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1.
J Med Chem ; 62(21): 9931-9946, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638797

RESUMO

RORγt is an important nuclear receptor that regulates the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-22. As a result, RORγt has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of various immunological disorders such as psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Structure and computer-assisted drug design led to the identification of a novel series of tricyclic RORγt inverse agonists with significantly improved in vitro activity in the reporter (Gal4) and human whole blood assays compared to our previous chemotype. Through careful structure activity relationship, several potent and selective RORγt inverse agonists have been identified. Pharmacokinetic studies allowed the identification of the lead molecule 32 with a low peak-to-trough ratio. This molecule showed excellent activity in an IL-2/IL-23-induced mouse pharmacodynamic study and demonstrated biologic-like efficacy in an IL-23-induced preclinical model of psoriasis.

2.
J Med Chem ; 62(5): 2265-2285, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785748

RESUMO

Recently, our research group reported the identification of BMS-986104 (2) as a differentiated S1P1 receptor modulator. In comparison to fingolimod (1), a full agonist of S1P1 currently marketed for the treatment of relapse remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), 2 offers several potential advantages having demonstrated improved safety multiples in preclinical evaluations against undesired pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. In clinical trials, 2 was found to exhibit a pharmacokinetic half-life ( T1/2) longer than that of 1, as well as a reduced formation of the phosphate metabolite that is required for activity against S1P1. Herein, we describe our efforts to discover highly potent, partial agonists of S1P1 with a shorter T1/2 and increased in vivo phosphate metabolite formation. These efforts culminated in the discovery of BMS-986166 (14a), which was advanced to human clinical evaluation. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship as well as pulmonary and cardiovascular safety assessments are discussed. Furthermore, efficacy of 14a in multiple preclinical models of autoimmune diseases are presented.

3.
Medchemcomm ; 8(4): 725-729, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108791

RESUMO

Recently, our research group reported the identification of prodrug amino-alcohol 2 as a potent and efficacious S1P1 receptor modulator. This molecule is differentiated preclinically over the marketed drug fingolimod (Gilenya 1), whose active phosphate metabolite is an S1P1 full agonist, in terms of pulmonary and cardiovascular safety. S1P1 partial agonist 2, however, has a long half-life in rodents and was projected to have a long half-life in humans. The purpose of this communication is to disclose highly potent partial agonists of S1P1 with shorter half-lives relative to the clinical compound 2. PK/PD relationships as well as their preclinical pulmonary and cardiovascular safety assessment are discussed.

4.
J Med Chem ; 59(24): 11138-11147, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002964

RESUMO

We describe a highly efficient route for the synthesis of 4a (BMS-986104). A key step in the synthesis is the asymmetric hydroboration of trisubstituted alkene 6. Particularly given the known difficulties involved in this type of transformation (6 → 7), the current methodology provides an efficient approach to prepare this class of compounds. In addition, we disclose the efficacy of 4a in a mouse EAE model, which is comparable to 4c (FTY720). Mechanistically, 4a exhibited excellent remyelinating effects on lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induced demyelination in a three-dimensional brain cell culture assay.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Naftalenos/síntese química , Naftalenos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
J Med Chem ; 59(21): 9837-9854, 2016 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27726358

RESUMO

Fingolimod (1) is the first approved oral therapy for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. While the phosphorylated metabolite of fingolimod was found to be a nonselective S1P receptor agonist, agonism specifically of S1P1 is responsible for the peripheral blood lymphopenia believed to be key to its efficacy. Identification of modulators that maintain activity on S1P1 while sparing activity on other S1P receptors could offer equivalent efficacy with reduced liabilities. We disclose in this paper a ligand-based drug design approach that led to the discovery of a series of potent tricyclic agonists of S1P1 with selectivity over S1P3 and were efficacious in a pharmacodynamic model of suppression of circulating lymphocytes. Compound 10 had the desired pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile and demonstrated maximal efficacy when administered orally in a rat adjuvant arthritis model.


Assuntos
Desenho de Drogas , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/química , Adjuvante de Freund/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/química , Ligantes , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Distribuição Tecidual
6.
J Med Chem ; 59(13): 6248-64, 2016 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309907

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that regulates a multitude of physiological processes such as lymphocyte trafficking, cardiac function, vascular development, and inflammation. Because of the ability of S1P1 receptor agonists to suppress lymphocyte egress, they have great potential as therapeutic agents in a variety of autoimmune diseases. In this article, the discovery of selective, direct acting S1P1 agonists utilizing an ethanolamine scaffold containing a terminal carboxylic acid is described. Potent S1P1 agonists such as compounds 18a and 19a which have greater than 1000-fold selectivity over S1P3 are described. These compounds efficiently reduce blood lymphocyte counts in rats through 24 h after single doses of 1 and 0.3 mpk, respectively. Pharmacodynamic properties of both compounds are discussed. Compound 19a was further studied in two preclinical models of disease, exhibiting good efficacy in both the rat adjuvant arthritis model (AA) and the mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model (EAE).


Assuntos
Etanolamina/química , Etanolamina/farmacologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Etanolamina/farmacocinética , Etanolamina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 26(10): 2470-2474, 2016 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27055941

RESUMO

The synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of pyridyl-isoxazole based agonists of S1P1 are discussed. Compound 5b provided potent in vitro activity with selectivity, had an acceptable pharmacokinetic profile, and demonstrated efficacy in a dose dependent manner when administered orally in a rodent model of arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Lisofosfolipídeos/agonistas , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Administração Oral , Animais , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Isoxazóis/química , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Esfingosina/agonistas
8.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 7(3): 283-8, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26985316

RESUMO

Clinical validation of S1P receptor modulation therapy was achieved with the approval of fingolimod (Gilenya, 1) as the first oral therapy for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. However, 1 causes a dose-dependent reduction in the heart rate (bradycardia), which occurs within hours after first dose. We disclose the identification of clinical compound BMS-986104 (3d), a novel S1P1 receptor modulator, which demonstrates ligand-biased signaling and differentiates from 1 in terms of cardiovascular and pulmonary safety based on preclinical pharmacology while showing equivalent efficacy in a T-cell transfer colitis model.

9.
J Med Chem ; 59(6): 2820-40, 2016 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924461

RESUMO

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is the endogenous ligand for the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1P1-5) and evokes a variety of cellular responses through their stimulation. The interaction of S1P with the S1P receptors plays a fundamental physiological role in a number of processes including vascular development and stabilization, lymphocyte migration, and proliferation. Agonism of S1P1, in particular, has been shown to play a significant role in lymphocyte trafficking from the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, resulting in immunosuppression. This article will detail the discovery and SAR of a potent and selective series of isoxazole based full agonists of S1P1. Isoxazole 6d demonstrated impressive efficacy when administered orally in a rat model of arthritis and in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Isoxazóis/síntese química , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/agonistas , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Células CHO , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Descoberta de Drogas , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/síntese química , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Sistema Linfático/citologia , Sistema Linfático/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Esfingosina/agonistas , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Timo/citologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Bioanalysis ; 8(4): 265-74, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26807991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A target protein-based affinity extraction LC-MS/MS method was developed to enable plasma level determination following ultralow dosing (0.1-3 µg/kg) of an inhibitor of apoptosis proteins molecule. Methodology & results: Affinity extraction (AE) utilizing immobilized target protein BIR2/BIR3 was used to selectively capture the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins molecule from dog plasma and enable removal of background matrix components. Pretreatment of plasma samples using protein precipitation was found to provide an additional sensitivity gain. A LLOQ of 7.8 pM was achieved by combining protein precipitation with AE. The method was used to support an ultralow dose dog toxicity study. CONCLUSION: AE-LC-MS/MS, utilizing target protein, is a highly sensitive methodology for small molecule quantification with potential for broader applicability.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoquinolinas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Oligopeptídeos/análise , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Imobilizadas/química , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/química , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
11.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 6(8): 908-12, 2015 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26288692

RESUMO

BMS-641988 (23) is a novel, nonsteroidal androgen receptor antagonist designed for the treatment of prostate cancer. The compound has high binding affinity for the AR and acts as a functional antagonist in vitro. BMS-641988 is efficacious in multiple human prostate cancer xenograft models, including CWR22-BMSLD1 where it displays superior efficacy relative to bicalutamide. Based on its promising preclinical profile, BMS-641988 was selected for clinical development.

12.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 6(7): 770-5, 2015 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26191364

RESUMO

A series of dimeric macrocyclic compounds were prepared and evaluated as antagonists for inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. The most potent analogue 11, which binds to XIAP and c-IAP proteins with high affinity and induces caspase-3 activation and ultimately cell apoptosis, inhibits growth of human melanoma and colorectal cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, compound 11 demonstrated significant antitumor activity in the A875 human melanoma xenograft model at doses as low as 2 mg/kg on a q3d schedule.

13.
J Pharm Sci ; 102(8): 2440-9, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23744594

RESUMO

A gastric-retentive formulation amenable to dosing in rodents has the potential to enable sustained release in a preclinical setting. This may be useful to provide systemic exposure over a longer duration or to increase duration of exposure for compounds with targets localized in the gastrointestinal tract. Previous work has shown that a mixture of 1% sodium alginate and 0.625% karaya gum in the presence of a calcium chelator can form gels in situ that are gastric retained in rats. The aim of this work was to define the physicochemical boundaries of compounds within this technology and their relation to in vivo release using a series of model compounds with high permeability but varying solubility. In vitro data demonstrated a good correlation between solubility and initial release rates from the gels. In vivo studies were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats to compare the exposure profile of compounds dosed in gel relative to a standard formulation. In vivo data were consistent with trends from the in vitro studies. These data suggest that, in conjunction with an understanding of compound solubility, sodium alginate/karaya gum gels may be a useful tool to modulate exposure profiles in rodent models in a preclinical setting.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Ibuprofeno/farmacocinética , Metoprolol/farmacocinética , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Celecoxib , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/química , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Géis/química , Ácido Glucurônico/química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Ibuprofeno/química , Masculino , Metoprolol/administração & dosagem , Metoprolol/química , Permeabilidade , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/química
14.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 24(6): 905-12, 2011 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21574629

RESUMO

The development of compounds with the potential for genotoxicity poses significant safety risks as well as risks of attrition. Although genotoxicity evaluation of the parent molecule is routine and reasonably predictive, assessing the risk of commercialization when release of a genotoxic degradant and/or metabolite from a nongenotoxic parent molecule is suspected is much more challenging and resource intensive. Much of the risk of the formation of a genotoxic degradant/metabolite can be discharged with the conduct of carcinogenicity studies in models where the compound is formed, but this approach requires a great deal of time and resources. In this manuscript, we investigated the contribution of various factors (pH, serum instability, and hepatic metabolism) to the formation of a mutagenic aromatic amine from a potent and highly selective thyromimetic compound ([3-(3,5-dibromo-4-(4-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-5-methylphenoxy)-2-methylphenylamino)-3-oxopropanoic acid], compound 1), under in vitro conditions. The kinetic parameters obtained from in vitro experiments combined with the pharmacokinetics of 1in vivo (e.g., plasma concentration-time profile and clearance) were used to estimate the extent of in vivo formation of [4-(4-amino-2,6-dibromo-3-methylphenoxy)-2-isopropyl-6-methylphenol] (compound 2), in rats upon administration of a single oral dose of 1. The agreement between the predicted values (1.9% conversion of total administered dose) with the observed levels of 2 in rats (0.2%-2.2% of the 10 mg/kg dose, 10 mg/kg) further prompted the utilization of this approach to predict the extent of release of this mutagen in humans upon administration of 1. The projection of 0.13% conversion to 2 from an efficacious daily dose of 15 mg of 1 translated to the generation of 20 µg of 2 and provided the basis for the decision to terminate the development of 1.


Assuntos
Aminas/toxicidade , Anilidas/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Malonatos/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Hormônios Tireóideos/toxicidade , Aminas/metabolismo , Anilidas/sangue , Anilidas/metabolismo , Animais , Cães , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malonatos/sangue , Malonatos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Soro/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo
15.
Bioanalysis ; 2(8): 1415-22, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21083342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prodrugs that exhibit ex vivo instability owing to high levels of esterases in rodent blood, plasma and serum present challenges in the accurate determination of drug exposure in samples from pharmacokinetic, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, efficacy and toxicology studies in drug discovery. Ensuring the stability of analytes in sample collection, handling, analysis and storage must be established for program progression. Current protocols for the stabilization of prodrugs include the immediate quenching of whole blood with acetonitrile or methanol to stop enzyme activity, or the addition of an esterase inhibitor such as phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride to the blood collection tubes before serum or plasma is generated. Dried blood spots (DBS) sampling may offer an alternative prodrug stabilization method for sample collection and storage from rodent studies in drug discovery. RESULTS: Two different prodrugs of the same parent compound that were known to exhibit ex vivo instability in rodent blood were selected for the evaluation of DBS for analyte stabilization. Each prodrug was spiked separately into fresh rat EDTA whole blood and prepared three ways: from liquid whole blood, prepared and analyzed as lysate; from whole blood spotted onto Whatman 903(®) Protein Saver untreated cards (903 cards); and from whole blood spotted onto Whatman FTA(®) Elute Micro treated cards, currently known as DMPK-B cards (FTA cards). Samples were extracted by filtration-assisted protein precipitation at 0, 2, 5 and 24 h and 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after spiking and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. CONCLUSIONS: For these two prodrugs, stability on DBS cards was observed in rat EDTA whole blood for at least 21 days at room temperature as determined by loss of prodrug and appearance of parent. The Whatman FTA Elute cards, treated with reagents that lyse cells, did not offer more stability for the investigated compounds than the Whatman 903 Protein Saver untreated cards.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Esterases , Pró-Fármacos/química , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dessecação , Ácido Edético/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Esterases/antagonistas & inibidores , Esterases/metabolismo , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Pró-Fármacos/análise , Pró-Fármacos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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