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2.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 288, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This pilot study was designed to develop a fully automatic and quantitative scoring system of B-lines (QLUSS: quantitative lung ultrasound score) involving the pleural line and to compare it with previously described semi-quantitative scores in the measurement of extravascular lung water as determined by standard thermo-dilution. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 12 patients admitted in the intensive care unit with acute respiratory distress and each provided with 12 lung ultrasound (LUS) frames. Data collected from each patient consisted in five different scores, four semi-quantitative (nLUSS, cLUSS, qLUSS, %LUSS) and quantitative scores (QLUSS). The association between LUS scores and extravascular lung water (EVLW) was determined by simple linear regression (SLR) and robust linear regression (RLR) methods. A correlation analysis between the LUS scores was performed by using the Spearman rank test. Inter-observer variability was tested by computing intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in two-way models for agreement, basing on scores obtained by different raters blinded to patients' conditions and clinical history. RESULTS: In the SLR, QLUSS showed a stronger association with EVLW (R2 = 0.57) than cLUSS (R2 = 0.45) and nLUSS (R2 = 0.000), while a lower association than qLUSS (R2 = 0.85) and %LUSS (R2 = 0.72) occurred. By applying RLR, QLUSS showed an association for EVLW (R2 = 0.86) comparable to qLUSS (R2 = 0.85) and stronger than %LUSS (R2 = 0.72). QLUSS was significantly correlated with qLUSS (r = 0.772; p = 0.003) and %LUSS (r = 0.757; p = 0.005), but not with cLUSS (r = 0.561; p = 0.058) and nLUSS (r = 0.105; p = 0.744). Moreover, QLUSS showed the highest ICC (0.998; 95%CI from 0.996 to 0.999) among the LUS scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that computer-aided scoring of the pleural line percentage affected by B-lines has the potential to assess EVLW. QLUSS may have a significant impact, once validated with a larger dataset composed by multiple real-time frames. This approach has the potentials to be advantageous in terms of faster data analysis and applicability to large sets of data without increased costs. On the contrary, it is not useful in pleural effusion or consolidations.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12248, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439913

RESUMO

This was a single-center, observational, prospective study designed to compare the effectiveness of a real-time, ultrasound- with landmark-guided technique for subclavian vein cannulation. Two groups of 74 consecutive patients each underwent subclavian vein catheterization. One group included patients from intensive care unit, studied by using an ultrasound-guided technique. The other group included patients from surgery or emergency units, studied by using a landmark technique. The primary outcome for comparison between techniques was the success rate of catheterization. Secondary outcomes were the number of attempts, cannulation failure, and mechanical complications. Although there was no difference in total success rate between ultrasound-guided and landmark groups (71 vs. 68, p = 0.464), the ultrasound-guided technique was more frequently successful at first attempt (64 vs. 30, p < 0.001) and required less attempts (1 to 2 vs. 1 to 6, p < 0.001) than landmark technique. Moreover, the ultrasound-guided technique was associated with less complications (2 vs. 13, p < 0.001), interruptions of mechanical ventilation (1 vs. 57, p < 0.001), and post-procedure chest X-ray (43 vs. 62, p = 0.001). In comparison with landmark-guided technique, the use of an ultrasound-guided technique for subclavian catheterization offers advantages in terms of reduced number of attempts and complications.

5.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

6.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 78: 126-132, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few randomized trials have evaluated the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for early acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive care unit (ICU) wards. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that early NIV for mild-moderate ARF in non-ICU wards can prevent development of severe ARF. DESIGN: Pragmatic, parallel group, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial. SETTING: Non-intensive care wards of tertiary centers. PATIENTS: Non-ICU ward patients with mild to moderate ARF without an established indication for NIV. INTERVENTIONS: Patients will be randomized to receive or not receive NIV in addition to best available care. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We will enroll 520 patients, 260 in each group. The primary endpoint of the study will be the development of severe ARF. Secondary endpoints will be 28-day mortality, length of hospital stay, safety of NIV in non-ICU environments, and a composite endpoint of all in-hospital respiratory complications. CONCLUSIONS: This trial will help determine whether the early use of NIV in non-ICU wards can prevent progression from mild-moderate ARF to severe ARF.

7.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
8.
Crit Ultrasound J ; 10(1): 24, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221312

RESUMO

When intracranial hypertension and severe lung damage coexist in the same clinical scenario, their management poses a difficult challenge, especially as concerns mechanical ventilation management. The needs of combined lung and brain protection from secondary damage may conflict, as ventilation strategies commonly used in patients with ARDS are potentially associated with an increased risk of intracranial hypertension. In particular, the use of positive end-expiratory pressure, recruitment maneuvers, prone positioning, and protective lung ventilation can have undesirable effects on cerebral physiology: they may positively or negatively affect intracranial pressure, based on the final repercussions on PaO2 and cerebral perfusion pressure (through changes in cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, venous return, PaO2 and PaCO2), also according to the baseline conditions of cerebral autoregulation. Lung ultrasound (LUS) and brain ultrasound (BUS, as a combination of optic nerve sheath diameter assessment and cerebrovascular Doppler ultrasound) have independently proven their potential in respectively monitoring lung aeration and brain physiology at the bedside. In this narrative review, we describe how the combined use of LUS and BUS on neurocritical patients with demanding mechanical ventilation needs can contribute to ventilation management, with the aim of a tailored "brain-protective ventilation strategy."

9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 1978968, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175118

RESUMO

Objective: To test if splenic Doppler resistive index (SDRI) allows noninvasive monitoring of changes in stroke volume and regional splanchnic perfusion in response to fluid challenge. Design and Setting. Prospective observational study in cardiac intensive care unit. Patients: Fifty-three patients requiring mechanical ventilation and fluid challenge for hemodynamic optimization after cardiac surgery. Interventions: SDRI values were obtained before and after volume loading with 500 mL of normal saline over 20 min and compared with changes in systemic hemodynamics, determined invasively by pulmonary artery catheter, and arterial lactate concentration as expression of splanchnic perfusion. Changes in stroke volume >10% were considered representative of fluid responsiveness. Results: A <4% SDRI reduction excluded fluid responsiveness, with 100% sensitivity and 100% negative predictive value. A >9% SDRI reduction was a marker of fluid responsiveness with 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value. A >4% SDRI reduction was always associated with an improvement of splanchnic perfusion mirrored by an increase in lactate clearance and a reduction in systemic vascular resistance, regardless of fluid responsiveness. Conclusions: This study shows that SDRI variations after fluid administration is an effective noninvasive tool to monitor systemic hemodynamics and splanchnic perfusion upon volume administration, irrespective of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Hidratação , Hemodinâmica , Respiração Artificial , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(8): 1284-1294, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019201

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although invasive intracranial devices (IIDs) are the gold standard for intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement, ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) has been suggested as a potential non-invasive ICP estimator. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sonographic ONSD measurement for assessment of intracranial hypertension (IH) in adult patients. METHODS: We searched on electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed®, Scopus®, Web of Science®, ScienceDirect®, Cochrane Library®) until 31 May 2018 for comparative studies that evaluated the efficacy of sonographic ONSD vs. ICP measurement with IID. Data were extracted independently by two authors. We used the QUADAS-2 tool for assessing the risk of bias (RB) of each study. A diagnostic meta-analysis following the bivariate approach and random-effects model was performed. RESULTS: Seven prospective studies (320 patients) were evaluated for IH detection (assumed with ICP > 20 mmHg or > 25 cmH2O). The accuracy of included studies ranged from 0.811 (95% CI 0.678‒0.847) to 0.954 (95% CI 0.853‒0.983). Three studies were at high RB. No significant heterogeneity was found for the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR), with I2 < 50% for each parameter. The pooled DOR, PLR and NLR were 67.5 (95% CI 29‒135), 5.35 (95% CI 3.76‒7.53) and 0.088 (95% CI 0.046‒0.152), respectively. The area under the hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUHSROC) was 0.938. In the subset of five studies (275 patients) with IH defined for ICP > 20 mmHg, the pooled DOR, PLR and NLR were 68.10 (95% CI 26.8‒144), 5.18 (95% CI 3.59‒7.37) and 0.087 (95% CI 0.041‒0.158), respectively, while the AUHSROC was 0.932. CONCLUSIONS: Although the wide 95% CI in our pooled DOR suggests caution, ultrasonographic ONSD may be a potentially useful approach for assessing IH when IIDs are not indicated or available (CRD42018089137, PROSPERO).

12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 25(1_suppl): 32-41, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708035

RESUMO

Background Gender-related biases in outcomes after thoracic aortic surgery are an important factor to consider in the prevention of potential complications related to aortic diseases and in the analysis of surgical results. Methods The aim of this study is to provide an up-to-date review of gender-related differences in the epidemiology, specific risk factors, outcome, and screening and prevention programmes in aortic aneurysms. Results Female patients affected by aortic disease still have worse outcomes and higher early and late mortality than men. It is difficult to plan new specific strategies to improve outcomes in women undergoing major aortic surgery, given that the true explanations for their poorer outcomes are as yet not clearly identified. Some authors recommend further investigation of hormonal or molecular explanations for the sex differences in aortic disease. Others stress the need for quality improvement projects to quantify the preoperative risk in high-risk populations using non-invasive tests such as cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Conclusions The treatment of patients classified as high risk could thus be optimised before surgery becomes necessary by means of numerous strategies, such as the administration of high-dose statin therapy, antiplatelet treatment, optimal control of hypertension, lifestyle improvement with smoking cessation, weight loss and careful control of diabetes. Future efforts are needed to understand better the gender differences in the diagnosis, management and outcome of aortic aneurysm disease, and for appropriate and modern management of female patients.

15.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 5(1): 19, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28378187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative lung computed tomography (CT) provides fundamental information about lung aeration in critically ill patients. We tested a scanning protocol combining reduced number of CT slices and tube current, comparing quantitative analysis and radiation exposure to conventional CT. METHODS: In pigs, CT scans were performed during breath hold in a model of lung injury with three different protocols: standard spiral with 180 mAs tube current-time product (Spiral180), sequential with 20-mm distance between slices and either 180 mAs (Sequential180) or 50 mAs (Sequential50). Spiral scans of critically ill patients were collected retrospectively, and subsets of equally spaced slices were extracted. The agreement between CT protocols was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS: In 12 pigs, there was good concordance between the sequential protocols and the spiral scan (all biases ≤1.9%, agreements ≤±6.5%). In Spiral180, Sequential180 and Sequential50, estimated dose exposure was 2.3 (2.1-2.8), 0.21 (0.19-0.26), and 0.09 (0.07-0.10) mSv, respectively (p < 0.001 compared to Spiral180); number of acquired slices was 244 (227-252), 12 (11-13) and 12 (11-13); acquisition time was 7 (6-7), 23 (21-25) and 24 (22-26) s. In 32 critically ill patients, quantitative analysis extrapolated from 1-mm slices interleaved by 20 mm had a good concordance with the analysis performed on the entire spiral scan (all biases <1%, agreements ≤2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: In animal CT data, combining sequential scan and low tube current did not affect significantly the quantitative analysis, with a radiation exposure reduction of 97%, reaching a dose comparable to chest X-ray, but with longer acquisition time. In human CT data, lung aeration analysis could be extrapolated from a subset of thin equally spaced slices.

16.
Intensive Care Med ; 43(11): 1594-1601, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289815

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the success rate and safety of short-axis versus long-axis approaches to ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation. METHODS: A total of 190 patients requiring central venous cannulation following cardiac surgery were randomized to either short-axis or long-axis ultrasound-guided cannulation of the subclavian vein. Each cannulation was performed by anesthesiologists with at least 3 years' experience of ultrasound-guided central vein cannulation (>150 procedures/year, 50% short-axis and 50% long-axis). Success rate, insertion time, number of needle redirections, number of separate skin or vessel punctures, rate of mechanical complications, catheter misplacements, and incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infection were documented for each procedure. RESULTS: The subclavian vein was successfully cannulated in all 190 patients. The mean insertion time was significantly shorter (p = 0.040) in the short-axis group (69 ± 74 s) than in the long-axis group (98 ± 103 s). The short-axis group was also associated with a higher overall success rate (96 vs. 78%, p < 0.001), first-puncture success rate (86 vs. 67%, p = 0.003), and first-puncture single-pass success rate (72 vs. 48%, p = 0.002), and with fewer needle redirections (0.39 ± 0.88 vs. 0.88 ± 1.15, p = 0.001), skin punctures (1.12 ± 0.38 vs. 1.28 ± 0.54, p = 0.019), and complications (3 vs. 13%, p = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: The short-axis procedure for ultrasound-guided subclavian cannulation offers advantages over the long-axis approach in cardiac surgery patients.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Veia Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Veias Jugulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Intern Emerg Med ; 12(5): 629-635, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28161884

RESUMO

We aimed to explore the role of procalcitonin (PCT) for the diagnosis of Candida spp. bloodstream infections in a population of critically ill septic patients admitted to internal medicine units. This is a retrospective case-control study considering all cases of candidemia identified in three internal medicine units, from January 1st 2012 to May 31st 2016. For each case of candidemia, two patients with bacteremic sepsis were included in the study as control cases. The end point of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of PCT for the diagnosis of Candida spp. blood stream infections in patients with objectively documented sepsis. Sixty-four patients with candidemia and 128 controls with bacteremia were enrolled. Median and interquartile range (IQR) PCT values are significantly lower in patients with candidemia (0.73; IQR 0.26-1.85 ng/mL) than in those with bacteremia (4.48; IQR 1.10-18.26 ng/mL). At ROC curve analysis, values of PCT greater than 2.5 ng/mL had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.3% with an AUC of 0.76 (0.68-0.84 95% CI) for the identification of Candida spp. from blood cultures. At multivariate analysis, a PCT value <2.5 ng/mL showed an odds ratio of 8.57 (95% CI 3.09-23.70; p < 0.0001) for candidemia. In septic patients at risk of Candida infection, a PCT value lower than 2.5 ng/mL should raise the suspicion of candidemia, adding value for considering prompt initiation of antifungal therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Calcitonina/análise , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Sepse/classificação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Calcitonina/sangue , Candida/patogenicidade , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia
19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(2): 719-730, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27693206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedures every year, more than 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. The authors have updated a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 500 clinicians from 61 countries. INTERVENTIONS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify published literature about nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, showing a statistically significant impact on mortality. A consensus conference of experts discussed eligible papers. The interventions identified by the conference then were submitted to colleagues worldwide through a web-based survey. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors identified 11 interventions contributing to increased survival (perioperative hemodynamic optimization, neuraxial anesthesia, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, selective decontamination of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin for tight glycemic control, preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, levosimendan, volatile agents, and remote ischemic preconditioning) and 2 interventions showing increased mortality (beta-blocker therapy and aprotinin). Interventions then were voted on by participating clinicians. Percentages of agreement among clinicians in different countries differed significantly for 6 interventions, and a variable gap between evidence and clinical practice was noted. CONCLUSIONS: The authors identified 13 nonsurgical interventions that may decrease or increase perioperative mortality, with variable agreement by clinicians. Such interventions may be optimal candidates for investigation in high-quality trials and discussion in international guidelines to reduce perioperative mortality.


Assuntos
Consenso , Assistência Perioperatória/mortalidade , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
20.
J Thorac Dis ; 9(12): 5368-5381, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29312748

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. TBI patients frequently suffer from lung complications and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Moreover, the association between TBI and ARDS in trauma patients is well recognized. Mechanical ventilation of patients with a concomitance of acute brain injury and lung injury can present significant challenges. Frequently, guidelines recommending management strategies for patients with traumatic brain injuries come into conflict with what is now considered best ventilator practice. In this review, we will explore the strategies of the best practice in the ventilatory management of patients with ARDS and TBI, concentrating on those areas in which a conflict exists. We will discuss the use of ventilator strategies such as protective ventilation, high positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), prone position, recruitment maneuvers (RMs), as well as techniques which at present are used for 'rescue' in ARDS (including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) in patients with TBI. Furthermore, general principles of fluid, haemodynamic and hemoglobin management will be discussed. Currently, there are inadequate data addressing the safety or efficacy of ventilator strategies used in ARDS in adult patients with TBI. At present, choice of ventilator rescue strategies is best decided on a case-by-case basis in conjunction with local expertise.

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