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1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 61: 215-223, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627640

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Genetic factors associated with immune response contribute to infection development and disease. M. leprae has the capacity to invade Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and cause neuropathy. However, while the responsible molecular mechanisms remain to be fully unveiled, they have begun being elucidated. We studied genetic variants Myelin Protein Zero (MPZ), a major structural component of the myelin sheath, and Mannose Binding Lectin 2 (MBL2), a protein involved in immune response, in 112 family groups of 114 leprosy patients using PCR-RFLP, aiming to calculate the association and allelic transmission of variants associated in first, second and third-degree relatives. Polymorphisms found in MPZ and MBL2 showed association with leprosy. Different probabilities for allelic transmission were found for first and second-degree relatives, a fact that is important to take into account when evaluating risk in contacts of leprosy patients. Structural analysis allows the study of putative amino acids and their possible effect on protein structure and function, as well as on the assembly of a protein homotetramer. Our results suggest that the identified MPZ and MBL2 gene mutations are associated with leprosy in a Colombian population, which correlates with MPZ and MBL2 protein function, and increase the risk of M. leprae infection in leprosy-patients' family members. Additionally, structural analyses were carried out specifically for MPZ protein using information available in databases, and analyzing the substitutions in wildtype and mutant protein. The results show significant structural changes, which may be associated to infection and pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Lectina de Ligação a Manose , Proteína P0 da Mielina , Adulto , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/genética , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/química , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Proteína P0 da Mielina/química , Proteína P0 da Mielina/genética , Proteína P0 da Mielina/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
2.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 31(4): 391-402, oct.-dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-960035

RESUMO

El carcinoma o linfoma gástrico es una de las principales causas de mortalidad por cáncer en el mundo. Esta enfermedad es el resultado final de un largo proceso multifactorial en el que interviene un elevado número de factores ambientales y genéticos. Como enfermedad genética, la variación individual en riesgo de cáncer ha sido asociada con variantes alélicas específicas de diferentes genes (polimorfismos), en los cuales se hallan los mecanismos moduladores que dan respuesta a la carcinogénesis y el riesgo de progreso de la misma. De esta manera, las investigaciones a nivel molecular se han enfocado en la detección de las alteraciones en la conformación de bases sobre genes de predisposición al desarrollo y progresión del cáncer gástrico. Estos estudios fueron realizados en diversas poblaciones donde la enfermedad es recurrente, basados inicialmente en la selección individual de polimorfismo de nucleótido simple (SNP) en genes candidatos. Importantes marcadores moleculares han sido descritos y propuestos como marcadores pronóstico en este tipo de pacientes y permiten así el avance en el entendimiento del proceso neoplásico. Esta revisión pretende dar una mirada de actualización en los estudios recientes en polimorfismos de genes implicados en procesos inmunogenéticos, en mecanismos de reparación de ADN, en la respuesta a la desintoxicación de compuestos carcinógenos y en mecanismos de supresión tumoral o que intervienen en la apoptosis, procesos que están involucrados en el desarrollo de cáncer gástrico. Datos de marcadores moleculares asociados con esta enfermedad de genomas de colombianos y foráneos ya almacenados en las bases de datos del proyecto 1000 Genomes son también reportados


Gastric carcinoma and lymphoma are leading causes of cancer mortality throughout the world. This disease is the end result of a long multifactorial process involving a large number of environmental and genetic factors. As a genetic disease, individual variation in cancer risk has been associated with specific alleles of different genes (polymorphisms) in which the modulatory mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the risk of its progression are found. Research at the molecular level has focused on the detection of genetic alterations predisposing to the development and progression of gastric cancer. These studies have been conducted in various populations in which the disease recurs and have been initially based on individual selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes. Important molecular markers have been described and proposed as prognostic markers in this type of patients which has allowed for advances in the understanding of the neoplastic process. This review intends to provide an up to date look at recent studies on gene polymorphisms involved in immunogenic processes, DNA repair mechanisms, responses to detoxification of carcinogenic compounds, mechanisms of tumor suppression and apoptosis which are all processes involved in the development of gastric cancer. Data are also reported from molecular markers associated with this disease from Colombian and foreign genomes already stored in the database of the 1000 Genomes Project.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pesquisa , Neoplasias Gástricas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Carcinogênese , Genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Genes
3.
BMC Genomics ; 17: 45, 2016 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26754847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug treatments and vaccine designs against the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa have multiple issues, all associated with the diverse genetic traits present in this pathogen, ranging from multi-drug resistant genes to the molecular machinery for the biosynthesis of biofilms. Several candidate vaccines against P. aeruginosa have been developed, which target the outer membrane proteins; however, major issues arise when attempting to establish complete protection against this pathogen due to its presumably genotypic variation at the strain level. To shed light on this concern, we proposed this study to assess the P. aeruginosa pangenome and its molecular evolution across multiple strains. RESULTS: The P. aeruginosa pangenome was estimated to contain more than 16,000 non-redundant genes, and approximately 15 % of these constituted the core genome. Functional analyses of the accessory genome indicated a wide presence of genetic elements directly associated with pathogenicity. An in-depth molecular evolution analysis revealed the full landscape of selection forces acting on the P. aeruginosa pangenome, in which purifying selection drives evolution in the genome of this human pathogen. We also detected distinctive positive selection in a wide variety of outer membrane proteins, with the data supporting the concept of substantial genetic variation in proteins probably recognized as antigens. Approaching the evolutionary information of genes under extremely positive selection, we designed a new Multi-Locus Sequencing Typing assay for an informative, rapid, and cost-effective genotyping of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. CONCLUSIONS: We report the unprecedented pangenome characterization of P. aeruginosa on a large scale, which included almost 200 bacterial genomes from one single species and a molecular evolutionary analysis at the pangenome scale. Evolutionary information presented here provides a clear explanation of the issues associated with the use of protein conjugates from pili, flagella, or secretion systems as antigens for vaccine design, which exhibit high genetic variation in terms of non-synonymous substitutions in P. aeruginosa strains.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genoma Bacteriano , Genótipo , Humanos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade
4.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e112179, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25379782

RESUMO

Galleria mellonella has emerged as a potential invertebrate model for scrutinizing innate immunity. Larvae are easy to handle in host-pathogen assays. We undertook proteomics research in order to understand immune response in a heterologous host when challenged with microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. The aim of this study was to investigate hemolymph proteins that were differentially expressed between control and immunized larvae sets, tested with F. oxysporum at two temperatures. The iTRAQ approach allowed us to observe the effects of immune challenges in a lucid and robust manner, identifying more than 50 proteins, 17 of them probably involved in the immune response. Changes in protein expression were statistically significant, especially when temperature was increased because this was notoriously affected by F. oxysporum 104 or 106 microconidia/mL. Some proteins were up-regulated upon immune fungal microconidia challenge when temperature changed from 25 to 37°C. After analysis of identified proteins by bioinformatics and meta-analysis, results revealed that they were involved in transport, immune response, storage, oxide-reduction and catabolism: 20 from G. mellonella, 20 from the Lepidoptera species and 19 spread across bacteria, protista, fungi and animal species. Among these, 13 proteins and 2 peptides were examined for their immune expression, and the hypothetical 3D structures of 2 well-known proteins, unannotated for G. mellonella, i.e., actin and CREBP, were resolved using peptides matched with Bombyx mori and Danaus plexippus, respectively. The main conclusion in this study was that iTRAQ tool constitutes a consistent method to detect proteins associated with the innate immune system of G. mellonella in response to infection caused by F. oxysporum. In addition, iTRAQ was a reliable quantitative proteomic approach to detect and quantify the expression levels of immune system proteins and peptides, in particular, it was found that 104 microconidia/mL at 37°C over expressed many more proteins than other treatments.


Assuntos
Fusarium/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Lepidópteros/imunologia , Lepidópteros/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteômica , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Hemolinfa/imunologia , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/microbiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/imunologia , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/microbiologia , Lepidópteros/genética , Lepidópteros/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação Proteica
5.
Iatreia ; 27(3): 278-289, jul.-set. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-720250

RESUMO

Introducción: la malaria gestacional afecta a las madres y al embrión o feto en desarrollo; requiere diagnóstico rápido y tratamiento oportuno y efectivo para evitar las complicaciones y muertes. Objetivo: comparar las técnicas de gota gruesa, PCR anidada y PCR en tiempo real (qRT-PCR), para diagnosticar infecciones submicroscópicas por Plasmodium falciparum y P. vivax. Metodología: se estudiaron 21 mujeres con manifestaciones clínicas de malaria, incluyendo gestantes y no gestantes, en Puerto Libertador, Córdoba, Colombia; de todas se obtuvieron muestras de sangre periférica y, en las gestantes, de placenta y cordón umbilical. Se extrajo el ADN y se lo amplificó por PCR anidada y cuantitativa (qRT-PCR). Para el análisis estadístico se usaron los programas Graphpad PRISM y EPIDAT. Resultados: las tres técnicas diagnosticaron satisfactoriamente la presencia de P. falciparum y P. vivax en sangre periférica, cordón y placenta. Las pruebas moleculares presentaron sensibilidad y especificidad del 100%; dos casos de infección por P. falciparum no identificados por gota gruesa (submicroscópicos) se diagnosticaron con las dos técnicas de PCR. Conclusión: la qRT-PCR es ventajosa en comparación con la PCR anidada porque su estandarización es más corta, requiere menos infraestructura y permite cuantificar el ADN.


Introduction: Gestational malaria affects both the mother and the development of her embryo or fetus. Rapid diagnosis and timely and effective treatment are required to prevent complications and deaths. Objective: To compare thick blood smear with nested PCR and real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for the diagnosis of submicroscopic infections with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Methodology: 21 women with clinical manifestations of malaria, including both pregnant and non-pregnant, were studied in Puerto Libertador, Córdoba, Colombia. Peripheral blood specimens were obtained from all of them; umbilical cord and placenta blood specimens were taken in the pregnant ones. DNA was extracted and amplified for nested PCR or qRT-PCR. Statistical analysis was done using Graphpad PRISM and EPIDAT softwares. Results: The three techniques were satisfactory for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in peripheral blood and in the umbilical cord and placenta specimens. Molecular tests were 100% sensitive and specific. Two submicroscopic cases of P. falciparum infection were detected with the two PCR techniques. Conclusion: qRT-PCR is advantageous over nested PCR because its standardization is shorter, it requires lesser infrastructure and it allows the quantification of DNA.


Assuntos
Feminino , Gravidez , Malária , Plasmodium , Gestantes
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 7: 440, 2014 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25012753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA post-transcriptional modification is an exciting field of research that has evidenced this editing process as a sophisticated epigenetic mechanism to fine tune the ribosome function and to control gene expression. Although tRNA modifications seem to be more relevant for the ribosome function and cell physiology as a whole, some rRNA modifications have also been seen to play pivotal roles, essentially those located in central ribosome regions. RNA methylation at nucleobases and ribose moieties of nucleotides appear to frequently modulate its chemistry and structure. RNA methyltransferases comprise a superfamily of highly specialized enzymes that accomplish a wide variety of modifications. These enzymes exhibit a poor degree of sequence similarity in spite of using a common reaction cofactor and modifying the same substrate type. RESULTS: Relationships and lineages of RNA methyltransferases have been extensively discussed, but no consensus has been reached. To shed light on this topic, we performed amino acid and codon-based sequence analyses to determine phylogenetic relationships and molecular evolution. We found that most Class I RNA MTases are evolutionarily related to protein and cofactor/vitamin biosynthesis methyltransferases. Additionally, we found that at least nine lineages explain the diversity of RNA MTases. We evidenced that RNA methyltransferases have high content of polar and positively charged amino acid, which coincides with the electrochemistry of their substrates. CONCLUSIONS: After studying almost 12,000 bacterial genomes and 2,000 patho-pangenomes, we revealed that molecular evolution of Class I methyltransferases matches the different rates of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions along the coding region. Consequently, evolution on Class I methyltransferases selects against amino acid changes affecting the structure conformation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Metiltransferases/genética , Filogenia , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA não Traduzido , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Sequência de Bases , Epigênese Genética , Evolução Molecular , Metilação , Metiltransferases/química , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
7.
Biomedica ; 34 Suppl 1: 41-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24968035

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aminoglycosides like streptomycin are well-known for binding at specific regions of ribosome RNA and then acting as translation inhibitors. Nowadays, several pathogens have been detected to acquire an undefined strategy involving mutation at non structural ribosome genes like those acting as RNA methylases. rsmG is one of those genes which encodes an AdoMet-dependent methyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of m 7 G527 in the 530 loop of bacterial 16S rRNA. This loop is universally conserved, plays a key role in ribosomal accuracy, and is a target for streptomycin binding. Loss of the m 7 G527 modification confers low-level streptomycin resistance and may affect ribosomal functioning. OBJECTIVES: After taking into account genetic information indicating that some clinical isolates of human pathogens show streptomycin resistance associated with mutations at rsmG , we decided to explore new hot spots for mutation capable of impairing the RsmG in vivo function and of promoting low-level streptomycin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To gain insights into the molecular and genetic mechanism of acquiring this aminoglycoside resistance phenotype and the emergence of high-level streptomycin resistance in rsmG mutants, we mutated Escherichia coli rsmG and also performed a genotyping study on rpsL from several isolates showing the ability to grow at higher streptomycin concentrations than parental strains. RESULTS: We found that the mutations at rpsL were preferentially present in these mutants, and we observed a clear synergy between rsmG and rpsL genes to induce streptomycin resistance. CONCLUSION: We contribute to understand a common mechanism that is probably transferable to other ribosome RNA methylase genes responsible for modifications at central sites for ribosome function.


Assuntos
Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Mutação Puntual , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Estreptomicina/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Metilação , Metiltransferases/química , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Deleção de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 41-49, abr. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-712420

RESUMO

Introduction: Aminoglycosides like streptomycin are well-known for binding at specific regions of ribosome RNA and then acting as translation inhibitors. Nowadays, several pathogens have been detected to acquire an undefined strategy involving mutation at non structural ribosome genes like those acting as RNA methylases. rsmG is one of those genes which encodes an AdoMet-dependent methyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of m 7 G527 in the 530 loop of bacterial 16S rRNA. This loop is universally conserved, plays a key role in ribosomal accuracy, and is a target for streptomycin binding. Loss of the m 7 G527 modification confers low-level streptomycin resistance and may affect ribosomal functioning. Objectives: After taking into account genetic information indicating that some clinical isolates of human pathogens show streptomycin resistance associated with mutations at rsmG , we decided to explore new hot spots for mutation capable of impairing the RsmG in vivo function and of promoting low-level streptomycin resistance. Materials and methods: To gain insights into the molecular and genetic mechanism of acquiring this aminoglycoside resistance phenotype and the emergence of high-level streptomycin resistance in rsmG mutants, we mutated Escherichia coli rsmG and also performed a genotyping study on rpsL from several isolates showing the ability to grow at higher streptomycin concentrations than parental strains. Results: We found that the mutations at rpsL were preferentially present in these mutants, and we observed a clear synergy between rsmG and rpsL genes to induce streptomycin resistance. Conclusion: We contribute to understand a common mechanism that is probably transferable to other ribosome RNA methylase genes responsible for modifications at central sites for ribosome function.


Introducción. Los aminoglucósidos son moléculas antibióticas capaces de inhibir la síntesis de proteínas bacterianas tras su unión al ribosoma procariota. La resistencia a aminoglucósidos está clásicamente asociada a mutaciones en genes estructurales del ribosoma bacteriano; sin embargo, varios estudios recientes han demostrado, de forma recurrente, la presencia de un nuevo mecanismo dependiente de mutación que no involucra genes estructurales. El gen rsmG es uno de ellos y se caracteriza por codificar una metiltransferasa que sintetiza el nucleósido m 7 G527 localizado en el loop 530 del ribosoma bacteriano, este último caracterizado como sitio preferencial al cual se une la estreptomicina. Objetivo. Partiendo de las recientes asociaciones clínicas entre las mutaciones en el gen rsmG y la resistencia a estreptomicina, este estudio se propuso la caracterización de nuevos puntos calientes de mutación en este gen que puedan causar resistencia a estreptomicina usando Escherichia coli como modelo de estudio. Materiales y métodos. Se indagó sobre el mecanismo genético y molecular por el cual se adquiere la resistencia a estreptomicina y su transición a la resistencia a altas dosis mediante mutagénesis dirigida del gen rsmG y genotipificación del gen rpsL . Resultados. Se encontró que la mutación N39A en rsmG inactiva la proteína y se reportó un nuevo conjunto de mutaciones en rpsL que confieren resistencia a altas dosis de estreptomicina. Conclusiones. Aunque los mecanismos genéticos subyacentes permanecen sin esclarecer, se concluyó que dichos patrones secuenciales de mutación podrían tener lugar en otros genes modificadores del ARN bacteriano debido a la conservación evolutiva y al papel crítico que juegan tales modificaciones en la síntesis de proteínas.


Assuntos
Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Metiltransferases/genética , Mutação Puntual , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , /metabolismo , Estreptomicina/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Metilação , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Metiltransferases/química , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , RNA Bacteriano/genética , /genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Deleção de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
9.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 28(4): 320-328, oct.-dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-700534

RESUMO

El descubrimiento de Helicobacter, hace 30 años, cambió por completo el pensamiento de las comunidadesmédica y científi ca sobre las úlceras péptica y duodenal. El paradigma anterior al descubrimiento de Marshally Warren planteaba la imposibilidad de supervivencia de microorganismos en el estómago, debido a su pH,y que si algunos sobrevivían se iban a alojar en el duodeno o en otras porciones del intestino. Es indiscutiblehoy día el papel en la carcinogénesis de H. pylori, pero poco se conoce sobre especies emergentes del géneroHelicobacter en el ser humano. Helicobacter hepaticus es una de las especies más estudiadas después deH. pylori. De la bacteria se saben sus características microbiológicas, genéticas y patogénicas, así como surelación con el hepatocarcinoma en modelo murino y su infección en el ser humano. Esta revisión pretendemostrar a las comunidades médica y científica la existencia de nuevas especies de Helicobacter que tienenun potencial patogénico en humanos, y así alentar investigaciones al respecto.


The discovery of Helicobacter 30 years ago by Marshall and Warren completely changed thought about pepticand duodenal ulcers. The previous paradigm posited the impossibility of the survival of microorganisms in thestomach’s low pH environment and that, if any microorganisms survived, they would stay in the duodenumor elsewhere in the intestine. Today the role of H. pylori in carcinogenesis is indisputable, but little is knownabout other emerging species of the genus Helicobacter in humans. Helicobacter hepaticus is one of thesespecies that has been studied most, after H. pylori. We now know about their microbiological, genetic andpathogenic relationships with HCC in murine and human infections. This review aims to show the medical andscientifi c community the existence of new species of Helicobacter that have pathogenic potential in humans,thus encouraging research.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Helicobacter hepaticus , Helicobacter pylori
10.
Colomb. med ; 44(3): 172-177, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-700498

RESUMO

Abstract Objetive: The study explored the effects of Plasmodium vivax infection on the balance of pro- versus anti- inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and their relationship with some clinical and epidemiology outcomes. Methods: Thirty-five pregnant women were recruited. Of these, 15 subjects had malaria at delivery (GM+), and 20 had no exposition to infection throughout the pregnancy (GM-) and at delivery. Epidemiological and clinical data were recorded after reviewing the clinical records. At delivery, whole blood from the mother as well as placental tissue was collected. Diagnosis of infection was performed by thick smear and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was measured by a real time PCR. Results: The clinical and epidemiological variables explored were similar in both groups, with the exception of gestational age. When comparing the GM+ group with the GM- group, it is clear that although the differences generally are not significant, pro- inflammatory cytokines are elevated in both maternal blood and placental; anti-inflammatory ones are elevated in the mother and reduced in the placenta, and the chemokines are reduced in both compartments, except for MCP-1 which is elevated in all. Conclusion: The results appear to be strongly affected by the small number of women with GM by P. vivax at childbirth. Additional studies are needed with larger groups in this and other regions of the country.


Resumen Objetivo: En este estudio se determinó el efecto de la infección por Plasmodium vivax en el balance de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias/anti-inflamatorias y quemoquinas y su relación con algunas variables epidemiológicas y clínicas. Métodos: Se reclutaron 35 gestantes, 15 con malaria en el momento del parto (GM+) y 20 sin malaria en ningún momento de la gestación (GM-) Los datos epidemiológicos y clínicos fueron colectados a partir de la historia clínica. En el momento del parto fueron tomadas muestras de sangre periférica materna y tejido placentario. El diagnóstico fue realizado mediante gota gruesa y reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). La expresión de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias/anti-inflamatorias y quimioquinas, fueron medidas por PCR en tiempo real. La expresión de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias/anti-inflamatorias y quemoquinas, fueron medidas por PCR en tiempo real. Resultados: En las variables epidemiológicas y clínicas, los datos fueron similares en ambos grupos. Al comparar el grupo GM+ con el grupo GM-, resulta claro que, aunque las diferencias, en general, no son significativas, las citoquinas proinflamatorias están elevadas tanto en sangre materna como placentaria, las antiinflamatorias están elevadas en la madre y reducidas en la placenta, y las quimioquinas están reducidas en ambos compartimentos, excepto la MCP-1 que está elevada en ambos. Conclusión. Los resultados parecen estar fuertemente afectados por la cantidad pequeña de mujeres con MG por P. vivax en el parto. Es necesario adelantar estudios adicionales con más mujeres tanto en esta región como en otros lugares.

11.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 44(3): 172-7, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24892615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study explored the effects of Plasmodium vivax infection on the balance of pro- versus anti- inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and their relationship with some clinical and epidemiology outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-five pregnant women were recruited. Of these, 15 subjects had malaria at delivery (GM+), and 20 had no exposition to infection throughout the pregnancy (GM-) and at delivery. Epidemiological and clinical data were recorded after reviewing the clinical records. At delivery, whole blood from the mother as well as placental tissue was collected. Diagnosis of infection was performed by thick smear and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was measured by a real time PCR. RESULTS: The clinical and epidemiological variables explored were similar in both groups, with the exception of gestational age. When comparing the GM+ group with the GM- group, it is clear that although the differences generally are not significant, pro- inflammatory cytokines are elevated in both maternal blood and placental; anti-inflammatory ones are elevated in the mother and reduced in the placenta, and the chemokines are reduced in both compartments, except for MCP-1 which is elevated in all. CONCLUSION: The results appear to be strongly affected by the small number of women with GM by P. vivax at childbirth. Additional studies are needed with larger groups in this and other regions of the country.


OBJETIVO: En este estudio se determinó el efecto de la infección por Plasmodium vivax en el balance de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias/anti-inflamatorias y quemoquinas y su relación con algunas variables epidemiológicas y clínicas. MÉTODOS: Se reclutaron 35 gestantes, 15 con malaria en el momento del parto (GM+) y 20 sin malaria en ningún momento de la gestación (GM-) Los datos epidemiológicos y clínicos fueron colectados a partir de la historia clínica. En el momento del parto fueron tomadas muestras de sangre periférica materna y tejido placentario. El diagnóstico fue realizado mediante gota gruesa y reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). La expresión de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias/anti-inflamatorias y quimioquinas, fueron medidas por PCR en tiempo real. La expresión de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias/anti-inflamatorias y quemoquinas, fueron medidas por PCR en tiempo real. RESULTADOS: En las variables epidemiológicas y clínicas, los datos fueron similares en ambos grupos. Al comparar el grupo GM+ con el grupo GM-, resulta claro que, aunque las diferencias, en general, no son significativas, las citoquinas proinflamatorias están elevadas tanto en sangre materna como placentaria, las antiinflamatorias están elevadas en la madre y reducidas en la placenta, y las quimioquinas están reducidas en ambos compartimentos, excepto la MCP-1 que está elevada en ambos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados parecen estar fuertemente afectados por la cantidad pequeña de mujeres con MG por P. vivax en el parto. Es necesario adelantar estudios adicionales con más mujeres tanto en esta región como en otros lugares.

12.
Med Mycol ; 42(4): 391-5, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15473367

RESUMO

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an important mycosis endemic to Latin America. As the tools to study gene function in P. brasiliensis are only in the early stage of development, there is presently no system that allows for both the delivery and integration of exogenous nucleic acids into its genome. We report in this paper the transformation of the yeast phase of P. brasiliensis (ATCC-60855) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (GV3101) carrying the vector pAD1625. The microorganisms were co-cultivated for 2 days and then incubated for 10 days at 35 degrees C on selective media. PCR and dot-blot targeted at a fragment of 222 bp from the hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene which confers Hygr confirmed the transformation of P. brasiliensis.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Paracoccidioides/genética , Transformação Genética , Eletroporação , Immunoblotting , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Plasmídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
13.
Malar J ; 3: 4, 2004 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15003129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major concern in malaria vaccine development is the polymorphism observed among different Plasmodium isolates in different geographical areas across the globe. The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) is a leading vaccine candidate antigen against asexual blood stages of malaria parasite. To date, little is known about the extent of sequence variation in the Plasmodium vivax MSP-1 gene (Pvmsp-1) among Indian isolates. Since P. vivax accounts for >50% of malaria cases in India and in Colombia, it is essential to know the Pvmsp-1 gene variability in these two countries to sustain it as a vaccine candidate. The extent of polymorphism in Pvmsp-1 gene among Indian and Colombian isolates is described. METHODS: The sequence variation in the region encompassing the inter-species conserved blocks (ICBs) five and six of Pvmsp-1 gene was examined. PCR was carried out to amplify the polymorphic region of Pvmsp-1 and the PCR products from twenty (nine Indian and 11 Colombian) isolates were sequenced and aligned with Belem and Salvador-1 sequences. RESULTS: Results revealed three distinct types of sequences among these isolates, namely, Salvador-like, Belem-like and a third type sequence which was generated due to interallelic recombination between Salvador-like sequences and Belem-like sequences. Existence of the third type in majority (44%) showed that allelic recombinations play an important role in PvMSP1 diversity in natural parasite population. Micro-heterogeneity was also seen in a few of these isolates due to nucleotide substitutions, insertions as well as deletions. CONCLUSIONS: Intergenic recombination in the Pvmsp-1 gene was found and suggest that this is the main cause for genetic diversity of the Pvmsp-1 gene.


Assuntos
Alelos , Proteína 1 de Superfície de Merozoito/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Recombinação Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/genética , Proteína 1 de Superfície de Merozoito/química , Proteína 1 de Superfície de Merozoito/classificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Plasmodium vivax/classificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/classificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
14.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 84(2): 81-8, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14533711

RESUMO

Pulse field gel electrophoresis karyotypes of 41 strains of the genus Debaryomyces, including 35 strains confirmed as D. hansenii species by D1/D2 ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, were performed. Electrophoretic karyotypes of the 41 strains exhibited 4 to 10 chromosomal bands ranging between 0.7 Mb and 4.2 Mb. Among D. hansenii species, the patterns of strains obtained from the CBS collection and cheese isolates differed strongly from D. hansenii var. hansenii CBS767T. Both D. hansenii var. hansenii and D. hansenii var. fabryii showed chromosome length polymorphism. Electrophoretic karyotypes of the D. hansenii strains were analyzed by Southern hybridization with various species-specific probes isolated from D. hansenii var. hansenii CBS767T. Repeated sequences including the F01pro, M18pro, the Ty1-copia retrotransposon Tdh5 and hypothetical telomeric sequence hybridized to several chromosomal bands, while a D1/D2 probe derived from the large ribosomal sub-unit hybridized only to the largest chromosome. Unique probes such as those hybridizing to actin ACT1, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GPD1 and beta-glucosidase LAC4 encoding genes were assigned to specific chromosomal bands of D. hansenii var. hansenii CBS767T. These probes failed to hybridize to D. hansenii var. fabryii strongly suggesting that strains of this variety actually represent a different taxon.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Fúngicos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Saccharomycetales/genética , Sequência de Bases , Southern Blotting , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Cariotipagem , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 83(3): 215-22, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12776916

RESUMO

Pulse field gel electrophoresis karyotypes of 41 strains of the genus Debaryomyces, including 35 strains confirmed as D. hansenii species by D1/D2 ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, were performed. Electrophoretic karyotypes of the 41 strains exhibited 4 to 10 chromosomal bands ranging between 0.7 Mb and 4.2 Mb. Among D. hansenii species, the patterns of strains obtained from the CBS collection and cheese isolates differed strongly from D. hansenii var. hansenii CBS767T. Both D. hansenii var. hansenii and D. hansenii var. fabryii showed chromosome length polymorphism. Electrophoretic karyotypes of the D. hansenii strains were analyzed by Southern hybridization with various species-specific probes isolated from D. hansenii var. hansenii CBS767T. Repeated sequences including the F01pro, M18pro, the Ty1-copia retrotransposon Tdh5 and hypothetical telomeric sequence hybridized to several chromosomal bands, while a D1/D2 probe derived from the large ribosomal sub-unit hybridized only to the largest chromosome. Unique probes such as those hybridizing to actin ACT1, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GPD1 and beta-glucosidase LAC4 encoding genes were assigned to specific chromosomal bands of D. hansenii var. hansenii CBS767T. These probes failed to hybridize to D. hansenii var. fabryii strongly suggesting that strains of this variety actually represent a different taxon.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Fúngicos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Saccharomycetales/genética , Genes Fúngicos , Cariotipagem
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