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1.
Chemistry ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045041

RESUMO

The preparation of 2D stacked layers combining flakes of different nature gives rise to countless numbers of heterostructures where new band alignments, defined at the interfaces, control the electronic properties of the system. Among the large family of 2D/2D heterostructures, the one formed by the combination of the most common semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, WS2 /MoS2 , has awakened great interest owing to its photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical properties. Solution as well as dry physical methods have been developed to optimize the synthesis of these heterostructures. Here, a suspension of negatively charged MoS2 flakes is mixed with a methanolic solution of a cationic W3 S4 -core cluster, giving rise to a homogeneous distribution of the clusters over the layers. In a second step, a calcination of this molecular/2D heterostructure under N2 leads to the formation of clean WS2 /MoS2 heterostructures, where the photoluminescence of both counterparts is quenched, proving an efficient interlayer coupling. Thus, this chemical method combines the advantages of a solution approach (simple, scalable, and low-cost) with the good quality interfaces reached by using more complicated traditional physical methods.

2.
Chemistry ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053228

RESUMO

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are a class of 2D anionic materials exhibiting wide chemical versatility and promising applications in different fields, ranging from catalysis to energy storage and conversion. However, the covalent chemistry of this kind of 2D materials is still barely explored. Herein, the covalent functionalization with silanes of a magnetic NiFe-LDH is reported. The synthetic route consists of a topochemical approach followed by anion exchange reaction with surfactant molecules prior to covalent functionalization with the (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) molecules. The functionalized NiFe-APTES was fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry and 29 Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, among others. The effect on the electronic properties of the functionalized LDH was investigated by a magnetic study in combination with Mössbauer spectroscopy. Moreover, the reversibility of the silane-functionalization at basic pH was demonstrated, and the quality of the resulting LDH was proven by studying the electrochemical performance in the oxygen evolution reaction in basic media. Furthermore, the anion exchange capability for the NiFe-APTES was tested employing CrVI , resulting in an increase of 200 % of the anion retention. This report allows for a new degree of tunability of LDHs, opening the door to the synthesis of new hybrid architectures and materials.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 58(18): 11883-11892, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490061

RESUMO

Molecular nanomagnets based on mononuclear metal complexes, also known as single-ion magnets (SIMs), are crossing challenging boundaries in molecular magnetism. From an experimental point of view, this class of magnetic molecules has expanded from lanthanoid complexes to both d-transition metal and actinoid complexes. From a theoretical point of view, more and more improved models have been developed, and we are now able not only to calculate the electronic structure of these systems on the basis of their molecular structures but also to unveil the role of vibrations in the magnetic relaxation processes, at least for lanthanoid and d-transition metal SIMs. This knowledge has allowed us to optimize the behavior of dysprosocenium-based SIMs until reaching magnetic hysteresis above liquid-nitrogen temperature. In this contribution, we offer a brief perspective of the progress of theoretical modeling in this field. We start by reviewing the developed methodologies to investigate the electronic structures of these systems and then move on focus to the open problem of understanding and optimizing the vibrationally induced spin relaxation, especially in uranium-based molecular nanomagnets. Finally, we discuss the differences in the design strategies for 4f and 5f SIMs, including an analysis of the metallocenium family.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(81): 12227-12230, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552999

RESUMO

We report a Fe(ii) complex based on 4',4'' carboxylic acid disubstituted dipyrazolylpyridine that shows a spin-crossover close to room temperature associated to a crystallographic phase transition and the LIESST effect with a high T(LIESST) of 120 K.

5.
Nanoscale ; 11(32): 15131-15138, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372609

RESUMO

The enhancement of toroic motifs through coupling toroidal moments within molecular nanomagnets is a new, interesting and relevant approach for both fundamental research and potential quantum computation applications. We investigate a Dy8 molecular cluster and discover it has a antiferrotoroic ground state with slow magnetic relaxation. The experimental characterization of the magnetic anisotropy axes of each magnetic center and their exchange interactions represents a considerable challenge due to the non-magnetic nature of the toroidal motif. To overcome this and obtain access to the low energy states of Dy8 we establish a multi-orientation single-crystal micro Hall sensor magnetometry approach. Using an effective Hamiltonian model we then unpick the microscopic spin structure of Dy8, leading to a canted antiferrotoroidic tetramer molecular ground state. These findings are supported with electrostatic calculations that independently confirm the experimentally determined magnetic anisotropy axes for each DyIII ion within the molecule.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 58(18): 12199-12208, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469550

RESUMO

Two new heteroleptic complexes [Fe(1bppCOOH)(3bpp-bph)](ClO4)2·solv (1·solv, solv = various solvents; 1bppCOOH = 2,6-bis(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)isonicotinic acid; 3bpp-bph = 2,6-bis(5-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine) and [Fe(1bppCOOH)(1bppCOOEt)](ClO4)2·0.5Me2CO (2·0.5Me2CO, 1bppCOOEt = ethyl 2,6-bis(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)isonicotinate) were designed and prepared. The heteroleptic compound 1·solv was obtained by the combination of stoichiometric amounts of Fe(ClO4)2, 1bppCOOH, and 3bpp-bph, and it was designed to fine-tune the spin crossover (SCO) properties with respect to the previously reported homoleptic compound [Fe(1bppCOOH)2](ClO4)2. Indeed, the introduction of a new substituted 3bpp ligand induces a weaker ligand field in addition to promoting the formation of π···π and C-H···π intermolecular interactions through the biphenyl groups. For the desolvated counterpart 1, this results in a shift of the SCO curve toward room temperature and the observation of a 13 K hysteresis width. Besides, compound 2·0.5Me2CO, which represents the first example of a heteroleptic complex containing two 1bpp tridentate ligands, stabilizes the LS state at room temperature confirming the same trend observed for the corresponding homoleptic compounds. Interestingly, both 1 and 2·0.5Me2CO heteroleptic complexes exhibit photoswitchable properties when irradiating with a 523 nm laser at 10 K. Preliminary characterization of the deposited complexes on native SiO2 by X-ray absorption measurements suggests oxidation and decomposition of the complexes.

7.
Chemistry ; 25(54): 12636-12643, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350922

RESUMO

Tetrathiafulvalene-lanthanide (TTF-Ln) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an interesting class of multifunctional materials in which porosity can be combined with electronic properties such as electrical conductivity, redox activity, luminescence and magnetism. Herein a new family of isostructural TTF-Ln MOFs is reported, denoted as MUV-5(Ln) (Ln=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er), exhibiting semiconducting properties as a consequence of the short intermolecular S⋅⋅⋅S contacts established along the chain direction between partially oxidised TTF moieties. In addition, this family shows photoluminescence properties and single-molecule magnetic behaviour, finding near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence in the Yb/Er derivative and slow relaxation of the magnetisation in the Dy and Er derivatives. As such properties are dependent on the electronic structure of the lanthanide ion, the immense structural, electronic and functional versatility of this class of materials is emphasised.

9.
Adv Mater ; 31(28): e1900189, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081262

RESUMO

The rapid rise in energy demand in the past years has prompted a search for low-cost alternatives for energy storage, supercapacitors being one of the most important devices. It is shown that a dramatic enhancement (≈1100%, from 155 to 1850 F g-1 ) of the specific capacitance of a hybrid stimuli-responsive FeNi3 -graphene electrode material can be achieved when the charge/discharge cycling is performed in the presence of an applied magnetic field of 4000 G. This result is related to an unprecedented magnetic-field-induced metal segregation of the FeNi3 nanoparticles during the cycling, which results in the appearance of small Ni clusters (<5 nm) and, consequently, in an increase in pseudocapacitive sites. The results open the door to a systematic improvement of the capacitance values of hybrid supercapacitors, while moving the research in this area towards the development of magnetically addressable energy-storage devices.

10.
Chem Sci ; 10(14): 4038-4047, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015944

RESUMO

Mastering the nanostructuration of molecular materials onto solid surfaces and understanding how this process affects their properties are of utmost importance for their integration into solid-state electronic devices. This is even more important for spin crossover (SCO) systems, in which the spin transition is extremely sensitive to size reduction effects. These bi-stable materials have great potential for the development of nanotechnological applications provided their intrinsic properties can be successfully implemented in nanometric films, amenable to the fabrication of functional nanodevices. Here we report the fabrication of crystalline ultrathin films (<1-43 nm) of two-dimensional Hofmann-type coordination polymers by using an improved layer-by-layer strategy and a close examination of their SCO properties at the nanoscale. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data in combination with extensive atomic force microscopy analysis reveal critical dependence of the SCO transition on the number of layers and the microstructure of the films. This originates from the formation of segregated nanocrystals in early stages of the growth process that coalesce into a continuous film with an increasing number of growth cycles for an overall behaviour reminiscent of the bulk. As a result, the completeness of the high spin/low spin transition is dramatically hindered for films of less than 15 layers revealing serious limitations to the ultimate thickness that might be representative of the performance of the bulk when processing SCO materials as ultrathin films. This unprecedented exploration of the particularities of the growth of SCO thin films at the nanoscale should encourage researchers to put a spotlight on these issues when contemplating their integration into devices.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(12): 127001, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978099

RESUMO

The pressure evolution of the Raman active electronic excitations of the transition metal dichalcogenides 2H-TaS_{2} is followed through the pressure phase diagram embedding incommensurate charge-density-wave and superconducting states. At high pressure, the charge-density wave is found to collapse at 8.5 GPa. In the coexisting charge-density-wave and superconducting orders, we unravel a strong in-gap superconducting mode, attributed to a Higgs mode, coexisting with the expected incoherent Cooper-pair breaking signature. The latter remains in the pure superconducting state reached above 8.5 GPa. Our report constitutes a new observation of such Raman active Higgs mode since the long-standing unique case 2H-NbSe_{2}.

12.
Adv Mater ; 31(27): e1900039, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998264

RESUMO

A simple chemical protocol to prepare core-shell gold@spin-crossover (Au@SCO) nanoparticles (NPs) based on the 1D spin-crossover [Fe(Htrz)2 (trz)](BF4 ) coordination polymer is reported. The synthesis relies on a two-step approach consisting of a partial surface ligand substitution of the citrate-stabilized Au NPs followed by the controlled growth of a very thin layer of the SCO polymer. As a result, colloidally stable core@shell spherical NPs with a Au core of ca. 12 nm and a thin SCO shell 4 nm thick, are obtained, exhibiting a narrow distribution in sizes. Differential scanning calorimetry proves that a cooperative spin transition in the range 340-360 K is maintained in these Au@SCO NPs, in full agreement with the values reported for pristine 4 nm SCO NPs. Temperature-dependent charge-transport measurements of an electrical device based on assemblies of these Au@SCO NPs also support this spin transition. Thus, a large change in conductance upon spin state switching, as compared with other memory devices based on the pristine SCO NPs, is detected. This results in a large improvement in the sensitivity of the device to the spin transition, with values for the ON/OFF ratio which are an order of magnitude better than the best ones obtained in previous SCO devices.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(23): 3315-3318, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756105

RESUMO

Direct exfoliation of a carbonate layered double hydroxide (LDH) has been achieved by using a novel horn-probe sonic tip, avoiding the development of time-consuming anion-exchange reactions. The most suitable solvents were chosen based on the Hildebrand solubility parameters and the thickness of the exfoliated nanosheets confirmed unambiguously the successful delamination.

14.
Adv Mater ; 31(10): e1806817, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645012

RESUMO

The quest for a spin-polarized organic light-emitting diode (spin-OLED) is a common goal in the emerging fields of molecular electronics and spintronics. In this device, two ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes are used to enhance the electroluminescence intensity of the OLED through a magnetic control of the spin polarization of the injected carriers. The major difficulty is that the driving voltage of an OLED device exceeds a few volts, while spin injection in organic materials is only efficient at low voltages. The fabrication of a spin-OLED that uses a conjugated polymer as bipolar spin collector layer and ferromagnetic electrodes is reported here. Through a careful engineering of the organic/inorganic interfaces, it is succeeded in obtaining a light-emitting device showing spin-valve effects at high voltages (up to 14 V). This allows the detection of a magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) enhancement on the order of a 2.4% at 9 V for the antiparallel (AP) configuration of the magnetic electrodes. This observation provides evidence for the long-standing fundamental issue of injecting spins from magnetic electrodes into the frontier levels of a molecular semiconductor. The finding opens the way for the design of multifunctional devices coupling the light and the spin degrees of freedom.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889372

RESUMO

Herein we report an efficient synthesis to prepare O-doped nanographenes derived from the π-extension of pyrene. The derivatives are highly fluorescent and feature low oxidation potentials. Using electrooxidation, crystals of cationic mixed-valence (MV) complexes were grown in which the organic salts organize into face-to-face π-stacks, a favorable solid-state arrangement for organic electronics. Variable-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements and relaxation studies suggest a strong electron delocalization along the longitudinal axis of the columnar π-stacking architectures. Electric measurements of single crystals of the MV salts show a semiconducting behavior with a remarkably high conductivity at room temperature. These findings support the notion that π-extension of heteroatom-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an attractive approach to fabricate nanographenes with a broad spectrum of semiconducting properties and high charge mobilities.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 57(22): 14170-14177, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378423

RESUMO

We report the design, preparation, and characterization of two families of thermally robust coordination complexes based on lanthanoid quinolinate compounds: [Ln(5,7-Br2q)4]- and [Ln(5,7-ClIq)4]-, where q = 8-hydroquinolinate anion and Ln = DyIII, TbIII, ErIII, and HoIII. The sodium salt of [Dy(5,7-Br2q)4]- decomposes upon sublimation, whereas the sodium salt of [Dy(5,7-ClIq)4]-, which displays subtly different crystalline interactions, is sublimable under gentle conditions. The resulting film presents low roughness with high coverage, and the molecular integrity of the coordination complex is verified through AFM, MALDI-TOF, FT-IR, and microanalysis. Crucially, the single-molecule magnet behavior exhibited by [Dy(5,7-ClIq)4]- in bulk remains detectable by ac magnetometry in the sublimated film.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 47(47): 16958-16968, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451256

RESUMO

Four new salts of the iron(ii) complex of the 2,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine ligand functionalized with a carboxylic acid group (bppCOOH) of formulas [Fe(bppCOOH)2](BF4)2 (1(BF4)2), [Fe(bppCOOH)2](CF3SO3)2·yMe2CO (1(CF3SO3)2·yMe2CO), [Fe(bppCOOH)2](AsF6)2·yMe2CO (1(AsF6)2·yMe2CO) and [Fe(bppCOOH)2](SbF6)2·yMe2CO (1(SbF6)2·yMe2CO) have been prepared and characterized together with a more complete structural and photomagnetic characterization of the previously reported [Fe(bppCOOH)2](ClO4)2 (1(ClO4)2). Furthermore, the iron(ii) complex of the ethyl ester derivative of bppCOOH (bppCOOEt) has been prepared and characterized (compound [Fe(bppCOOEt)2](ClO4)2·yMe2CO, 2(ClO4)2·yMe2CO). Isostructural 1(BF4)2 and 1(ClO4)2 show an abrupt and reversible spin transition with a much lower T1/2 for the BF4- salt. CF3SO3-, SbF6- and AsF6- counteranions and the bppCOOEt ligand lead to the incorporation of solvent molecules in the structures, which play an important role in the spin-crossover properties of these compounds. In the case of 1(CF3SO3)2·yMe2CO, a reversible spin transition is obtained after desolvation. All these compounds show a LIESST effect.

18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(19): 5672-5678, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212213

RESUMO

We use the electrodeless time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) technique to characterize spin-crossover (SCO) nanoparticles. We show that TRMC is a simple and accurate means for simultaneously assessing the magnetic state of SCO compounds and charge transport information on the nanometer length scale. In the low-spin state from liquid nitrogen temperature up to 360 K the TRMC measurements present two well-defined regimes in the mobility and in the half-life times, in which the former transition temperature TR occurs near 225 K. Below TR, we propose that an activationless regime taking place associated with short lifetimes of the charge carriers points at the presence of shallow-trap states. Above TR, these states are thermally released, yielding a thermally activated hopping regime where longer hops increase the mobility and, concomitantly, the barrier energy. The activation energy could originate not only from intricate contributions such as polaronic self-localizations but also from dynamic disorder due to phonons and/or thermal fluctuations of SCO moieties.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(36): 30017-30021, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079721

RESUMO

MoS2-based vertical spintronic devices have attracted an increasing interest thanks to theoretical predictions of large magnetoresistance signals. However, experimental performances are still far from expectations. Here, we carry out the local electrical characterization of thin MoS2 flakes in a Co/Al2O3/MoS2 structure through conductive tip AFM measurements. We show that thin MoS2 presents a metallic behavior with a strong lateral transport contribution that hinders the direct tunnelling through thin layers. Indeed, no resistance dependence is observed with the flake thickness. These findings reveal a spin depolarization source in the MoS2-based spin valves, thus pointing to possible solutions to improve their spintronic properties.

20.
J Comput Chem ; 39(22): 1815-1827, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141533

RESUMO

We present a FORTRAN code based on a new powerful and efficient computational approach to solve multidimensional dynamic Jahn-Teller and pseudo Jahn-Teller problems. This symmetry-assisted approach constituting a theoretical core of the program is based on the full exploration of the point symmetry of the electronic and vibrational states. We also report some selected examples of increasing complexity aimed to display the theoretical background as well as the advantages and capabilities of the program to evaluate of the energy pattern, magnetic and optical properties of large multimode vibronic systems. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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