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1.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 30(3): 246-250, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28671879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional ventilation approaches, providing high tidal volumes (Vt), produce excessive alveolar distention and lung injury. Protective ventilation, employing lower Vt and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), is an attractive alternative also for neuroanesthesia, when prolonged mechanical ventilation is needed. Nevertheless, protective ventilation during intracranial surgery may exert dangerous effects on intracranial pressure (ICP). We tested the feasibility of a protective ventilation strategy in neurosurgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our monocentric, double-blind, 1:1 randomized, 2×2 crossover study aimed at studying the effect size and variability of ICP in patients undergoing elective supratentorial brain tumor removal and alternatively ventilated with Vt 9 mL/kg-PEEP 0 mm Hg and Vt 7 mL/kg-PEEP 5 mm Hg. Respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain comparable end-tidal carbon dioxide between ventilation modes. ICP was measured through a subdural catheter inserted before dural opening. RESULTS: Forty patients were enrolled; 8 (15%) were excluded after enrollment. ICP did not differ between traditional and protective ventilation (11.28±5.37, 11 [7 to 14.5] vs. 11.90±5.86, 11 [8 to 15] mm Hg; P=0.541). End-tidal carbon dioxide (28.91±2.28, 29 [28 to 30] vs. 28.00±2.17, 28 [27 to 29] mm Hg; P<0.001). Peak airway pressure (17.25±1.97, 17 [16 to 18.5] vs. 15.81±2.87, 15.5 [14 to 17] mm Hg; P<0.001) and plateau airway pressure (16.06±2.30, 16 [14.5 to 17] vs. 14.19±2.82, 14 [12.5 to 16] mm Hg; P<0.001) were higher during protective ventilation. Blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature did not differ between ventilation modes. Dural tension was "acceptable for surgery" in all cases. ICP differences between ventilation modes were not affected by ICP values under traditional ventilation (coefficient=0.067; 95% confidence interval, -0.278 to 0.144; P=0.523). CONCLUSIONS: Protective ventilation is a feasible alternative to traditional ventilation during elective neurosurgery.


Assuntos
Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Crit Care Med ; 43(8): 1559-68, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25821918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify all treatments that affect mortality in adult critically ill patients in multicenter randomized controlled trials. We also evaluated the methodological aspects of these studies, and we surveyed clinicians' opinion and usual practice for the selected interventions. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Embase were searched. Further articles were suggested for inclusion from experts and cross-check of references. STUDY SELECTION: We selected the articles that fulfilled the following criteria: publication in a peer-reviewed journal; multicenter randomized controlled trial design; dealing with nonsurgical interventions in adult critically ill patients; and statistically significant effect in unadjusted landmark mortality. A consensus conference assessed all interventions and excluded those with lack of reproducibility, lack of generalizability, high probability of type I error, major baseline imbalances between intervention and control groups, major design flaws, contradiction by subsequent larger higher quality trials, modified intention to treat analysis, effect found only after adjustments, and lack of biological plausibility. DATA EXTRACTION: For all selected studies, we recorded the intervention and its comparator, the setting, the sample size, whether enrollment was completed or interrupted, the presence of blinding, the effect size, and the duration of follow-up. DATA SYNTHESIS: We found 15 interventions that affected mortality in 24 multicenter randomized controlled trials. Median sample size was small (199 patients) as was median centers number (10). Blinded trials enrolled significantly more patients and involved more centers. Multicenter randomized controlled trials showing harm also involved significantly more centers and more patients (p = 0.016 and p = 0.04, respectively). Five hundred fifty-five clinicians from 61 countries showed variable agreement on perceived validity of such interventions. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 15 treatments that decreased/increased mortality in critically ill patients in 24 multicenter randomized controlled trials. However, design affected trial size and larger trials were more likely to show harm. Finally, clinicians view of such trials and their translation into practice varied.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Feminino , Fibrose/terapia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipotermia Induzida/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Decúbito Ventral , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Ácido Tranexâmico/sangue
3.
Crit Care Med ; 41(3): 744-55, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23314581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery and increases morbidity and mortality. As preoperative biomarkers predicting the development of acute kidney injury are not available, we have tested the hypothesis that preoperative plasma levels of endogenous ouabain may function as this type of biomarker. RATIONALE AND DESIGN: Endogenous ouabain is an adrenal stress hormone associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Its involvement in acute kidney injury is unknown. With studies in patients and animal settings, including isolated podocytes, we tested the above mentioned hypothesis. PATIENTS: Preoperative endogenous ouabain was measured in 407 patients admitted for elective cardiac surgery and in a validation population of 219 other patients. We also studied the effect of prolonged elevations of circulating exogenous ouabain on renal parameters in rats and the influence of ouabain on podocyte proteins both "in vivo" and "in vitro." MAIN RESULTS: In the first group of patients, acute kidney injury (2.8%, 8.3%, 20.3%, p < 0.001) and ICU stay (1.4±0.38, 1.7±0.41, 2.4±0.59 days, p = 0.014) increased with each incremental preoperative endogenous ouabain tertile. In a linear regression analysis, the circulating endogenous ouabain value before surgery was the strongest predictor of acute kidney injury. In the validation cohort, acute kidney injury (0%, 5.9%, 8.2%, p < 0.0001) and ICU stay (1.2±0.09, 1.4±0.23, 2.2±0.77 days, p = 0.003) increased with the preoperative endogenous ouabain tertile. Values for preoperative endogenous ouabain significantly improved (area under curve: 0.85) risk prediction over the clinical score alone as measured by integrate discrimination improvement and net reclassification improvement. Finally, in the rat model, elevated circulating ouabain reduced creatinine clearance (-18%, p < 0.05), increased urinary protein excretion (+ 54%, p < 0.05), and reduced expression of podocyte nephrin (-29%, p < 0.01). This last finding was replicated ex vivo by incubating podocyte primary cell cultures with low-dose ouabain. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative plasma endogenous ouabain levels are powerful biomarkers of acute kidney injury and postoperative complications and may be a direct cause of podocyte damage.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Ouabaína/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Animais , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 15(4): 274-7, 2012 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23041684

RESUMO

Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is an established tool in the management of cardiac dysfunction in cardiac surgery. The best timing for IABP weaning is unknown and varies greatly among cardiac centers. The authors investigated the differences in IABP management among 66 cardiac surgery centers performing 40,675 cardiac surgery procedures in the 12-month study period. The centers were contacted through email, telephone, or in person interview. IABP management was very heterogeneous in this survey: In 43% centers it was routinely removed on the first postoperative day, and in 34% on the second postoperative day. In 50% centers, it was routinely removed after extubation of the patients whereas in 15% centers it was removed while the patients were sedated and mechanically ventilated. In 66% centers, patients were routinely receiving pharmacological inotropic support at the time of removal of IABP. The practice of decreasing IABP support was also heterogeneous: 57% centers weaned by reducing the ratio of beat assistance whereas 34% centers weaned by reducing balloon volume. We conclude that the management of IABP is heterogeneous and there is a need for large prospective studies on the management of IABP in cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/métodos , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/efeitos adversos
5.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 26(1): 70-7, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21943792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a review of randomized studies to show whether there are any increases or decreases in survival when using milrinone in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A meta-analysis. SETTING: Hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred eighteen patients from 13 randomized trials. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: BioMedCentral, PubMed EMBASE, the Cochrane central register of clinical trials, and conference proceedings were searched for randomized trials that compared milrinone versus placebo or any other control in the setting of cardiac surgery that reported data on mortality. Overall analysis showed that milrinone increased perioperative mortality (13/249 [5.2%] in the milrinone group v 6/269 [2.2%] in the control arm, odds ratio [OR] = 2.67 [1.05-6.79], p for effect = 0.04, p for heterogeneity = 0.23, I(2) = 25% with 518 patients and 13 studies included). Subanalyses confirmed increased mortality with milrinone (9/84 deaths [10.7%] v 3/105 deaths [2.9%] with other drugs as control, OR = 4.19 [1.27-13.84], p = 0.02) with 189 patients and 5 studies included) but did not confirm a difference in mortality (4/165 [2.4%] in the milrinone group v 3/164 [1.8%] with placebo or nothing as control, OR = 1.27 [0.28-5.84], p = 0.76 with 329 patients and 8 studies included). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that milrinone might increase mortality in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The effect was seen only in patients having an active inotropic drug for comparison and not in the placebo subgroup. Therefore, the question remains whether milrinone increased mortality or if the control inotropic drugs were more protective.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Milrinona/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Humanos , Milrinona/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 24(1): 51-7, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19700350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors performed a meta-analysis to evaluate whether levosimendan is associated with improved survival in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A meta-analysis. SETTING: Hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 440 patients from 10 randomized controlled studies were included in the analysis. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASURMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Four investigators independently searched BioMedCentral and PubMed. Inclusion criteria were random allocation to treatment, comparison of levosimendan versus control, and cardiac surgery patients. Exclusion criteria were duplicate publications, nonhuman experimental studies, and no mortality data. The primary endpoint was postoperative mortality. Levosimendan was associated with a significant reduction in postoperative mortality (11/235 [4.7%] in the levosimendan group v 26/205 [12.7%] in the control arm, odds ratio = 0.35 [0.18-0.71], p for effect = 0.003, p for heterogeneity = 0.22, I(2) = 27.4% with 440 patients included), cardiac troponin release, and atrial fibrillation. No difference was found in terms of myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, time on mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit, and hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan has cardioprotective effects that could result in a reduced postoperative mortality. A large randomized controlled study is warranted in this setting.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/métodos , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Simendana , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Acta Biomed ; 80(3): 262-4, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20578420

RESUMO

Metformin is a commonly used oral antidiabetic drug which can cause lactic acidosis. Although rare, this condition carries a high mortality risk. Correction of metabolic acidaemia is essential for treatment and dialysis with bicarbonate replacement is the gold standard approach. A 53-year-old man with diabetes on metformin therapy was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe lactic acidosis and acute renal failure suggesting metformin intoxication. The lactic acidosis was treated with bicarbonate haemodialysis and his pH normalized after 10 hours, but he died because of myocardial infarction due to severe hypotension. At ICU admission an aortic dissection was also hypothesized but TEE did not evidence aortic dissection. The dilemma in this patient was represented by the abnormal PaO2 value (140 mmHg) in the venous blood gas analysis. Considering that metformin acts on mitochondrial respiration, the dilemma may be explained by hypothesizing a cellular respiration block caused by metformin or severe acidosis. (www.actabiomedica.it)


Assuntos
Acidose Láctica/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Gasometria , Respiração Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pressão Parcial
8.
Phytochemistry ; 68(9): 1307-11, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17382978

RESUMO

Sixteen crude extracts from six Panamanian plants of the family Bignoniaceae were submitted to rapid TLC tests against DPPH and acetylcholinesterase. Pithecoctenium crucigerum (L.) A.H. Gentry, which showed interesting activity against DPPH, has been studied. The chemical investigation of the methanol extract from the stems afforded the iridoid glycoside theviridoside and three derivatives (6'-O-cyclopropanoyltheviridoside, 10-O-hydroxybenzoyltheviridoside and 10-O-vanilloyltheviridoside), along with five known phenylethanoid glycosides (verbascoside, isoverbascoside, forsythoside B, jionoside D and leucosceptoside B). These last compounds were all active against DPPH. The structures were determined by means of spectrometric and chemical methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae/química , Iridoides/química , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Caules de Planta/química , Estrutura Molecular
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