, NK cell activation was negatively correlated with patient HBsAg levels while NK function correlated with patient age. CONCLUSIONS: The differential regulation of NK cell phenotype and function suggests that activation of NK cells in patients with low serum HBsAg levels may contribute to HBV clearance.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , DNA Viral , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais
20.
Liver Int ; 41(8): 1815-1823, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA detection in plasma/stool is the gold-standard for diagnosis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. The impact of viral extraction methods on HEV RNA detection is poorly investigated. METHODS: We determined the limit of detection of the RealStar HEV RT-PCR V2.0 Kit (altona Diagnostics, RS) utilizing 3 RNA extraction methods (COBAS® AmpliPrep Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit, TNAi Roche; MagNA Pure 96 DNA, Viral NA SV Kit, MgP; QIAamp Viral RNA mini Kit Qiagen; VRK) in plasma and stool. The most sensitive method was evaluated in a total of 307 longitudinal samples of patients with HEV infection (acute = 18/chronic = 36) and compared to results with the former diagnostic standard of our centre (TNAi/FastTrack Diagnostic; FTD). RESULTS: The plasma-LOD was 49, 94 and 329 IU/mL for extraction with MgP, VRK and TNAi respectively. In stool, the LOD was 21 IU/mL, 528 IU/mL and indefinable for extraction with TNAi, VRK and MgP respectively. Utilizing longitudinal patient plasma samples, MgP/RS revealed 56 HEV RNA-positive samples in 158 negative samples as determined by TNAi/FTD. In stool, from 37 HEV negative samples (TNAi/FTD), 15 were positive with TNAi/RS. At end of treatment, 8 out of 27 chronically infected patients were RNA positive with MgP/RS, while classified negative with TNAi/FTD. A relapse occurred in 3 of these patients. CONCLUSION: Different methods for RNA extraction and quantification have a significant, compartment-specific impact on the sensitivity of HEV detection. Knowledge about the favourable combinations of extraction and quantification has important implications for diagnosis and patients receiving antiviral therapy.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Fezes , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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