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1.
Nanoscale ; 12(17): 9661-9668, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319509

RESUMO

Colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets, with the electronic structure of quantum wells, self-assemble into lamellar stacks due to large co-facial van der Waals attractions. These lamellar stacks are shown to display coherent acoustic phonons that are detected from oscillatory changes in the absorption spectrum observed in infrared pump, electronic probe measurements. Rather than direct electronic excitation of the nanocrystals using a femtosecond laser, impulsive transfer of heat from the organic ligand shell, excited at C-H stretching vibrational resonances, to the inorganic core of individual nanoplatelets occurs on a time-scale of <100 ps. This heat transfer drives in-phase longitudinal acoustic phonons of the nanoplatelet lamellae, which are accompanied by subtle deformations along the nanoplatelet short axes. The frequencies of the oscillations vary from 0.7 to 2 GHz (3-8 µeV and 0.5-1 ns oscillation period) depending on the thickness of the nanoplatelets-but not their lateral areas-and the temperature of the sample. Temperature-dependence of the acoustic phonon frequency conveys a substantial stiffening of the organic ligand bonds between nanoplatelets with reduced temperature. These results demonstrate a potential for acoustic modulation of the excitonic structure of nanocrystal assemblies in self-assembled anisotropic semiconductor systems at temperatures at or above 300 K.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208676

RESUMO

Metal nanocrystals exhibit important optoelectronic and photocatalytic functionalities in response to light. These dynamic energy conversion processes have been commonly studied by transient optical probes to date, but an understanding of the atomistic response following photoexcitation has remained elusive. Here, we use femtosecond resolution electron diffraction to investigate transient lattice responses in optically excited colloidal gold nanocrystals, revealing the effects of nanocrystal size and surface ligands on the electron-phonon coupling and thermal relaxation dynamics. First, we uncover a strong size effect on the electron-phonon coupling, which arises from reduced dielectric screening at the nanocrystal surfaces and prevails independent of the optical excitation mechanism (i.e., inter- and intraband). Second, we find that surface ligands act as a tuning parameter for hot carrier cooling. Particularly, gold nanocrystals with thiol-based ligands show significantly slower carrier cooling as compared to amine-based ligands under intraband optical excitation due to electronic coupling at the nanocrystal/ligand interfaces. Finally, we spatiotemporally resolve thermal transport and heat dissipation in photoexcited nanocrystal films by combining electron diffraction with stroboscopic elastic scattering microscopy. Taken together, we resolve the distinct thermal relaxation time scales ranging from 1 ps to 100 ns associated with the multiple interfaces through which heat flows at the nanoscale. Our findings provide insights into optimization of gold nanocrystals and their thin films for photocatalysis and thermoelectric applications.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105062

RESUMO

The morphology of nanocrystals serves as a powerful handle to modulate their functional properties. For semiconducting nanostructures, the shape is no less important than the size and composition, in terms of determining the electronic structure. For example, in the case of nanoplatelets (NPLs), their two-dimensional (2D) electronic structure and atomic precision along the axis of quantum confinement makes them well-suited as pure color emitters and optical gain media. In this study, we describe synthetic efforts to develop ZnSe NPLs emitting in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum. We focus on two populations of NPLs, the first having a sharp absorption onset at 345 nm and a previously unreported species with an absorption onset at 380 nm. Interestingly, we observe that the nanoplatelets are one step in a quantized reaction pathway that starts with (zero-dimensional (0D)) magic-sized clusters, then proceeds through the formation of (one-dimensional (1D)) nanowires toward the (2D) "345 nm" species of NPLs, which finally interconvert into the "380 nm" NPL species. We seek to rationalize this evolution of the morphology, in terms of a general free-energy landscape, which, under reaction control, allows for the isolation of well-defined structures, while thermodynamic control leads to the formation of three-dimensional (3D) nanocrystals.

4.
Nano Lett ; 19(11): 8125-8131, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635457

RESUMO

The effects of large external fields on semiconductor nanostructures could reveal much about field-induced shifting of electronic states and their dynamical responses and could enable electro-optic device applications that require large and rapid changes in optical properties. Studies of quasi-dc electric field modulation of quantum dot (QD) properties have been limited by electrostatic breakdown processes observed under high externally applied field levels. To circumvent this, here we apply ultrafast terahertz (THz) electric fields with switching times on the order of 1 ps. We show that a pulsed THz electric field, enhanced by a microslit field enhancement structure (FES), can strongly manipulate the optical absorption properties of a thin film of CdSe and CdSe-CdS core-shell QDs on the subpicosecond time scale with spectral shifts that span the visible to near-IR range. Numerical simulations using a semiempirical tight binding model show that the band gap of the QD film can be shifted by as much a 79 meV during these time scales. The results allow a basic understanding of the field-induced shifting of electronic levels and suggest electro-optic device applications.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4511, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586067

RESUMO

Colloidal quantum wells are two-dimensional materials grown with atomically-precise thickness that dictates their electronic structure. Although intersubband absorption in epitaxial quantum wells is well-known, analogous observations in non-epitaxial two-dimensional materials are sparse. Here we show that CdSe nanoplatelet quantum wells have narrow (30-200 meV), polarized intersubband absorption features when photoexcited or under applied bias, which can be tuned by thickness across the near-infrared (NIR) spectral window (900-1600 nm) inclusive of important telecommunications wavelengths. By examination of the optical absorption and polarization-resolved measurements, the NIR absorptions are assigned to electron intersubband transitions. Under photoexcitation, the intersubband features display hot carrier and Auger recombination effects similar to excitonic absorptions. Sequenced two-color photoexcitation permits the sub-picosecond modulation of the carrier temperature in such colloidal quantum wells. This work suggests that colloidal quantum wells may be promising building blocks for NIR technologies.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(34): 13487-13496, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379152

RESUMO

In contrast to molecular systems, which are defined with atomic precision, nanomaterials generally show some heterogeneity in size, shape, and composition. The sample inhomogeneity translates into a distribution of energy levels, band gaps, work functions, and other characteristics, which detrimentally affect practically every property of functional nanomaterials. We discuss a novel synthetic strategy, colloidal atomic layer deposition (c-ALD) with stationary reactant phases, which largely circumvents the limitations of traditional colloidal syntheses of nano-heterostructures with atomic precision. This approach allows for significant reduction of inhomogeneity in nanomaterials in complex nanostructures without compromising their structural perfection and enables the synthesis of epitaxial nano-heterostructures of unprecedented complexity. The improved synthetic control ultimately enables bandgap and strain engineering in colloidal nanomaterials with close to atomic accuracy. To demonstrate the power of the new c-ALD method, we synthesize a library of complex II-VI semiconductor nanoplatelet heterostructures. By combining spectroscopic and computational studies, we elucidate the subtle interplay between quantum confinement and strain effects on the optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(14): 5728-5740, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868880

RESUMO

The self-assembly of two sizes of spherical nanocrystals has revealed a surprisingly diverse library of structures. To date, at least 15 distinct binary nanocrystal superlattice (BNSL) structures have been identified. The stability of these binary phases cannot be fully explained using the traditional conceptual framework treating the assembly process as entropy-driven crystallization of rigid spherical particles. Such deviation from hard sphere behavior may be explained by the soft and deformable layer of ligands that envelops the nanocrystals, which contributes significantly to the overall size and shape of assembling particles. In this work, we describe a set of experiments designed to elucidate the role of the ligand corona in shaping the thermodynamics and kinetics of BNSL assembly. Using hydrocarbon-capped Au and PbS nanocrystals as a model binary system, we systematically tuned the core radius ( R) and ligand chain length ( L) of particles and subsequently assembled them into binary superlattices. The resulting database of binary structures enabled a detailed analysis of the role of effective nanocrystal size ratio, as well as softness expressed as L/ R, in directing the assembly of binary structures. This catalog of superlattices allowed us to not only study the frequency of different phases but to also systematically measure the geometric parameters of the BNSLs. This analysis allowed us to evaluate new theoretical models treating the cocrystallization of deformable spheres and to formulate new hypotheses about the factors affecting the nucleation and growth of the binary superlattices. Among other insights, our results suggest that the relative abundance of the binary phases observed may be explained not only by considerations of thermodynamic stability, but also by a postulated preordering of the binary fluid into local structures with icosahedral or polytetrahedral symmetry prior to nucleation.

8.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 6948-6953, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244582

RESUMO

Excimers, a portmanteau of "excited dimer", are transient species that are formed from the electronic interaction of a fluorophore in the excited state with a neighbor in the ground state, which have found extensive use as laser gain media. Although common in molecular fluorophores, this work presents evidence for the formation of excimers in a new class of materials: atomically precise two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplatelets. Colloidal nanoplatelets of CdSe display two-color photoluminescence resolved at low temperatures with one band attributed to band-edge fluorescence and a second, red band attributed to excimer fluorescence. Previously reasonable explanations for two-color fluorescence, such as charging, are shown to be inconsistent with additional evidence. As with excimers in other materials systems, excimer emission is increased by increasing nanoplatelet concentration and the degree of cofacial stacking. Consistent with their promise as low-threshold gain media, amplified spontaneous emission emerges from the excimer emission line.

9.
Nano Lett ; 18(8): 5153-5158, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016109

RESUMO

Multiexcitons in emerging semiconducting nanomaterials play a critical role in potential optoelectronic and quantum computational devices. We describe photon resolved single molecule methods to directly probe the dynamics of biexcitons and triexcitons in colloidal CdSe quantum dots. We confirm that biexcitons emit from a spin-correlated state, consistent with statistical scaling. Contrary to current understanding, we find that triexciton emission is dominated by band-edge 1Se1S3/2 recombination rather than the higher energy 1Pe1P3/2 recombination.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(17): 4652-4656, 2018 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479792

RESUMO

We present a novel ligand, 5-norbornene-2-nonanoic acid, which can be directly added during established quantum dot (QD) syntheses in organic solvents to generate "clickable" QDs at a few hundred nmol scale. This ligand has a carboxyl group at one terminus to bind to the surface of QDs and a norbornene group at the opposite end that enables straightforward phase transfer of QDs into aqueous solutions via efficient norbornene/tetrazine click chemistry. Our ligand system removes the traditional ligand-exchange step and can produce water-soluble QDs with a high quantum yield and a small hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 12 nm at an order of magnitude higher scale than previous methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by incubating azido-functionalized CdSe/CdS QDs with 4T1 cancer cells that are metabolically labeled with a dibenzocyclooctyne-bearing unnatural sugar. The QDs exhibit high targeting efficiency and minimal nonspecific binding.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119058

RESUMO

For in vivo imaging, the short-wavelength infrared region (SWIR; 1000-2000 nm) provides several advantages over the visible and near-infrared regions: general lack of autofluorescence, low light absorption by blood and tissue, and reduced scattering. However, the lack of versatile and functional SWIR emitters has prevented the general adoption of SWIR imaging by the biomedical research community. Here, we introduce a class of high-quality SWIR-emissive indium-arsenide-based quantum dots (QDs) that are readily modifiable for various functional imaging applications, and that exhibit narrow and size-tunable emission and a dramatically higher emission quantum yield than previously described SWIR probes. To demonstrate the unprecedented combination of deep penetration, high spatial resolution, multicolor imaging and fast-acquisition-speed afforded by the SWIR QDs, we quantified, in mice, the metabolic turnover rates of lipoproteins in several organs simultaneously and in real time as well as heartbeat and breathing rates in awake and unrestrained animals, and generated detailed three-dimensional quantitative flow maps of the mouse brain vasculature.

12.
Nano Lett ; 17(9): 5375-5380, 2017 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786683

RESUMO

Optical properties of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), arising from quantum mechanical confinement of charge, present a versatile testbed for the study of how high electric fields affect the electronic structure of nanostructured solids. Studies of quasi-DC electric field modulation of QD properties have been limited by electrostatic breakdown processes under high externally applied electric fields, which have restricted the range of modulation of QD properties. In contrast, here we drive CdSe-CdS core-shell QD films with high-field THz-frequency electromagnetic pulses whose duration is only a few picoseconds. Surprisingly, in response to the THz excitation, we observe QD luminescence even in the absence of an external charge source. Our experiments show that QD luminescence is associated with a remarkably high and rapid modulation of the QD bandgap, which changes by more than 0.5 eV (corresponding to 25% of the unperturbed bandgap energy). We show that these colossal energy shifts can be explained by the quantum confined Stark effect even though we are far outside the regime of small field-induced shifts in electronic energy levels. Our results demonstrate a route to extreme modulation of material properties and to a compact, high-bandwidth THz detector that operates at room temperature.

13.
ACS Nano ; 10(3): 3295-301, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26885562

RESUMO

A two-step process has been developed for growing the shell of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods. The method combines an established fast-injection-based step to create the initial elongated shell with a second slow-injection growth that allows for a systematic variation of the shell thickness while maintaining a high degree of monodispersity at the batch level and enhancing the uniformity at the single-nanorod level. The second growth step resulted in nanorods exhibiting a fluorescence quantum yield up to 100% as well as effectively complete energy transfer from the shell to the core. This improvement suggests that the second step is associated with a strong suppression of the nonradiative channels operating both before and after the thermalization of the exciton. This hypothesis is supported by the suppression of a defect band, ubiquitous to CdSe-based nanocrystals after the second growth.

14.
Adv Mater ; 28(3): 497-501, 2016 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26596854

RESUMO

A highly efficient thin-film luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) utilizing two π-conjugated polymers as antennae for small amounts of the valued perylene bisimide Lumogen F Red 305 is presented. The LSC exhibits high photoluminescence quantum yield, low reabsorption, and relatively low refractive indices for waveguide matching. A Monte Carlo simulation predicts the LSC to possess exceptionally high optical efficiencies on large scales.

15.
Nano Lett ; 16(1): 289-96, 2016 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26636347

RESUMO

The optimization of photoluminescence spectral linewidths in semiconductor nanocrystal preparations involves minimizing both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous contributions to the ensemble spectrum. Although the inhomogeneous contribution can be controlled by eliminating interparticle inhomogeneities, far less is known about how to synthetically control the homogeneous, or single-nanocrystal, spectral linewidth. Here, we use solution photon-correlation Fourier spectroscopy (S-PCFS) to measure how the sample-averaged single-nanocrystal emission linewidth of CdSe core and core/shell nanocrystals change with systematic changes in the size of the cores and the thickness and composition of the shells. We find that the single-nanocrystal linewidth at room temperature is heavily influenced by the nature of the CdSe surface and the epitaxial shell, which have a profound impact on the internal electric fields that affect exciton-phonon coupling. Our results explain the wide variations, both experimental and theoretical, in the magnitude and size dependence in previous reports on exciton-phonon coupling in CdSe nanocrystals. Moreover, our findings offer a general pathway for achieving the narrow spectral linewidths required for many applications of nanocrystals.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Cádmio/química , Fônons , Selênio/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Sulfetos/química
16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(15): 2933-7, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267184

RESUMO

Colloidal CdSe quantum dot (QD) core ensembles were photodimmed and allowed to recover in the dark using ambient thermal energy at a range of temperatures. Nonlinear thermal recovery is well described by a stretched exponential function, and further analysis yields an underlying probability distribution of rate constants. Casting the rate constants as a collection of first-order activated processes provides an activation barrier probability distribution with significant density at room-temperature thermal energy that peaks at 200 meV before decaying to zero. This treatment for the recovery transition intuitively describes the distributed kinetics observed and complements commonly proposed blinking mechanisms.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos/química , Compostos de Cádmio/química , Coloides/química , Fótons , Compostos de Selênio/química , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
17.
Nano Lett ; 14(12): 6792-8, 2014 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25409496

RESUMO

The brightness of nanoscale optical materials such as semiconductor nanocrystals is currently limited in high excitation flux applications by inefficient multiexciton fluorescence. We have devised a solution-phase photon correlation measurement that can conveniently and reliably measure the average biexciton-to-exciton quantum yield ratio of an entire sample without user selection bias. This technique can be used to investigate the multiexciton recombination dynamics of a broad scope of synthetically underdeveloped materials, including those with low exciton quantum yields and poor fluorescence stability. Here, we have applied this method to measure weak biexciton fluorescence in samples of visible-emitting InP/ZnS and InAs/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals, and to demonstrate that a rapid CdS shell growth procedure can markedly increase the biexciton fluorescence of CdSe nanocrystals.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/química , Compostos de Cádmio/efeitos da radiação , Fotometria/instrumentação , Compostos de Selênio/química , Compostos de Selênio/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Luz , Teste de Materiais/instrumentação , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Fotometria/métodos , Fótons , Tamanho da Amostra , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
18.
Nano Lett ; 14(7): 4097-101, 2014 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24902615

RESUMO

CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) have been optimized toward luminescent solar concentration (LSC) applications. Systematically increasing the shell thickness continuously reduced reabsorption up to a factor of 45 for the thickest QDs studied (with ca. 14 monolayers of CdS) compared to the initial CdSe cores. Moreover, an improved synthetic method was developed that retains a high-fluorescence quantum yield, even for particles with the thickest shell volume, for which a quantum yield of 86% was measured in solution. These high quantum yield thick shell quantum dots were embedded in a polymer matrix, yielding highly transparent composites to serve as prototype LSCs, which exhibited an optical efficiency as high as 48%. A Monte Carlo simulation was developed to model LSC performance and to identify the major loss channels for LSCs incorporating the materials developed. The results of the simulation are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

19.
Adv Mater ; 25(12): 1739-44, 2013 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23359435

RESUMO

Copolymers with a triscarbazole hole-transport group and an oxetane or benzocyclobutene crosslinkable group can be readily thermally crosslinked on timescales of 30 min or less, with rapid thermal processing (RTP) being highly effective for this purpose. Devices with RTP-crosslinked hole-transport layers and spin-coated emissive layers exhibit high external quantum efficiencies of up to 15%.


Assuntos
Iluminação/instrumentação , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Temperatura , Silício/química , Soluções
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