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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 733905, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721108

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns have adversely impacted children on the autism spectrum and their families, especially in Malaysia where this population is often marginalized. The current quantitative research aimed to investigate the impact of the Malaysian COVID-19 lockdown on the behavior and psychological distress of children formally diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) as well as the psychological distress and well-being of their parents, in comparison with a typically developing (TD) control group. Methods: The children's ages ranged between 5 and 17 years. The sample included 72 ASC parent-child dyads and 62 TD parent-child dyads. The primary caregiver completed an online survey including the following: demographic and diagnostic information; ASC symptoms; children's inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, perceived stress, depression, and anxiety; parents' perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and well-being based on their experience pre- and mid-lockdown (March 18th to June 9th 2020) in Malaysia. Results: Among the ASC group, no significant pre- and mid-lockdown change was found in ASC symptoms (p > 0.05). There were no significant gender differences (boys/girls) in all the child scales. The 2 [diagnosis (ASC, TD)] × 2 [lockdown (pre-lockdown, mid-lockdown)] mixed-model ANOVAs revealed main effects of lockdown on children's attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, anxiety, and parents' perceived stress, depression, and psychological well-being (p < 0.005). There was a main effect of diagnosis in all child and parent variables, except parents' perceived stress (p >0.005). However, there was no significant interaction effect between diagnosis and lockdown (p >0.005). All child behavior (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) and child psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and perceived stress) were significantly correlated in both the ASC and TD groups (p < 0.005). On the other hand, only some of the parent variables were significantly correlated with child variables (p < 0.0045) in the ASC group while none of the parent variables were significantly correlated with the child variables (p > 0.005) in the TD group. Conclusion: The results provide preliminary evidence indicating negative effects of the Malaysian lockdown on both children on the autism spectrum and TD children, as well as their parents. These quantitative results will be triangulated with the qualitative interview data to provide a holistic understanding of the impact of the pandemic, informing translational policy and practice recommendations.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed risks to public mental health worldwide. University students, who are already recognised as a vulnerable population, are at elevated risk of mental health issues given COVID-19-related disruptions to higher education. To assist universities in effectively allocating resources to the launch of targeted, population-level interventions, the current study aimed to uncover predictors of university students' psychological wellbeing during the pandemic via a data-driven approach. METHODS: Data were collected from 3973 Australian university students ((median age = 22, aged from 18 to 79); 70.6% female)) at five time points during 2020. Feature selection was conducted via least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to identify predictors from a comprehensive set of variables. Selected variables were then entered into an ordinary least squares (OLS) model to compare coefficients and assess statistical significance. RESULTS: Six negative predictors of university students' psychological wellbeing emerged: White/European ethnicity, restriction stress, perceived worry on mental health, dietary changes, perceived sufficiency of distancing communication, and social isolation. Physical health status, emotional support, and resilience were positively associated with students' psychological wellbeing. Social isolation has the largest effect on students' psychological wellbeing. Notably, age, gender, international status, and educational level did not emerge as predictors of wellbeing. CONCLUSION: To cost-effectively support student wellbeing through 2021 and beyond, universities should consider investing in internet- and tele- based interventions explicitly targeting perceived social isolation among students. Course-based online forums as well as internet- and tele-based logotherapy may be promising candidates for improving students' psychological wellbeing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Atten Disord ; 25(8): 1146-1159, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718386

RESUMO

Objective: This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of attention training delivered in class on cognitive attention processes, inattention, hyperactivity, working memory, and numeracy in primary school children. Method: Eight classes (n = 98 children; 5-9 years) were cluster randomized to gamified attention training, a placebo program, or a no-contact control condition. Assessments were conducted at baseline, immediately after the 5-week intervention (posttraining), and 6 months later (follow-up). Results: Posttraining, attention training was associated with reduced inattention and hyperactivity within the classroom compared with controls, and reduced hyperactivity at home compared with the no-contact control. At follow-up, reduced hyperactivity within the classroom compared with the no-contact control persisted. No effects of training on cognitive attention processes, working memory, and numeracy were observed posttraining. Conclusion: Classroom-based attention training has select benefits in reducing inattention and hyperactivity, but may not promote gains in cognitive or academic skills in primary school children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13039, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747677

RESUMO

Our current understanding of how the visual brain develops is based largely on the study of luminance-defined information processing. This approach, however, is somewhat limiting, since everyday scenes are composed of complex images, consisting of information characterized by physical attributes relating to both luminance and texture. Few studies have explored how contrast sensitivity to texture-defined information develops, particularly throughout the school-aged years. The current study investigated how contrast sensitivity to luminance- (luminance-modulated noise) and texture-defined (contrast-modulated noise) static gratings develops in school-aged children. Contrast sensitivity functions identified distinct profiles for luminance- and texture-defined gratings across spatial frequencies (SFs) and age. Sensitivity to luminance-defined gratings reached maturity in childhood by the ages of 9-10 years for all SFs (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 cycles/degree or cpd). Sensitivity to texture-defined gratings reached maturity at 5-6 years for low SFs and 7-8 years for high SFs (i.e., 4 cpd). These results establish that the processing of luminance- and texture-defined information develop differently as a function of SF and age.


Assuntos
Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Luz , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
5.
Res Dev Disabil ; 104: 103692, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505083

RESUMO

Even genetic disorders associated with monogenic aetiologies are characterized by complex and variable risk for poor outcomes, highlighting the need to follow trajectories longitudinally. Here, we investigated the longitudinal relationships between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a population at high risk for both: boys with fragile X syndrome. 59 boys with fragile X syndrome aged 3-10 years old at entry participated in this study, and were followed up one and two years after their first visit. As expected, we found strong relationships over three timepoints for ADHD symptoms (as measured by the parent-rated Conners scale) and ASD symptoms (as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire [SCQ]). In addition, using structural equation modeling (SEM) we found that ADHD symptoms at time 2 predicted ASD symptoms at time 3, suggestive of a causal relationship. Importantly, these relationships hold when including chronological age at entry to the study, as well as when including severity of impairment as measured by IQ, and their effects on both ASD and ADHD symptoms do not reach significance. This result highlights the need to study outcomes longitudinally and it informs the comorbidity of the two symptom domains in FXS as well as their potential directionality, both of which have been little researched. In addition, our findings may suggest a future need to study how ADHD symptoms and their treatment impact individuals with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Child Neuropsychol ; 26(5): 666-690, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833444

RESUMO

A new variation of the Attention Network Task (ANT) was designed to measure the functioning of and interactions between the alerting, exogenous and endogenous visual spatial orienting, and executive control systems in young school children. Previous research has produced mixed results regarding typical functioning of the attention networks in six-year-olds; no ANT has measured the functioning of the endogenous network. This Staged ANT tested the Alerting, Exogenous, and Endogenous orienting networks in separate conditions. Two hundred and forty-seven children (average age 6 years, 103 girls) completed the task. There was no clear benefit of the alerting cue until the spatial orienting cues were introduced into the task, suggesting task complexity was needed before alerting benefits were observed. The validity effect of the exogenous cue was very strong: in contrast, the validity effect of the endogenous cue was very weak. The flanker effect was very strong. A benefit of the alerting cue was shown during both the exogenous and endogenous conditions, while a cost of the alerting cue was shown during the invalid exogenous trials. Neither the alerting nor validity effects interacted with the flanker effect. These results suggest that the alerting cue primes the exogenous and endogenous systems for the upcoming cues. Once the complexity of the task increases with the addition of the flankers, the alerting effect attenuates. The alerting and the two orienting networks interact together but the executive attention network acts independently, in children aged 6 years.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Criança , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos
7.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e032619, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806614

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Childhood inattention has been linked with poor academic outcomes, and increased lifetime social, occupational and psychiatric morbidity. Children with an acquired brain injury (ABI) are particularly susceptible to attention deficits and may benefit from interventions aimed at enhancing attention. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the short-term efficacy of the TALI Train programme, compared with a placebo, on the outcome of attention in children with ABI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is a parallel, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Participants will consist of 80 children with a diagnosis of ABI aged 4-9 years 11 months. Participants will be randomly allocated to either (1) TALI Train (intervention group), an adaptive game-based attention training programme, or (2) a non-adaptive placebo programme (control group). Both programmes are delivered on a touchscreen tablet, and children complete five 20 min sessions per week for a 5-week period at home. Assessment of selective, sustained and executive attention (primary outcomes), and behavioural attention, working memory, social skills and mathematics ability (secondary outcomes) will occur at baseline, post-training, and at 3-month and 6-month follow-up to assess immediate and long-term efficacy of TALI Train compared with placebo. Assessments will be completed at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. All assessments and analyses will be undertaken by researchers blinded to group membership. Latent growth curve modelling will be employed to examine primary and secondary outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained from the Royal Children's Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) (38132) and the Monash University HREC (17446). Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, media outlets, the internet and various community/stakeholder activities. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12619000511134.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Lesões Encefálicas , Educação/métodos , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/prevenção & controle , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas/terapia , Criança , Cognição , Método Duplo-Cego , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas Psicológicas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Neuropsychologia ; 132: 107148, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323245

RESUMO

Impaired sustained attention is considered an important factor in determining poor functional outcomes across multiple cognitive and behavioural disorders. Sustained attention is compromised for both children with Williams syndrome (WS) and Down's syndrome (DS), but specific difficulties remain poorly understood because of limitations in how sustained attention has been assessed thus far. In the current study, we compared the performance of typically developing children (N = 99), children with WS (N = 25), and children with DS (N = 18), on a Continuous Performance Task - a standard tool for measuring sustained attention. In contrast to previous studies, primarily focused on overall differences in mean performance, we estimated the extent to which performance changed over time on task, thus focusing directly on the sustained element of performance. Children with WS and children with DS performed more poorly overall compared to typically developing children. Importantly, measures specific to changes over time differentiated between children with the two syndromes. Children with WS showed a decrement in performance, whereas children with Down's syndrome demonstrated non-specific poor performance. In addition, our measure of change in performance predicted teacher-rated attention deficits symptoms across the full sample. An approach that captures dynamic changes in performance over assessments may be fruitful for investigating similarities and differences in sustained attention for other atypically developing populations.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Síndrome de Williams/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Mol Autism ; 10: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073396

RESUMO

Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common monogenic cause of intellectual disability with autism features. While it is caused by loss of the FMR1 product (FMRP), mosaicism for active and inactive FMR1 alleles, including alleles termed premutation (PM: 55-199 CGGs), is not uncommon. Importantly, both PM and active full mutation (FM: ≥ 200 CGGs) alleles often express elevated levels of mRNA that are thought to be toxic. This study determined if complete FMR1 mRNA silencing from FM alleles and/or levels of FMR1 mRNA (if present) in blood are associated with intellectual functioning and autism features in FXS. Methods: The study cohort included 98 participants (70.4% male) with FXS (FM-only and PM/FM mosaic) aged 1-43 years. A control group of 14 females were used to establish control FMR1 mRNA reference range. Intellectual functioning and autism features were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning or an age-appropriate Wechsler Scale and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2nd Edition (ADOS-2), respectively. FMR1 mRNA was analysed in venous blood collected at the time of assessments, using the real-time PCR relative standard curve method. Results: Females with FXS had significantly higher levels of FMR1 mRNA (p < 0.001) than males. FMR1 mRNA levels were positively associated with age (p < 0.001), but not with intellectual functioning and autistic features in females. FM-only males (aged < 19 years) expressing FM FMR1 mRNA had significantly higher ADOS calibrated severity scores compared to FM-only males with completely silenced FMR1 (p = 0.011). However, there were no significant differences between these subgroups on intellectual functioning. In contrast, decreased levels of FMR1 mRNA were associated with decreased intellectual functioning in FXS males (p = 0.029), but not autism features, when combined with the PM/FM mosaic group. Conclusion: Incomplete silencing of toxic FM RNA may be associated with autistic features, but not intellectual functioning in FXS males. While decreased levels of mRNA may be more predictive of intellectual functioning than autism features. If confirmed in future studies, these findings may have implications for patient stratification, outcome measure development, and design of clinical and pre-clinical trials in FXS.


Assuntos
Alelos , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/complicações , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Inativação Gênica , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/sangue , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 13(4): 1128-1134, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046972

RESUMO

Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by premutation expansions (55-200 CGG repeats) of the FMR1 gene. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that early cognitive and brain imaging signs may be observed in some premutation carriers without motor signs of FXTAS, but few studies have examined the relationships between subcortical brain volumes and cognitive performance in this group. This study examined the relationships between caudate volume and select cognitive measures (executive function and information processing speed) in men at risk of developing FXTAS and controls with normal FMR1 alleles (<45 CGG repeats). The results showed that men with premutation alleles performed worse on measures of executive function and information processing speed, and had significantly reduced caudate volume, compared to controls. Smaller caudate volume in the premutation group was associated with slower processing speed. These findings provide preliminary evidence that early reductions in caudate volume may be associated with cognitive slowing in men with the premutation who do not present with cardinal motor signs of FXTAS. If confirmed in future studies with larger PM cohorts, these findings will have important implications for the identification of sensitive measures with potential utility for tracking cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Caudado/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/fisiopatologia , Tremor/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Função Executiva , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/fisiologia , Frequência do Gene/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética
11.
Behav Sleep Med ; 17(5): 646-656, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: A high proportion of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- Combined type (ADHD-CT) experience sleep and motor problems. This study investigated (a) whether motor proficiency moderated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and sleep problems in children with and without ADHD-CT and (b) whether this moderation differed as a function of ADHD diagnosis. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 70 primary school male children between 8-15 years were recruited; children with ADHD-CT (n = 38; mean age 10 years, 2 months [SD = 1 year, 6 months]) and a typically developing (TD) (n = 32; mean age 9 years, 6 months [SD = 1 year, 5 months]) group. METHODS: Motor proficiency was measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd Edition (MABC-2), ADHD symptoms were measured using the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) and parent reported sleep problems were measured using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). RESULTS: Children who reported higher ADHD symptoms and lower motor proficiency scores reported more sleep problems. The moderation effect only held in children with a diagnosis of ADHD-CT and not in the typically developing group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that children who experience greater severity of ADHD symptoms who also have lower motor proficiency may be at increased risk of experiencing sleep problems. These findings also illustrate the importance of considering motor proficiency when exploring risk factors for sleep problems in children with ADHD-CT as well as sleep interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Front Psychol ; 9: 280, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29686632

RESUMO

Background: This paper aimed to review the literature on the factors associated with parenting stress and resilience among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the South East Asia (SEA) region. Methods: An extensive search of articles in multiple online databases (PsycNET, ProQuest, PudMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) resulted in 28 papers that met the inclusion criteria (i.e., conducted in the SEA region, specific to ASD only, published in a peer-reviewed journal, full text in English). Studies found were conducted in the following countries: Brunei, n = 1; Indonesia, n = 2; Malaysia, n = 12; Philippines, n = 5; Singapore, n = 5, Thailand, n = 2; and Vietnam, n = 1, but none from Cambodia, East Timor, Laos, and Myanmar were identified. Results: Across the studies, six main factors were found to be associated with parenting stress: social support, severity of autism symptoms, financial difficulty, parents' perception and understanding toward ASD, parents' anxiety and worries about their child's future, and religious beliefs. These six factors could also be categorized as either a source of parenting stress or a coping strategy/resilience mechanism that may attenuate parenting stress. Conclusion: The findings suggest that greater support services in Western countries may underlie the cultural differences observed in the SEA region. Limitations in the current review were identified. The limited number of studies yielded from the search suggests a need for expanded research on ASD and parenting stress, coping, and resilience in the SEA region especially in Cambodia, East Timor, Laos, and Myanmar. The identified stress and resilience factors may serve as sociocultural markers for clinicians, psychologists, and other professionals to consider when supporting parents of children with ASD.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192151, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474364

RESUMO

Relationships between Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) mRNA levels in blood and intragenic FMR1 CGG triplet expansions support the pathogenic role of RNA gain of function toxicity in premutation (PM: 55-199 CGGs) related disorders. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) studies reporting these findings normalised FMR1 mRNA level to a single internal control gene called ß-glucuronidase (GUS). This study evaluated FMR1 mRNA-CGG correlations in 33 PM and 33 age- and IQ-matched control females using three normalisation strategies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): (i) GUS as a single internal control; (ii) the mean of GUS, Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4A2 (EIF4A2) and succinate dehydrogenase complex flavoprotein subunit A (SDHA); and (iii) the mean of EIF4A2 and SDHA (with no contribution from GUS). GUS mRNA levels normalised to the mean of EIF4A2 and SDHA mRNA levels and EIF4A2/SDHA ratio were also evaluated. FMR1mRNA level normalised to the mean of EIF4A2 and SDHA mRNA levels, with no contribution from GUS, showed the most significant correlation with CGG size and the greatest difference between PM and control groups (p = 10-11). Only 15% of FMR1 mRNA PM results exceeded the maximum control value when normalised to GUS, compared with over 42% when normalised to the mean of EIF4A2 and SDHA mRNA levels. Neither GUS mRNA level normalised to the mean RNA levels of EIF4A2 and SDHA, nor to the EIF4A2/SDHA ratio were correlated with CGG size. However, greater variability in GUS mRNA levels were observed for both PM and control females across the full range of CGG repeat as compared to the EIF4A2/SDHA ratio. In conclusion, normalisation with multiple control genes, excluding GUS, can improve assessment of the biological significance of FMR1 mRNA-CGG size relationships.


Assuntos
Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Glucuronidase/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
14.
Behav Sleep Med ; 16(2): 169-184, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27254114

RESUMO

The current study assessed the association between anxiety symptoms and sleep in 90 school-aged children, aged 6-12 years (Mage = 108 months, 52.2% male). The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and 14 nights of actigraphy were used to assess sleep. Anxiety was assessed using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS). A significant association was found between parent-reported anxiety symptoms and current sleep problems (i.e., CSHQ total scores ≥ 41). An examination of SCAS subscales identified a specific association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and increased parental sleep concerns, including sleep onset delay, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness. Regarding actigraphy, whilst anxiety was not associated with average sleep variables, a relationship was identified between anxiety and the night-to-night variability of actigraphy-derived sleep schedules.


Assuntos
Actigrafia , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Hábitos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia
15.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2275, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670992

RESUMO

Little is known about the coping and resilience experiences of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Malaysian cultural context. This study utilized a qualitative methodological approach adopting constructive grounded theory. The study sought to address the lack of research to date exploring the risk and protective experiences that contribute to parental stress and resilience for parents of primary school age children with ASD in the Malaysian setting. Twenty-two parents of children with ASD (13 mothers and 9 fathers) participated in semi-structured interviews. A strength of the study was the inclusion of both mother and father participant perspectives. The interviews lasted 50-80 min (mean: 67.5 min). The 22 parents had a total of 16 children (12 males; 4 females) formally diagnosed with ASD. Child age ranged between 5 and 12 years (mean age: 8.44). Overall, analysis of the 22 interviews revealed four prominent themes - "initial reaction to child's ASD symptoms and diagnosis," "family life affected by a child with ASD," "awareness about ASD in Malaysia," and "coping strategies, wellbeing, and becoming resilient." The first three themes revolved around stress and adversity, and, the adaptability and acceptance of the parents. These processes illustrated the risks experienced by the parents of children with ASD in Malaysia. The last theme especially highlighted the strengths and determination of the parents and illustrated the protective experiences and processes that helped parents to develop and enhance resilience. Overall, the findings revealed that resilience develops synergistically and dynamically from both risk and protective experiences across different levels - individual, family, community, society and government. The findings motivated the development of our theoretical model of resilience that can help health and education professionals tailor assessment and interventions for parents of children with ASD in the Malaysian context. Clinical, policy, and research suggestions were discussed.

16.
Autism Res ; 11(2): 391-403, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197172

RESUMO

Increased severity of problematic daytime behavior has been associated with poorer sleep quality in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In this work, we investigate whether this relationship holds in a real-time setting, such that an individual's prior sleep can be used to predict their subsequent daytime behavior. We analyzed an extensive real-world dataset containing over 20,000 nightly sleep observations matched to subsequent challenging daytime behaviors (aggression, self-injury, tantrums, property destruction and a challenging behavior index) across 67 individuals with low-functioning autism living in two U.S. residential facilities. Using support vector machine classifiers, a statistically significant predictive relationship was found in 81% of individuals studied (P < 0.05). For all five behaviors examined, prediction accuracy increased up to approximately eight nights of prior sleep used to make the prediction, indicating that the behavioral effects of sleep may manifest on extended timescales. Accurate prediction was most strongly driven by sleep variability measures, highlighting the importance of regular sleep patterns. Our findings constitute an initial step towards the development of a real-time monitoring tool to pre-empt behavioral episodes and guide prophylactic treatment for individuals with autism. Autism Res 2018, 11: 391-403. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: We analyzed over 20,000 nights of sleep from 67 individuals with autism to investigate whether daytime behaviors can be predicted from prior sleep patterns. Better-than-chance accuracy was obtained for 81% of individuals, with measures of night-to-night variation in sleep timing and duration most relevant for accurate prediction. Our results highlight the importance of regular sleep patterns for better daytime functioning and represent a step toward the development of 'smart sleep technologies' to pre-empt behavior in individuals with autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Ritmo Circadiano , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Comportamento Problema , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Masculino , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Instituições Residenciais , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14228, 2017 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29079761

RESUMO

Despite sleep disturbance being a common complaint in individuals with autism, specific sleep phenotypes and their relationship to adaptive functioning have yet to be identified. This study used cluster analysis to find distinct sleep patterns and relate them to independent measures of adaptive functioning in individuals with autism. Approximately 50,000 nights of care-giver sleep/wake logs were collected on school-days for 106 individuals with low functioning autism (87 boys, 14.77 ± 3.11 years) for 0.5-6 years (2.2 ± 1.5 years) from two residential schools. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, performed on summary statistics of each individual across their recording duration, two clusters of individuals with clearly distinguishable sleep phenotypes were found. The groups were summarized as 'unstable' sleepers (cluster 1, n = 41) and 'stable' sleepers (cluster 2, n = 65), with the former exhibiting reduced sleep duration, earlier sleep offset, and less stability in sleep timing. The sleep clusters displayed significant differences in properties that were not used for clustering, such as intellectual functioning, communication, and socialization, demonstrating that sleep phenotypes are associated with symptom severity in individuals with autism. This study provides foundational evidence for profiling and targeting sleep as a standard part of therapeutic intervention in individuals with autism.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Sono , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vigília
18.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 144: 131-135, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28689930

RESUMO

Carriers of a FMR1 premutation allele (between 55 and 199 CGG repeats) are at risk of developing a wide range of medical, psychiatric and cognitive disorders, including executive dysfunction. These cognitive deficits are often less severe for female premutation carriers compared to male premutation carriers, albeit similar in nature. However, it remains unclear whether female premutation carriers who exhibit executive dysfunction also report verbal learning and memory deficits like those of their male counterparts. Here we employed the CVLT to assess verbal learning and memory function in 19 female premutation carriers, contrasting performance with 19 age- and IQ-matched controls. Group comparisons revealed similar performance during the learning and short delay recall phases of the CVLT. However, after a long delay period, female premutation carriers remembered fewer words for both free and cued recall trials, but not during recognition trials. These findings are consistent with reports for male premutation carriers, and suggest that aspects of long term memory may be adversely affect in a subgroup of premutation carriers with signs of executive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Rememoração Mental , Aprendizagem Verbal , Adulto , Alelos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neurology ; 88(22): 2080-2088, 2017 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the interrelationships between fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) mRNA and the FMR1 exon 1/intron 1 boundary methylation, white matter microstructure, and executive function, in women with a FMR1 premutation expansion (PM; 55-199 CGG repeats) and controls (CGG < 44). METHODS: Twenty women with PM without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and 20 control women between 22 and 54 years of age completed this study. FMR1 mRNA and methylation levels for 9 CpG sites within the FMR1 exon 1/intron 1 boundary from peripheral blood samples were analyzed. To measure white matter microstructure, diffusion-weighted imaging was used, from which fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values from anatomic regions within the corpus callosum and cerebellar peduncles were extracted. Executive function was assessed across a range of tasks. RESULTS: No differences were revealed in white matter microstructure between women with PM and controls. However, we reveal that for women with PM (but not controls), higher FMR1 mRNA correlated with lower MD values within the middle cerebellar peduncle and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test scores, higher methylation of the FMR1 exon 1/intron 1 boundary correlated with lower MD within the inferior and middle cerebellar peduncles and longer prosaccade latencies, and higher FA values within the corpus callosum and cerebellar peduncle regions corresponded to superior executive function. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence linking white matter microstructure to executive dysfunction and elevated FMR1 mRNA and FMR1 exon 1/intron 1 boundary methylation in women with PM without FXTAS. This suggests that the FXTAS phenotype may not be distinct but may form part of a spectrum of PM involvement.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Metilação de DNA , Função Executiva , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/sangue , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cognição/fisiologia , Ilhas de CpG , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Íntrons , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between comorbid disorders and executive function (EF) in children diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-five, 6-12 year old children clinically diagnosed with ADHD were included in the study. Comorbid anxiety disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) were examined. The EF domains were assessed using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of London (ToL), Finger Windows (FW) and Self Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). RESULTS: The findings indicate that children with comorbid anxiety disorders performed worse in domains measured by CPT and prior to controlling for age and sex, by FW. However, once sex was controlled for the results for FW were no longer significant. Children with CD obtained lower scores on WCST. Furthermore, a significant sex by CD interaction was observed. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that comorbid disorders should be carefully examined as they play a significant role in EF performance and subsequently in day-to-day functioning of children with ADHD.

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