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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 388, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate whether age of infant motor milestone achievement is related to levels of physical activity (PA), weight status and blood pressure at age 4-7 years of age. METHODS: In the Dutch GECKO (Groningen Expert Center of Kids with Obesity) Drenthe cohort, the age of achieving the motor milestone 'walking without support' was reported by parents. Weight status and blood pressure were assessed by trained health nurses and PA was measured using the Actigraph GT3X between age 4 and 7 years. RESULTS: Adjusted for children's age, sex and the mother's education level, infants who achieved walking without support at a later age, spent more time in sedentary behaviour during childhood and less time in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Later motor milestones achievement was not related to higher BMI Z-score, waist circumference Z-score, diastolic or systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that a later age of achieving motor milestone within the normal range have a weak relation to lower PA levels at later age. It is not likely that this will have consequences for weight status or blood pressure at 4-7 years of age.

2.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547438

RESUMO

Sodium restriction may potentially reduce iodine intake. This study aimed to determine the effect of sodium restriction (dietary counseling) on 24-h urinary iodine excretion. Diuretics provide an alternative to sodium restriction and are frequently added to sodium restriction, so the effects of hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg daily) and combined therapy were also studied. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a Dutch multi-center, randomized cross-over trial in 45 patients with diabetic kidney disease with a mean age of 65 ± 9 years, mean eGFR of 65 ± 27 mL/min/1.73 m2, median albuminuria of 648 [230-2008] mg/24 h and 84% were male. During regular sodium intake with placebo, mean 24 h urinary sodium and iodine excretion were 224 ± 76 mmol/24 h and 252 ± 94 ug/24 h, respectively (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). Mean iodine excretion did not change significantly if sodium restriction and hydrochlorothiazide were applied separately; mean difference -8 ug/day (95% CI -38, 22; p = 0.6) and 14 ug/day (95% CI -24, 52; p = 0.5), respectively. Combined therapy induced a significant decrease in mean iodine excretion (-37 ug/day; 95% CI -67, -7; p = 0.02), yet this was not seen to a clinically meaningful level. The number of patients with an estimated intake below recommended daily allowances did not differ significantly between the four treatment periods (p = 0.3). These findings show that sodium restriction is not a risk factor for iodine deficiency.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 340-348, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that high dairy intake is associated with a lower blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of a high-dairy diet (HDD) as compared with a low-dairy diet (LDD) on BP in overweight middle-aged adults. METHODS: Fifty-two overweight men and women were included in a randomized crossover intervention study. Each subject consumed 2 isocaloric diets for 6 wk, an LDD (≤1 dairy portion per day) and an HDD (6 or 5 reduced-fat dairy portions for men and women, respectively), with a 4-wk washout period in between the diets during which the subjects consumed their habitual diet. BP was measured at the start and at the end of the intervention diets. The effect of the intervention study was evaluated by 2-sample t tests. Mixed-model analyses were used for adjustment for the potential influence of changes in dietary protein and mineral intake and risk factors for hypertension including body weight and plasma cholesterol. RESULTS: Consumption of an HDD as compared with an LDD resulted in a reduction of both systolic BP (mean ± SD: 4.6 ± 11.2 mm Hg, P < 0.01) and diastolic BP (3.0 ± 6.7 mm Hg, P < 0.01). In further analyses, these reductions appeared dependent on the concomitant increase in calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: This intervention study shows that an HDD results in a reduction of both systolic and diastolic BP in overweight middle-aged men and women. If the results of our study are reproduced by other studies, advice for high dairy intake may be added to treatment and prevention of high BP. This trial was registered at trialregister.nl as NTR4899.

4.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 73(8): 1212, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235955

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

5.
J Sports Sci ; 37(19): 2198-2204, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154938

RESUMO

The global trend in inactivity in children may be related to psychosocial problems. We investigated the cross-sectional association between physical activity (PA) levels and psychosocial functioning in 3.4-7.3-year-old children. Children from the Dutch GECKO birth cohort (N = 898; 51.6% boys) had PA levels assessed objectively by accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X) for at least three days. Linear regression analysis was used for associations with psychosocial functioning (parent report of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), controlling for gender, age and socio-economic status. Higher total and moderate-to-vigorous PA levels (MVPA) were associated with higher Total Difficulty scores, and sedentary time to lower Total Difficulty scores. More time spent in MVPA was significantly associated to "hyperactivity/inattention" in both boys (Standardized BBOYS = 0.192) and girls (Std.BGIRLS = 0.139) whereas for the time in sedentary behaviour, a reverse association was found only in boys (Std.BBOYS = -0.230). In boys only, more time in MVPA (Std.BBOYS = 0.154) and less time in sedentary behaviour (Std.BBOYS = -0.147), were significant determinants for 'behavioural problems'. When using objectively measured PA, parents report more hyperactivity/inattention and behavioural problems in the more active children, and less in the more sedentary children, most clearly for boys. High levels of PA might be an indicator of psychosocial problems in young children.

6.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
7.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e027468, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between environmental correlates and children's sedentary time (ST), light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in preschool children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: A birth cohort in Drenthe, a northern province and relatively rural area of the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Valid data both for the ActiGraph and the questionnaire were obtained from 505 child-parent pairs. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: ST, LPA and MVPA of children were objectively measured by ActiGraph accelerometry (minimum three wearing days, more than 10 hours/day). Environmental correlates were collected using a questionnaire reported by parents that included household characteristics, parental and children's PA behaviours and neighbourhood environment (eg, traffic safety, road network and presence of PA facilities). Potential correlates were identified using linear regression analysis, adjusted by age, gender, siblings, and maternal age and education level. Ordinary least square regression-based path analysis was used to estimate direct and indirect effects on activity outcomes in mediation models. RESULTS: Linear regression analysis showed that 'parents taking children to play sports' was related to less ST, more LPA and MVPA; more outdoor play was also related to less ST and more LPA, but not MVPA. Parents who perceived more PA facilities in their neighbourhood showed more support for 'taking children to play sports', and this was associated with less ST or more MVPA compared with children living with less PA facilities in their neighbourhood. No evidence was found for a relation between traffic safety or road network with ST, LPA and MVPA. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that parental support and child outdoor play may influence children's daily PA patterns. Convenient neighbourhood PA facilities, such as parks and playgrounds, had an indirect effect through parental support associated with lower children's ST and higher MVPA, even in relatively rural areas.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(6): 1555-1568, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dairy products contain many nutritious components that may benefit metabolic health. There are indications that glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, which are generally disturbed in overweight and obese individuals, may improve by increased dairy intake. This may also affect one's metabolic flexibility. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high compared with low dairy intake on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility in overweight adults (aged 45-65 y). METHODS: In this randomized intervention study, subjects consumed a high- and a low-dairy diet [HDD (5-6 dairy portions) and LDD (≤1 dairy portion), respectively] for 6 wk in a crossover design, with a washout period of 4 wk. Dairy portions were 200 g semi-skimmed yoghurt, 30 g reduced-fat (30+) cheese, and 250 mL semiskimmed milk and buttermilk. After 6 wk, a 75-g oral-glucose-tolerance test (13C-labeled) and a subsequent fasting challenge were performed. Metabolic flexibility was studied by determining the respiratory quotient (RQ) using indirect calorimetry. Fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were analyzed. The dual isotope technique enabled calculation of glucose kinetics. RESULTS: The study was completed by 45 overweight men and postmenopausal women [age 58.9 ± 4.3 y, BMI 27.9 ± 1.9 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)]. Fasting RQ and ΔRQ, reflecting metabolic flexibility, did not differ after both diets. Fasting glucose concentrations were similar, whereas fasting insulin concentrations were lower after the LDD (LDD: 8.1 ± 2.8 mU/L; HDD: 8.9 ± 3.3 mU/L; P = 0.024). This resulted in a higher HOMA-IR after the HDD (P = 0.027). Postprandial glucose and insulin responses as well as glucose kinetics were similar after both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of dairy intake during a 6-wk period had a neutral effect on metabolic flexibility or postprandial glucose metabolism in middle-aged overweight subjects. More trials are needed to study the effects of specific dairy types and to differentiate between metabolic subgroups. This trial was registered at trialregister.nl as NTR4899.

9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(6): 907-915, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the dose-dependent association of habitual moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the biochemical markers for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and whether this association changes with age and degree of impaired glucose metabolism. We also investigated whether the associations depend on the domain of MVPA. METHODS: In this study, using data from the population-based Lifelines cohort (N = 42,661), MVPA was self-reported on the short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity. NAFLD was defined as a fatty liver index value of >60, based on body mass index, waist circumference, plasma triglycerides, and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Glucose metabolism was defined as normal (NGM), impaired (IGM), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exclusion criteria were previously diagnosed hepatitis or cirrhosis and excessive alcohol use. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and education. RESULTS: Higher MVPA was dose dependently associated with a lower risk of having NAFLD: compared with "No MVPA," the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals) for MVPA quintiles were 0.78 (0.71-0.86), 0.64 (0.58-0.70), 0.53 (0.48-0.59), 0.51 (0.46-0.56), and 0.45 (0.41-0.50) for the highest level of MVPA. The association between MVPA and NAFLD was stronger for more impaired glucose status (ORNGM = 0.49 (0.42-0.57), ORIGM = 0.46 (0.40-0.54), ORT2DM = 0.42 (0.27-0.66)) and for older age (OR20-40 years = 0.51 (0.42-0.62), OR60-80 years = 0.37 (0.29-0.48)) with the highest level of MVPA, relative to No MVPA. No favorable association was observed for occupational MVPA. With regard to MVPA and fibrosis, associations with fibrosis markers showed contradictory results. CONCLUSIONS: Higher MVPA levels are dose dependently associated with a lower NAFLD risk. This association is stronger in people with diabetes and older adults.

10.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
11.
Biomarkers ; 24(4): 360-372, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773031

RESUMO

Background: C14:0, C15:0, C17:0 and trans-C16:1(n-7) are often used as biomarkers for dairy fat intake. Trans-C18:1(n-7) and CLA, two fatty acids which are also present in dairy, have hardly been explored. We investigated whether trans-C18:1(n-7) and CLA can enrich the existing biomarker portfolio. Methods: Data were obtained from Lifelines (n = 769). Dairy fat intake was determined by FFQ. Fatty acids were measured in fasting plasma triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL) and cholesterol esters (CE). Results: Median (25th-75th percentile) intakes of dairy and dairy fat were 322(209-447) and 12.3(8.4-17.4) g/d respectively. A pilot study showed that trans-C18:1(n-7) and CLA were only detectable in TG and PL. Of the established markers, TG C15:0 was most strongly associated with dairy fat intake (standardized ß (std.ß) = 0.286, R2 = 0.111). Of the less established markers, TG trans-C18:1(n-7) was most strongly associated with dairy fat intake (Std.ß = 0.292, R2 = 0.115), followed by PL CLA (Std.ß = 0.272, R2 = 0.103) and PL trans-C18:1(n-7) (Std.ß = 0.269, R2 = 0.099). In TG, a combination of C15:0 and trans-C18:1(n-7) performed best (R2 = 0.128). In PL, a combination of C14:0, C15:0, trans-C18:1(n-7) and CLA performed best (R2 = 0.143). Conclusion: Trans-C18:1(n-7) and CLA can be used as biomarkers of dairy fat intake. Additionally, combining established with less established markers allowed even stronger predictions for dairy fat intake.

12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(9): 905-916, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791699

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate prospectively the association of body fat percentage (BF%) estimates using various equations from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with cardiovascular events, compared with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data of 34 BIA-BF%-equations that were used for estimation of BF% in 6486 (men = 3194, women = 3294) subjects. During a median follow-up of 8.3 years, 510 (7.9%) cardiovascular events (363 in men; 147 in women) occurred. In men, the crude hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for BF% from the best predicting BIA-BF%-equation was 3.97 (3.30-4.78) against 2.13 (1.85-2.45) for BF% from the BIA device's BIA-BF%-equation, 1.34 (1.20-1.49) for BMI and 1.49 (1.40-1.73) for waist circumference per log-1-SD increase of all. In women, the hazard ratios for best predicting BIA-BF%-equation, BIA device estimation, BMI and waist circumference were 3.80 (2.85-4.99), 1.89 (1.57-2.28), 1.35 (1.21-1.51) and 1.52 (1.31-1.75), respectively. After adjustments for age, Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score and creatinine excretion - a marker of muscle mass - BF%s and BMI remained independently associated with cardiovascular events in both men and women, while waist circumference was independently associated with cardiovascular events in men, but not in women. According to discrimination ability (C-index) and additive predictive value (net reclassification index and integrated discrimination index) on obesity measures to the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score, BF% was superior to BMI and waist circumference in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: BF% was independently associated with future cardiovascular events. Body fat estimates from the best-predicting BIA-BF%-equations can be a more predictive measurement in cardiovascular risk assessment than BMI or waist circumference.

13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

14.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

15.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308987

RESUMO

The influence of dietary protein intake on muscle mass in adults remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the association between protein intake and muscle mass in 31,278 men and 45,355 women from the Lifelines Cohort. Protein intake was estimated by food frequency questionnaire and muscle mass was estimated from 24 h urinary creatinine excretion. The age range was 18⁻91 years and mean total protein intake was 1.0 ± 0.3 g/kg/day. Across increasing quartiles of total protein intake, animal protein intake, and fish/meat/egg protein intake, creatinine excretion significantly increased in both men (+4% for total and +6% for fish/meat/egg protein intake, p < 0.001) and women (+3% for total and +6% for fish/meat/egg protein intake, p < 0.001). The associations were not systematically stronger or weaker with increasing age, but associations were strongest for young men (26⁻45 years) and older women (>75 years). The association between total protein intake and muscle mass was dependent on physical activity in women (p interaction < 0.001). This study suggests that total protein intake, animal protein intake, and in particular fish/meat/egg protein intake may be important for building and preserving muscle mass. Dietary protein sources should be further studied for their potential to build and preserve muscle mass.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1033, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is important in combating childhood obesity. Parents, and thus parental PA, could influence PA in young children. We examined whether the time spent at different intensities of PA and the type of parental PA are associated with the PA of children aged 4-7 years, and whether the associations between child-parent pairs were sex-specific. METHODS: All the participants were recruited from the Groningen Expert Center for Kids with Obesity (GECKO) birth cohort (babies born between 1 April 2006 and 1 April 2007 in Drenthe province, the Netherlands) and were aged 4-7 years during measurement. PA in children was measured using the ActiGraph GT3X (worn at least 3 days, ≥10 h per day). PA in parents was assessed using the validated SQUASH questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the N = 1146 children with valid ActiGraph data and 838 mothers and 814 fathers with valid questionnaire data, 623 child-parent pairs with complete data were analysed. More leisure time PA in mothers was associated with more time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in children (Spearman r = 0.079, P < .05). Maternal PA was significantly related to PA in girls, but not boys. More time spent in maternal vigorous PA, in sports activity, and leisure time PA, were all related to higher MVPA in girls (Spearman r = 0.159, r = 0.133 and r = 0.127 respectively, Pall < .05). In fathers, PA levels were predominantly related to PA in sons. High MVPA in fathers was also related to high MVPA in sons (r = 0.132, P < 0.5). Spending more time in light PA was related to more sedentary time and less time in MVPA in sons. CONCLUSIONS: Higher PA in mothers, for instance in leisure activities, is related to higher PA in daughters, and more active fathers are related to more active sons. To support PA in young children, interventions could focus on the PA of the parent of the same sex as the child. Special attention may be needed for families where the parents have sedentary jobs, as children from these families seem to adopt more sedentary behaviour.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Masculino , Países Baixos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Esportes/psicologia , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(8): 1111-1119, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Many diet quality scores exist, but fully food-based scores based on contemporary evidence are scarce. Our aim was to develop a food-based diet score based on international literature and examine its discriminative capacity and socio-demographic determinants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Between 2006 and 2013, dietary intake of 129,369 participants of the Lifelines Cohort (42% male, 45 ± 13 years (range 18-93)) was assessed with a 110-item food frequency questionnaire. Based on the 2015 Dutch Dietary Guidelines and underlying literature, nine food groups with positive (vegetables, fruit, whole grain products, legumes&nuts, fish, oils&soft margarines, unsweetened dairy, coffee and tea) and three food groups with negative health effects (red&processed meat, butter&hard margarines and sugar-sweetened beverages) were identified. Per food group, the intake in grams per 1000 kcal was categorized into quintiles, awarded 0 to 4 points (negative groups scored inversely) and summed. Food groups with neutral, unknown or inconclusive evidence are described but not included. RESULTS: The Lifelines Diet Score (LLDS) discriminated well between high and low consumers of included food groups. This is illustrated by e.g. a 2-fold higher vegetable intake in the highest, compared to the lowest LLDS quintile. Differences were 5.5-fold for fruit, 3.5-fold for fish, 3-fold for dairy and 8-fold for sugar-sweetened beverages. The LLDS was higher in females and positively associated with age and educational level. CONCLUSIONS: The LLDS is based on the latest international evidence for diet-disease relations at the food group level and has high capacity to discriminate people with widely different intakes. Together with the population-based quintile approach, this makes the LLDS a flexible, widely applicable tool for diet quality assessment.

18.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 31(5): 507-513, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of multidisciplinary treatment programs on eating behavior in overweight preschool-aged children are largely unknown. We evaluated a multidisciplinary intervention program on eating behavior in 3- to 5-year-old overweight children, comparing them with children given standard treatment. We also assessed the parental eating behavior changes and investigated associations between parents and children. METHODS: We randomized 75 children to a multidisciplinary intervention or to a standard care program. During a 16-week period, children and parents in the multidisciplinary group were given dietary advice, physical activity sessions and, for parents only, psychological counseling. Children and parents in the standard group visited a pediatrician 3 times and were given information on a healthy lifestyle. At baseline, after 16 weeks, and after 12 months, children were measured and parents completed the Dutch Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ-C) for their children and the DEBQ for themselves. RESULTS: At the three time points, 70 (93.3%), 57 (91.9%), and 42 (73.7%) DEBQ-Cs were analyzed. We found no differences in the changes in eating behavior between the two groups over time. In both groups, there was a significant increase in restrained eating behavior present at 16 weeks, however, this was no longer present at 12 months. We found no associations between changes in eating behavior between the children and their parents. CONCLUSIONS: A multidisciplinary obesity intervention program in preschool-aged children induced more restrained eating behavior between baseline and 16 weeks. However, there was no difference with the children in the standard care group.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Comportamento Infantil , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Prognóstico
19.
Schizophr Res ; 199: 407-413, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503230

RESUMO

Large studies investigating the psychosocial effects of lifestyle interventions in patients with a severe mental illness (SMI) are scarce, especially in residential patients. This large, randomized controlled, multicentre pragmatic trial assessed the psychosocial effects of a combined diet-and-exercise lifestyle intervention targeting the obesogenic environment of SMI residential patients. Twenty-nine sheltered and clinical care teams were randomized into intervention (n=15) or control (n=14) arm. Team tailored diet-and-exercise lifestyle plans were set up to change the obesogenic environment into a healthier setting, and team members were trained in supporting patients to make healthier choices. The control group received care-as-usual. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) and the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA) were assessed at baseline and after three and twelve months. Data were available for 384 intervention and 386 control patients (48.6±12.5years old, 62.7% males, 73.7% psychotic disorder). Linear mixed model analysis showed no psychosocial improvements in the intervention group compared to care-as-usual; the intervention group showed a slightly reduced quality of life (overall) and a small increase in depressive symptoms (clinical care facilities) and psychotic symptoms (sheltered facilities). This may be due to difficulties with implementation, the intervention not being specifically designed for improvements in mental well-being, or the small change approach, which may take longer to reach an effect. Further research might elucidate what type of lifestyle intervention under what circumstances positively affects psychosocial outcomes in this population.

20.
Am J Transplant ; 18(10): 2523-2533, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464830

RESUMO

Renal transplant recipients (RTR) are at risk of decline of graft function and premature mortality, with high blood pressure as an important risk factor for both. To study the association of the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with these adverse events, we conducted a prospective cohort study of adult RTR. Dietary data were collected using a validated 177-item food frequency questionnaire and an overall DASH-score was obtained. We included 632 stable RTR (mean ± standard deviation age 53.0 ± 12.7 years, 57% men). Mean DASH score was 23.8 ± 4.7. During median follow-up of 5.3 (interquartile range, 4.1-6.0) years, 119 (18.8%) RTR had renal function decline, defined as a combined endpoint of doubling of serum creatinine and death-censored graft failure, and 128 (20.3%) died. In Cox-regression analyses, RTR in the highest tertile of the DASH score had lower risk of both renal function decline (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.96, P = .03) and all-cause mortality (HR = 0.52; 95%CI, 0.32-0.83, P = .006) compared to the lowest tertile, independent of potential confounders. Adherence to a DASH-style diet is associated with lower risk of both renal function decline and all-cause mortality. These results suggest that a healthful diet might benefit long-term outcome in RTR.

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