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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 152: 146-149, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237610

RESUMO

The optimal screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes remains unknown. Pre-participation screening with electrocardiogram (ECG) remains controversial. The utility and accuracy of limb-lead (LL) ECG alone in identifying cardiac abnormalities associated with SCD has not been studied. This study was a comparative secondary data analysis, comparing the interpretation accuracy of 4 physicians evaluating publicly available ECGs of the most common cardiac conditions associated with SCD in athletes. Each physician interpreted a total of 100 ECGs: 50 normal ECGs (25 LL and 25 standard 12L) and 50 abnormal ECGs (25 LL and 25 standard 12L). The agreement between LL ECGs and 12L ECGs was assessed by Cohen's kappa coefficient and the accuracy of identifying an abnormal ECG was compared across LL and 12L ECGs using a chi-squared test. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by estimating the Fleiss's kappa coefficient. The sensitivity of LL ECG and 12L ECG was identical at 86%. The specificity of LL ECG was 75% (95% CI = 65% to 83%) and 12L ECG was 82% (95% CI = 73% to 89%). Substantial agreement was seen between LL ECG and 12L ECG interpretation across all readers (k = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.77). Interpretation accuracy was 81% (95% CI = 74% to 86%) and 84% (95% CI 78% to 89%) using LL ECG and 12L ECG, respectively (p = 0.43). In conclusion, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were high and comparable for both LL ECG and 12L ECG in identifying cardiovascular conditions associated with SCD. Agreement between LL ECG and 12L ECG was substantial.


Assuntos
Atletas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/complicações , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Brugada/complicações , Síndrome de Brugada/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Brugada/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/complicações , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/fisiopatologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Miocardite/complicações , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/complicações , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/fisiopatologia
2.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211006031, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies to reduce anxiety prior to injection procedures are not well understood. The purpose is to determine the effect of a meditation monologue intervention delivered via phone/mobile application on pre-injection anxiety levels among patients undergoing a clinical injection. The following hypothesis was tested: patients who listened to a meditation monologue via phone/mobile application prior to clinical injection would experience less anxiety compared to those who did not. METHODS: A prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed at an orthopedics and sports medicine clinic of a tertiary level medical center in the New England region, USA. Thirty patients scheduled for intra- or peri-articular injections were randomly allocated to intervention (meditation monologue) or placebo (nature sounds) group. Main outcome variables were state and trait anxiety inventory (STAI) scores and blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and respiratory rate. RESULTS: There were 16 participants who were allocated to intervention (meditation monologue) while 14 participants were assigned to placebo (nature sounds). There was no interaction effect. However, a main time effect was found. Both state anxiety (STAI-S) and trait anxiety (STAI-T) scores were significantly reduced post-intervention compared to pre-intervention (STAI-S: p = 0.04, STAI-T: p = 0.04). Also, a statistically significant main group effect was detected. The pre- and post- STAI-S score reduction was greater in the intervention group (p = 0.028). Also, a significant diastolic BP increase between pre- and post-intervention was recorded in the intervention group (p = 0.028), but not in the placebo group (p = 0.999). CONCLUSION: Listening to a meditation monologue via phone/mobile application prior to clinical injection can reduce anxiety in adult patients receiving intra- and peri-articular injections. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02690194.

3.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(2): 109-112, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560035

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The availability of handheld ultrasound offers physicians an opportunity to better define anatomy and pathophysiology, thus enhancing the diagnostic capabilities of a standard physical examination. The medical community increasingly embraces the potential for point-of-care ultrasound across medical specialties. The primary aim of this review was to identify and compile information on the current clinical utility of point-of-care ultrasound for musculoskeletal examination. This information will enable health care providers to understand the current utility and potential of musculoskeletal point-of-care ultrasound, thus facilitating its appropriate adoption into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Sistema Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Exame Físico/métodos , Testes Imediatos , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Ultrassonografia
4.
Phys Sportsmed ; 49(1): 37-44, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281468

RESUMO

Introduction: To determine clinical parameters that are related to abnormal cardiac symptoms in physically active youth. Methods: We used Simon's Heart Heartbytes National Youth Cardiac Registry to collect data from adolescent athletes in southeastern Pennsylvania. We collected age, race/ethnicity, abnormal cardiac symptoms, medical history, medication use, caffeine intake, and family history. We obtained height, weight, blood pressure, cardiac murmur findings, and ECGs. Echocardiogram was obtained if necessary. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent associations between abnormal cardiac symptoms and collected variables. The odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95% CI), and p-values were used as statistical values. Results: Of the 887 athletes (543 males and 344 females, age = 16.9 ± 2.1 years, height = 166.9 ± 11.4 cm, weight = 62.0 ± 16.0 kg), 186 (21%) had abnormal cardiac symptoms including chest pain, passing out, difficulty breathing, extreme fatigue, and heart race. There was an independent association between abnormal symptoms and a past medical history (OR: 4.77, 95%CI: 3.18, 7.17, p = 0.001) and medication use (OR: 1.74, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.79, p = 0.022). In medical history, young athletes with asthma showed a greater propensity of abnormal cardiac symptoms (48.9%) compared to young athletes without (14.0%, p = 0.001). Additionally, young athletes with anxiety or depression demonstrated a higher proportion of abnormal cardiac symptoms (48.9%) than those without (19.5%, p = 0.001). Although the association between the presence of abnormal symptoms and African-American race (OR: 2.04, 95%CI: 0.96, 4.35, p = 0.065) and average daily consumption of at least 2 caffeine drinks (OR: 2.08, 95%CI: 0.86, 5.02, p = 0.103) were not significant, there was a trend to reach the a priori significance level. Conclusions: This study identified several clinical parameters that are associated with symptoms suggestive of abnormal cardiac conditions. Larger studies need to be done to better sort out the clinical history that may contribute to false positives to further reduce false positives at heart screenings.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Asma/complicações , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Depressão , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Anamnese , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia
5.
Clin J Sport Med ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of simultaneously conducting history and physical (H&P), limb-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), and preparticipation echocardiography by frontline providers (PEFP) at one screening station. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compares limb-lead versus 12-lead ECG as part of a preparticipation physical examination (PPE) including H&P and PEFP conducted in year 1 and year 2 on 2 cohorts (n = 36, n = 53, respectively) of college athletes at one institution. Year 1 screening was conducted at 3 stations, one station per screening component. Time to complete each station was recorded, and total time for screening was the summation of times for each station. Year 2 screening was conducted at one station; timing began when the patient entered the room and ended when all 3 components of screening were complete. An unpaired t test was used to compare the mean time difference between years 1 and 2 screening stations. RESULTS: Year 1 screening time was significantly longer than time to complete cardiac screening using the year 2 protocol (10.51 ± 1.98 vs 3.96 ± 1.43 minutes, respectively; P < 0.001). Five athletes in year 1 and 3 athletes in year 2 were referred to cardiology for further evaluation; all athletes were ultimately cleared to participate. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive PPE can be completed in a timely fashion using a single screening station and limb-lead ECG to improve efficiency, while still allowing providers to gather information on history, physical examination, heart rhythm, and heart structure. This strategy may serve as a potential solution in the longstanding debate over best practices for PPEs.

6.
Phys Sportsmed ; 46(4): 477-484, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of hypoechoic areas by US and its' association with VISA-P scores among asymptomatic jumpers while highlighting sex comparisons. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Pre-participation exam at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) division I college. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one college athletes who engage in jumping sports. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hypoechoic images of patellar tendon captured by ultrasound examination were compared to a self-reported knee functional survey, the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment for patellar tendinopathy (VISA-P) scale (0-100). RESULTS: With a total of 31 athletes (13 males and 18 females), prevalence rate of the hypoechoic areas of patellar tendon was 19.4% (6/31) in the right knee and 29.0% (9/31) in the left knee. There was no proportional difference in a comparison of prevalence rate of hypoechoic area [(+) or (-)] by sex in either right or left knee. The VISA-P scores were significantly lower in US (+) than US (-) in the right knee (p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 1.675), but not the left knee (p = 0.250, Cohen's d = 0.512). The receiver operating characteristics curve analysis indicated the most sensitive and specific VISA-P values based on status [(+) or (-)] of hypoechoic area was 89.5 with 86.4% and 77.7% of sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSION: In short, hypoechoic areas were detected by US examination among self-reported asymptomatic jumpers. There was an association between hypoechoic areas and VISA-P scores in the right knee, but not in left knee. VISA-P scores may be used as a screening tool for the presence of hypoechoic areas.


Assuntos
Ligamento Patelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendinopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Atletas , Basquetebol , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Ligamento Patelar/patologia , Prevalência , Atletismo , Ultrassonografia , Voleibol , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Ultrasound Med ; 37(10): 2451-2455, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575042

RESUMO

Athletes' hearts have been studied for adaptive changes in response to exercise. Physiologic changes are normal responses to intense athletic training regimens, whereas pathologic changes predispose athletes to sudden cardiac death. The two alterations overlap in clinical presentation. Research continues to investigate the upper limits of cardiac remodeling to aid clinical decision making. Studying normal changes that occur in response to exercise will advance physicians' understanding of physiologic responses to exercise and potentially improve clinical distinction. To expand this body of knowledge, we present an observational case series that describes morphologic changes in athlete's hearts concurrent with performance measurements.


Assuntos
Atletas , Remodelamento Atrial/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Esportes Aquáticos , Adulto , Ergometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Coração/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 16(2): 77-83, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28282353

RESUMO

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death during exercise in young athletes. Preparticipation physical examinations were developed to maintain the health and safety of athletes, including the prompt identification of those at risk for SCD. The use of medical history and physical examinations, electrocardiography, and echocardiography, or some combination thereof, is the source of continued debate. This article provides an overview of the etiology of SCD and reviews literature relating to preparticipation echocardiography, with a focus on its evolution, utility, and effectiveness. The limited echocardiogram is a potentially viable screening option yet to be thoroughly explored by experts and policymakers in the sports medicine community.


Assuntos
Atletas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Resistência Física , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Esportiva
10.
Clin J Sport Med ; 27(5): 423-429, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27755012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The traditional history and physical (H&P) is a poor screening modality to identify athletes at risk for sudden cardiac death. Although better than H&P alone, electrocardiograms (ECG) have also been found to have high false-positive rates. A limited portable echocardiogram by a frontline physician (PEFP) performed during preparticipation physical examination (PPE) allows for direct measurements of the heart to more accurately identify athletes with structural abnormalities. Therefore, it is worthwhile to assess the feasibility of incorporating limited PEFP as part of PPEs. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating limited screening PEFP into routine PPEs. METHODS: Thirty-five Division I male collegiate athletes were prospectively enrolled in the study after informed consent was obtained. Each athlete underwent screening with H&P, ECG, and limited PEFP. The H&P was performed based on the 2007 twelve-element preparticipation cardiovascular screening guidelines from the American Heart Association. The ECGs were interpreted using the 2013 Seattle Criteria. The limited echocardiographic (ECHO) measurements were obtained in the parasternal long axis view. End-diastolic measurements were recorded for the left ventricular diameter (LVD), left ventricular posterior wall diameter (LVPWd), interventricular septal wall diameter (IVSWd), aortic root diameter, and ascending aorta. The length of time of each screening station was recorded and reported in seconds (sec) and compared by one-way repeated-measures of analysis of variance with pairwise Bonferroni correction. A priori alpha level was set as 0.05. RESULTS: The length of time for screening was significantly shorter with limited PEFP (137.7 ± 40.4 seconds) compared with H&P (244.2 ± 80.0 seconds) and ECG (244.9 ± 85.6 seconds, P < 0.01). The screening time did not differ between H&P and ECG (P = 0.97). Six athletes had a positive finding in H&P screening and 3 athletes had positive ECG findings. One athlete had both a positive H&P and screening ECG. All 3 athletes with positive ECGs had negative limited PEFP screens. One athlete had a borderline posterior wall thickness (1.49 mm) on the limited screening PEFP evaluation and another was found to have a borderline IVSWd-to-LVPWd ratio (1.28). All 3 athletes with positive ECG findings and both athletes with a borderline finding on limited PEFP were referred for formal evaluation with a cardiologist. None of the 5 athletes were disqualified from competition after cardiac evaluation, but 1 of the athletes with a positive screening-limited ECHO needs annual monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating limited PEFP into PPEs has the potential to limit the number of false-positive and false-negative cardiac screens. Limited PEFP was the fastest screening modality compared with traditional H&P and ECG methods. Based on the time-driven activity-based paradigm of cost analysis, limited PEFP as part of the PPE yields the highest value: the most accurate and reliable information and the lowest dollar/time expenditure.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Eletrocardiografia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Exame Físico , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PM R ; 8(3 Suppl): S36-44, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26972266

RESUMO

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death during exercise for athletes younger than 35 years. Structural cardiac abnormalities are responsible for the majority of SCDs among competitive athletes. The screening protocol that is best for detecting athletes at risk for SCD has been the subject of considerable and long-standing debate. The American Heart Association recommends the use of a 14-element history and physical examination (H&P), whereas European standards call for a focused H&P and 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). The use of ECG screening has been repeatedly rejected in the United States because of the high rate of false-positive results and an abundance of evidence suggesting that it is a cost-ineffective tool for screening. Attempts have also been made to prescreen athletes for cardiac disease with echocardiography (ECHO) performed by a cardiologist; however, this technique also proved to be cost-ineffective. The use of ECHO performed by a frontline physician reflects recent advancements in ultrasound technology utilization, including the advent of portable ultrasound, and introduces a new, promising screening method to the debate. Portable ECHO by a frontline physician (PEFP) has the ability to directly visualize structural components of the heart that are part of the gold standard ECHO evaluation performed by a cardiologist. The Early Screening for Cardiac Abnormalities with Preparticipation Echocardiography (ESCAPE) protocol developed at Northeastern University is the first attempt to implement the PEFP. Initial inquiries into the reliability and feasibility of the PEFP are promising. Measurements obtained by frontline physicians were not statistically different from those obtained by a cardiologist, focused ECHO was found to reduce the referral rate to cardiology by 33%, and PEFP was completed significantly faster than H&P and an ECG. Early results are encouraging, but continued research to support the widespread use of PEFP for preparticipation examination in all competitive athletes is needed prior to recommending implementation.


Assuntos
Atletas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Exame Físico/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência
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