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2.
J Psychopharmacol ; : 269881121996890, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The six-item version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-6) has shown promise as a brief measure of the severity of core symptoms of schizophrenia. However, since all prior analyses of the PANSS-6 were based on data extracted from studies using the full 30-item PANSS (PANSS-30), it remains unknown whether it is possible to obtain valid information for the PANSS-6 ratings via a brief interview, such as the Simplified Negative and Positive Symptoms Interview (SNAPSI). AIMS: We aimed to validate the PANSS-6 ratings obtained via the SNAPSI using the PANSS-6 scores extracted from the PANSS-30 ratings obtained via the comprehensive Structured Clinical Interview for PANSS (SCI-PANSS) as the gold-standard reference. METHODS: The PANSS-6 ratings based on the SNAPSI and the PANSS-30 ratings based on the SCI-PANSS were conducted by independent raters with established inter-rater reliability. RESULTS: Seventy-seven inpatients with schizophrenia (Mage = 35.1 ± 11.7 years; males = 57%; paranoid schizophrenia = 75%) participated in the study. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the PANSS-6 total scores obtained using the SNAPSI and the PANSS-30-derived PANSS-6 total scores via the SCI-PANSS was 0.77 (p < 0.001). The ICC for the PANSS-6 total score and the PANSS-30-derived PANSS-8 (Andreasen's remission criteria) was 0.75 (p < 0.001). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient for changes in PANSS-6 total scores via the SNAPSI and changes in PANSS-30-derived PANSS-6 total scores was 0.70 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Using the SNAPSI to rate the PANSS-6 enables a focused and brief assessment of the severity of core symptoms of schizophrenia, which facilitates measurement-based care and clinical decision making in the treatment of schizophrenia.

3.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656533

RESUMO

Importance: Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors, including metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its constituent criteria. Cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors can worsen cognition in the general population and may contribute to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Objective: To study the association between cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive impairment in individuals with schizophrenia. Data Sources: A search was conducted of Embase, Scopus, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases from inception to February 25, 2020, using terms that included synonyms of schizophrenia AND metabolic adversities AND cognitive function. Conference proceedings, clinical trial registries, and reference lists of relevant publications were also searched. Study Selection: Studies were included that (1) examined cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder; (2) investigated the association of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including MetS, diabetes, obesity, overweight, obesity or overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance with outcomes; and (3) compared cognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder between those with vs without cardiovascular disease risk factors. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Extraction of data was conducted by 2 to 3 independent reviewers per article. Data were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was global cognition, defined as a test score using clinically validated measures of overall cognitive functioning. Results: Twenty-seven studies involving 10 174 individuals with schizophrenia were included. Significantly greater global cognitive deficits were present in patients with schizophrenia who had MetS (13 studies; n = 2800; effect size [ES] = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.50; P = .001), diabetes (8 studies; n = 2976; ES = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.23-0.42; P < .001), or hypertension (5 studies; n = 1899; ES = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.11-0.31; P < .001); nonsignificantly greater deficits were present in patients with obesity (8 studies; n = 2779; P = .20), overweight (8 studies; n = 2825; P = .41), and insulin resistance (1 study; n = 193; P = .18). Worse performance in specific cognitive domains was associated with cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors regarding 5 domains in patients with diabetes (ES range, 0.23 [95% CI, 0.12-0.33] to 0.40 [95% CI, 0.20-0.61]) and 4 domains with MetS (ES range, 0.15 [95% CI, 0.03-0.28] to 0.40 [95% CI, 0.20-0.61]) and hypertension (ES range, 0.15 [95% CI, 0.04-0.26] to 0.27 [95% CI, 0.15-0.39]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, MetS, diabetes, and hypertension were significantly associated with global cognitive impairment in people with schizophrenia.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657070

RESUMO

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Prolonged QT interval related to psychopharmacological treatment is a risk factor for potentially life-threatening arrhythmias. Electrocardiographic measurements are recommended in patients with cardiovascular risk factors before initiating treatment with potentially QT-prolonging medications, such as certain antidepressants or antipsychotics. In patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) or right bundle branch block (RBBB), conventional QT-estimation methods will lead to overestimation of the QT interval, as the conduction defect, reflected by the QRS duration, will increase the QT interval without representing longer repolarization as in drug-induced QT prolongation. METHODS/PROCEDURES: We conducted a systematic review of methods to estimate QT interval in the presence of LBBB or RBBB. We searched electronic databases Embase and Medline (last search, August 12, 2020). FINDINGS/RESULTS: We found 8 different methods, including linear correction formulae with and without correction for heart rate, or simpler formula correcting QRS duration with empirically derived modifiers. Only 3 of 8 methods were applicable in the presence of RBBB, whereas all 8 methods could be applied in the presence of LBBB. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: The QT interval is overestimated in patients with LBBB or RBBB, when using conventional measurements. Several alternative correction formulae exist, which can be applied using standard measurements from ordinary electrocardiographic readings. However, it is currently unknown whether or not the QT prolongation observed in the presence of bundle branch block significantly increases the risk of arrhythmias, as these formulae have not been tested against patient-specific clinical outcomes.

5.
Psychiatriki ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Grego Moderno | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759804

RESUMO

As of the end of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 82 million verified infections and almost 1.8 million COVID-19-related deaths worldwide,1 resulting to an unprecedented public health response around the globe. The COVID-19 pandemic, together with the applied multi-level restrictive measures, has generated a unique combination of an unpredictable and stressful biomedical and socioeconomic environment (i.e., syndemic),2 introducing real-life threat, involuntary and drastic every-day life-style changes with uncertain financial and future prospects, alongside with minimized coping and stress management possibilities.3 This combination of so many different and vital stressors may lead to acute as well as long-term, direct, indirect and even transgenerational unfavourable effects on physical and mental health and functioning, which might even represent the most precarious and still unpredictable public-health-related part of the pandemic.4 Thereby, specific population groups could be at particular risk of poor health outcomes in relation to applied public health measures.4, 5 However, not every individual will experience the same level of negative impact on health and well-being during the pandemic, as several additional national, socioeconomic, environmental, behavioural, emotional and cognitive factors can moderate individual resilience and coping.6 Pandemic-related research should, thus, assess as many multidimensional risk and protective factors as possible in a longitudinal, large-scale and multi-national manner, enabling a profound and comprehensive understanding of the complex health and societal impact of the pandemic worldwide.7 Nevertheless, to date, most research findings are cross-sectional, report on small and non- representative samples from individual countries, or on specific population groups (e.g., health care workers, students, clinical populations) and usually assess only a very restricted set of outcomes and time-points. Thereby, only few studies assess coping strategies, medical history or detailed socioeconomic, demographic and environmental data. In addition, most studies leave behind linguistic differences, being available in one or at best two different languages. Such investigations of small outcome subsets within a narrow framework preclude a broader and clear understanding of the multifaceted pandemic impact on the general population and specific subgroups. Acknowledging these gaps in the existing literature, large- scale, collaborative research prospectively collecting and monitoring a broad range of real- time, multi-dimensional health-related, societal and behavioural outcome data from countries across the globe is currently explicitly needed. The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH- FIT) envisions to fill this gap. Based on an easy-to-access webpage (www.coh-fit.com), COH- FIT is the currently largest-scale known international collaborative study of over 200 researchers around the globe, prospectively collecting the biggest set of multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary data from 150 high, middle, and low-income countries in over 30 languages and in three different age groups (adults, adolescents, children) of the general population, focusing also on relevant at-risk subgroups. Albeit being a cross-sectional anonymous survey on an individual level, it is a longitudinal study on a population level, as data are collected continuously since April 2020 and until the WHO declares the end of the pandemic. In addition to snowball recruitment, this project also collects information from nationally representative samples. Furthermore, COH-FIT is the first study of this scale investigating pandemic effects on health and functioning measures between family members, while it also specifically assesses a large list of behavioral and coping factors (e.g., screen time, social media usage, physical activity, social interaction, religious practices, etc.) on outcomes of interest. COH-FIT also monitors changes in public health restrictive measures to enhance data harmonization across nations and time, and to better investigate their impact on physical and mental health, while it also collects information on changes in healthcare systems functioning. The COH-FIT project was worldwide first initiated in Greece after the ethics committee approval of the School of Medicine of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and is officially supported by the Hellenic Psychiatric Association, European Psychiatric Association, World Association of Social Psychiatry, ECNP Network on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Mental Health Promotion, among many other national and international scientific associations. To date, COH-FIT has already collected >115,000 participations worldwide (>8,000 in Greece), but more participants are still needed, both during the second and third wave of the pandemic, as in the future, after the pandemic has ended. Currently, the COH-FIT survey actively collects the largest sample on multifactorial data on the impact of the COVD-19 pandemic on health and functioning not only in Greece, but around the globe. The elaborated design of COH-FIT and similar studies may allow a better identification of key parameters and population groups at increased risk during the pandemic, as well as potential targets for acute and long-term prevention or intervention strategies in the current as in possible future pandemics. A profound understanding of the health and societal impact of the pandemic could facilitate an optimized governmental, social and individual health preparedness during infection times8 and the bridging of individuals', societal and systemic needs and actions through multi-level guideline development with the aim to improve mental health outcomes globally.

6.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 438-446, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578367

RESUMO

The six-item Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-6) allows for a brief assessment of the severity of core symptoms of schizophrenia. However, implementing the PANSS-6 in clinical practice requires that staff members' ratings are accurate and reliable. We aimed to investigate whether such accuracy and reliability can be obtained via a brief video-based training program. One-hundred-and-four staff members from a psychiatric hospital in Denmark participated in the training. Participants performed a baseline PANSS-6 rating based on a video of a patient being interviewed using the Simplified positive And Negative Symptoms interview (SNAPSI). Subsequently, a theoretical introduction video was displayed followed by five successive videotaped SNAPSI patient interviews. After each SNAPSI video, individual ratings were conducted before a video providing the gold standard rating was displayed. The accuracy of ratings was estimated by calculating the proportion of participants not deviating from the gold standard rating with >2 points on individual items or >6 points on the PANSS-6 total score. Reliability was tested after each step in the training by means of Gwet's Agreement Coefficient (Gwet). By the end of the training, 72% of the participants rated within the acceptable deviations of the gold standard, ranging from 60% (nurses) to 91% (medical doctors & psychologists). The reliability improved (Gwet baseline vs. endpoint) for all PANSS-6 items, except for Blunted affect. In conclusion, the majority of the staff members conducted accurate PANSS-6 ratings after a brief standardized training program, supporting the implementation of PANSS-6 in clinical settings to facilitate measurement-based care.

7.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and adverse metabolic outcomes in patients with severe mental illness are clinically significant but potentially preventable. Importantly, the evidence for switching to antipsychotics to reduce cardiometabolic burden is unclear. METHOD: PubMED, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane were searched from inception to March 8, 2020. Articles reporting weight and metabolic changes after antipsychotic switching vs staying on the previous antipsychotic were meta-analyzed both across and within group. RESULTS: Of 61 identified studies, 59 were meta-analyzed (40% rated high quality). In the switch-vs-stay pairwise meta-analyses, only aripiprazole significantly reduced weight (-5.52 kg, 95% CI -10.63, -0.42, P = .03), while olanzapine significantly increased weight (2.46 kg, 95% CI 0.34, 4.57, P = .02). Switching to aripiprazole also significantly improved fasting glucose (-3.99 mg/dl, 95% CI -7.34, -0.64, P = .02) and triglycerides (-31.03 mg/dl, 95% CI -48.73, -13.34, P = .0001). Dropout and psychosis ratings did not differ between switch and stay groups for aripiprazole and olanzapine. In before-to-after switch meta-analyses, aripiprazole (-1.96 kg, 95% CI -3.07, -0.85, P < .001) and ziprasidone (-2.22 kg, 95% CI -3.84, -0.60, P = .007) were associated with weight loss, whereas olanzapine (2.71 kg, 95% CI 1.87, 3.55, P < .001), and clozapine (2.80 kg, 95% CI 0.26, 5.34, P = .03) were associated with weight gain. No significant weight or other cardiometabolic changes were observed when switching to amisulpride, paliperidone/risperidone, quetiapine, or lurasidone. CONCLUSIONS: Switching antipsychotics to agents with lower weight gain potential, notably to aripiprazole and ziprasidone, can improve weight profile and other cardiometabolic outcomes. When choosing switch agents, both the weight gain potential of the pre- and post-switch antipsychotic must be considered. Antipsychotic switching in psychiatrically stable patients must be weighed against the risk of psychiatric worsening.

8.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp202020071120, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared relapse prevention and acceptability of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in the maintenance treatment of adults with nonaffective psychoses. METHODS: The authors searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and online registers for randomized controlled trials published until June 2020. Relative risks and standardized mean differences were pooled using random-effects pairwise and network meta-analysis. The primary outcomes were relapse rate and all-cause discontinuation ("acceptability"). The quality of included studies was rated with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, and the certainty of pooled estimates was measured with GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). RESULTS: Of 86 eligible trials, 78 (N=11,505) were included in the meta-analysis. Regarding relapse prevention, most of the 12 LAIs included outperformed placebo. The largest point estimates and best rankings of LAIs compared with placebo were found for paliperidone (3-month formulation) and aripiprazole. Moderate to high GRADE certainty for superior relapse prevention compared with placebo was also found for (in descending ranking order) risperidone, pipothiazine, olanzapine, and paliperidone (1-month formulation). In head-to-head comparisons of LAIs, only haloperidol was inferior to aripiprazole, fluphenazine, and paliperidone. For acceptability, most LAIs outperformed placebo, with moderate to high GRADE certainty for (in descending ranking order) zuclopenthixol, aripiprazole, paliperidone (3-month formulation), olanzapine, flupenthixol, fluphenazine, and paliperidone (1-month formulation). In head-to-head comparisons, only LAI aripiprazole had superior acceptability to other LAIs (bromperidol, fluphenazine, paliperidone [1-month formulation], pipothiazine, and risperidone). CONCLUSIONS: LAI formulations of paliperidone (3-month formulation), aripiprazole, olanzapine, and paliperidone (1-month formulation) showed the highest effect sizes and certainty of evidence for both relapse prevention and acceptability. Results from this network meta-analysis should inform frontline clinicians and guidelines.

9.
Nord J Psychiatry ; : 1-11, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630698

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Self-reports of psychosis-related symptoms may be a valuable supplement to clinician-ratings, but more validation studies are required. The aim of this study was to conduct clinical validation for the Symptom Self-rating Scale for Schizophrenia (4S) in an inpatient setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were invited to participate in the study. The participants completed the 4S, the 5-item World Health Organization Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) at two time points. Trained raters assessed participants using the 6-item Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-6). The relationship between the 4S and PANSS-6, self-reported side effects, functioning and wellbeing was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rho). RESULTS: Sixty-one participants completed the 4S at least once (yielding a total of 91 completed 4S questionnaires). The 4S total score was weakly correlated with the PANSS-6 total score (rho = 0.37, p < 0.001). The rho's for individual 4S and PANSS-6 subscales and item comparisons ranged from -0.24 (thought disorder) to 0.69 (hallucinations). Finally, the 4S hallucination subscale was also sensitive to change. The 4S was strongly inversely correlated with wellbeing (WHO-5) and moderately inversely correlated with functioning (SDS total score). CONCLUSION: The 4S holds promise as a valid self-report of core schizophrenia symptoms among inpatients. While the hallucination subscale seems superior to existing scales, the thought disorder subscale needs to be re-developed.

10.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 198-205, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumateperone is a mechanistically novel agent FDA-approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. Efficacy and favorable tolerability of lumateperone were demonstrated in 2 short-term placebo-controlled studies in patients with schizophrenia. This open-label study investigated the short-term safety/tolerability of lumateperone in outpatients with stable schizophrenia switched from previous antipsychotic treatment. METHODS: Adult outpatients with stable schizophrenia were switched from previous antipsychotics to lumateperone 42 mg once daily for six weeks, then patients were switched back to previous or another approved antipsychotic for 2 weeks. The primary objective assessed adverse events (AE), vital signs, laboratory tests, and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Schizophrenia symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). RESULTS: Among 301 patients switched to lumateperone (study completion=71.2%), treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) occurred in 137 patients (45.5%), with 92 (30.6%) experiencing a drug-related TEAE. The most common drug-related TEAEs were somnolence (6.6%), headache (5.3%), and dry mouth (5.3%). Most TEAEs were mild or moderate in severity. EPS-related TEAEs were rare (1.0%). There were significant decreases from previous antipsychotics baseline in total cholesterol (P<.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.05), body weight (P<.01), and prolactin (P<.01); most of these parameters worsened within 2 weeks of resuming other antipsychotic treatment. PANSS Total scores remained stable relative to previous antipsychotics baseline during lumateperone treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In outpatients with stable schizophrenia, lumateperone was well tolerated with low risk of cardiometabolic and EPS adverse effects and stably maintained or improved schizophrenia symptoms. These data further support the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of lumateperone in patients with schizophrenia.

11.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), an extracellular network protease implicated in glutamatergic signaling, may be part of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). METHODS: We performed a systematic review in PubMed/Embase until July 15, 2020, conducting a random-effects meta-analysis of studies comparing MMP-9 blood levels in SSD vs healthy controls (HCs) and psychiatric controls (PCs), calculating between-group differences in standardized mean differences (SMDs) ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Meta-regression analyses included sex, age, illness duration, antipsychotic dose, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total/subscales. Subgroup analyses included first-episode patients (FEP) vs non-FEP, each vs HCs and vs PCs, and blood sample type. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. RESULTS: Four, five, and two trials were rated as high, fair, and low quality. In 11 studies (n = 1443), 643 patients (age = 36.7 ± 14.1 years, females = 42.9%) were compared with HCs (n = 631), with 4 studies including also 169 PCs. MMP-9 levels were higher in SSD vs HCs (SMD = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.20-0.85, P = .002), but not in PCs vs HCs (n = 132, after removing one implausible outlier [SMD = 0.33, 95%CI = -0.16 to 0.85, P = .082]). MMP-9 differences between SSD and HCs were associated with higher PANSS total (coefficient = 0.02, 95%CI = 0.01-0.02, P < .001), PANSS positive (coefficient = 0.08, 95%CI = 0.02-0.13, P = .006), and PANSS general scores (coefficient = 0.02, 95%CI = 0.01-0.03, P < .001). MMP-9 level differences vs HCs did not vary significantly between FEP (n = 103, SMD = 0.44, 95%CI = 0.15-0.72, P = .71) and non-FEP patients (n = 466, SMD = 0.59, 95%CI = 0.38-0.80; P = .34) (FEP vs non-FEP: P = .39). In four high-quality studies, MMP-9 levels remained significantly higher in SSD vs HCs (SMD = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.03-1.61). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest MMP-9 upregulation in SSD, requiring further validation and understanding of related pathways.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459884

RESUMO

We investigated whether a novel visitation model for school-aged youth with mental health problems based on a stage-based stepped-care approach facilitated a systematic identification and stratification process without problems with equity in access. The visitation model was developed within the context of evaluating a new transdiagnostic early treatment for youth with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and/or behavioural problems. The model aimed to identify youth with mental health problems requiring an intervention, and to stratify the youth into three groups with increasing severity of problems. This was accomplished using a two-phase stratification process involving a web-based assessment and a semi-structured psychopathological interview of the youth and parents. To assess problems with inequity in access, individual-level socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers with data on both the youth participating in the visitation and the background population. Altogether, 573 youth and their parents took part in the visitation process. Seventy-five (13%) youth had mental health problems below the intervention threshold, 396 (69%) were deemed eligible for the early treatment, and 52 (9%) had symptoms of severe mental health problems. Fifty (9%) youth were excluded for other reasons. Eighty percent of the 396 youth eligible for early treatment fulfilled criteria of a mental disorder. The severity of mental health problems highlights the urgent need for a systematic approach. Potential problems in reaching youth of less resourceful parents, and older youth were identified. These findings can help ensure that actions are taken to avoid equity problems in future mental health care implementations.

13.
CNS Drugs ; 35(1): 39-59, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507525

RESUMO

The availability of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia provides clinicians with options that deliver continuous drug exposure and may improve adherence compared with daily oral antipsychotics. However, all LAI antipsychotics have unique formulations and pharmacokinetic characteristics that have implications for medication selection, administration interval, and injection site. This review outlines key differences in drug formulations and pharmacokinetics among LAI antipsychotics. A systematic search of the PubMed database was conducted to identify physical and formulation properties and pharmacokinetic data of commercially available LAI antipsychotics, including flupentixol decanoate, fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, zuclopenthixol decanoate, aripiprazole monohydrate, aripiprazole lauroxil, olanzapine pamoate, paliperidone palmitate, risperidone microspheres, and risperidone polymeric microspheres. Additional information was obtained from package inserts and product monographs. Relevant data on drug properties, administration details, pharmacokinetic parameters, and oral dose equivalencies of LAI antipsychotics are summarized. Based on our analysis, formulation characteristics (e.g., vehicle medium) and administration characteristics (e.g., injection site) can affect rate of absorption and adverse effects and may factor into whether oral supplementation or an additional injection is needed. Dose adjustments may be necessary based on potential drug-drug interactions, and approximate dose equivalence with oral formulations can help inform titration when switching from oral to LAI formulations. Clinicians administering LAI antipsychotics should consider these formulation and pharmacokinetic factors to maximize clinical impact and to adjust to an individual patient's needs and treatment goals.

14.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459778

RESUMO

There is emerging evidence of high mortality rates after the first diagnosis of psychotic disorder. The objective of this study was to estimate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in a population-based cohort of individuals with a first diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum psychotic disorder (SSD). The cohort included a population-based sample of individuals with a first diagnosis of SSD based on the first diagnosis occurring during hospitalization or in an outpatient setting between 2007 and 2010 in Ontario, Canada. All patients were followed for 5 years after the first diagnosis. The primary outcome was SMR, including all-cause, suicide-related, accidental, and other causes. Between 2007 and 2010, there were 2382 patients in the hospitalization cohort and 11 003 patients in the outpatient cohort. Over the 5-year observation period, 97 (4.1%) of the hospitalization cohort and 292 (2.7%) of the outpatient cohort died, resulting in an SMR of 13.6 and 9.1, respectively. In both cohorts, suicide was the most common cause of death. Approximately 1 in 25 patients with a first diagnosis of SSD during hospitalization, and 1 in 40 patients with a first diagnosis of SSD in an outpatient setting, died within 5 years of first diagnosis in Ontario, Canada. This mortality rate is between 9 and 13 times higher than would be expected in the age-matched general population. Based on these data, timely access to services should be a public health priority to reduce mortality following a first diagnosis of an SSD.

15.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(3): 250-260, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355633

RESUMO

Importance: Behavioral therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) programs targeting a single class of problems have not been widely implemented. The population of youths with common mental health problems is markedly undertreated. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a new transdiagnostic CBT program (Mind My Mind [MMM]) compared with management as usual (MAU) in youths with emotional and behavioral problems below the threshold for referral to mental health care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pragmatic, multisite, randomized clinical trial of MMM vs MAU was conducted from September 7, 2017, to August 28, 2019, including 8 weeks of postintervention follow-up, in 4 municipalities in Denmark. Consecutive help-seeking youths were randomized (1:1) to the MMM or the MAU group. Main inclusion criteria were age 6 to 16 years and anxiety, depressive symptoms, and/or behavioral disturbances as a primary problem. Data were analyzed from August 12 to October 25, 2019. Interventions: The MMM intervention consisted of 9 to 13 weekly, individually adapted sessions of manualized CBT delivered by local psychologists. The MAU group received 2 care coordination visits to enhance usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in mental health problems reported by parents at week 18, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) Impact scale (range, 0-10 points, with higher scores indicating greater severity of distress and impairment). Primary and secondary outcomes were assessed in the intention-to-treat population at week 18. Maintenance effects were assessed at week 26. Results: A total of 396 youths (mean [SD] age, 10.3 [2.4] years; 206 [52.0%] boys) were randomized to MMM (n = 197) or MAU (n = 199), with primary outcome data available in 177 (89.8%) and 167 (83.9%), respectively, at 18 weeks. The SDQ Impact score decreased by 2.34 points with MMM and 1.23 with MAU, from initial scores of 4.12 and 4.21, respectively (between-group difference, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.75-1.45]; P < .001; Cohen d = 0.60). Number of responders (≥1-point reduction in SDQ Impact score) was greater with MMM than with MAU (144 of 197 [73.1%] vs 93 of 199 [46.7%]; number needed to treat, 4 [95% CI, 3-6]). Secondary outcomes indicated statistically significant benefits in parent-reported changes of anxiety, depressive symptoms, daily functioning, school attendance, and the principal problem. All benefits were maintained at week 26 except for school attendance. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, the scalable transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral intervention MMM outperformed MAU in a community setting on multiple, clinically relevant domains in youth with emotional and behavioral problems. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03535805.

16.
J Eat Disord ; 8(1): 61, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite knowledge about eating disorder symptoms in children and adolescents in the general population, relatively little is known about self-reported and sex-specific eating-disorder-related psychopathology, as well as its specific correlates. METHODS: 880 German school-attending adolescents (15.4 ± 2.2 years) and 30 female patients with AN (16.2 ± 1.6 years) were studied. All participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and a Body Image Questionnaire. RESULTS: There were more overweight males than females (15.2% vs 10.1%, p < 0.001), but more females with underweight than males (6.2% vs. 2.5%, p < .001). Negative body evaluations (p < .001) and dissatisfaction (p < .001) were significantly more frequent in females. Compared to underweight female patients with AN, underweight school-attending females had less negative body evaluations (p < .001) and lower scores on 5 of the 11 EDI-2 subscales (p < .001; p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Males were more overweight than females, females more underweight. Body image was more important to female than to male youth, yet without reaching pathological values when compared to female patients with AN. Complex emotional and cognitive challenges seem to be a representative factor for eating pathology rather than simply being underweight. These aspects may be relevant for the shift from a thinness-related focus in girls in the general population to the development of an eating disorder.

17.
Psychol Med ; 50(16): 2812-2813, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345768
18.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(1)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and pooled, patient-level analysis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) case reports and series compared NMS characteristics and outcomes during long-acting injectable antipsychotic (LAI) versus oral antipsychotic (OAP) treatment. DATA SOURCES: Two authors independently searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for articles in English from database inception until October 9, 2018. STUDY SELECTION: Case reports with author-defined NMS during ongoing antipsychotic treatment or within 1 injection interval of LAIs in adults aged 18-65 years. DATA EXTRACTION: Demographic, clinical, treatment and outcome data were independently extracted following PRISMA guidelines. NMS severity was rated using the Francis-Yacoub scale. Characteristics and outcomes of NMS were compared when occurring during LAI versus OAP treatment, adjusting for significant between-group differences. RESULTS: Of 662 reported cases (median age = 36 years, male = 61.2%), 122 (18.4%) involved LAIs (second-generation antipsychotic [SGA] LAIs [SGA-LAIs] = 10, 1.5%), whereas 540 (81.6%) involved OAPs (SGA-OAPs = 159, 24.0%). The 2 groups did not differ in age, illness duration, comorbidities, or presence or severity of NMS symptoms (median Francis-Yacoub score: LAIs = 26 vs OAPs = 23, P = .8276). Antipsychotic formulation was not significantly associated with longer duration of hospitalization (LAIs = 5.0 weeks vs OAPs = 3.8 weeks, P = .8322), post-NMS sequelae (LAIs = 8.8% vs OAPs = 7.0%, P = .7489), or death (LAIs = 10.7% vs OAPs = 6.7%, P = .0861). When different, post hoc confounder-adjusted models were used, duration of NMS (but not hospitalization for NMS) was longer with LAIs than with OAPs (median = 2.6 vs 1.8 weeks, P = .0339), driven by FGAs rather than SGAs. CONCLUSIONS: These data, plus the fact that only 10 published NMS cases exist with SGA-LAIs, should mitigate safety concerns regarding LAIs, but results should be interpreted cautiously since they are based on case reports.

19.
NPJ Schizophr ; 6(1): 37, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239746

RESUMO

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Risperidone ISM® against placebo in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted between June 2017 and December 2018 (NCT03160521). Eligible patients received once-monthly intramuscular injections of Risperidone ISM® (75 or 100 mg) or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score from baseline to week 12. The key secondary efficacy outcome was change from baseline in Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S) score. Altogether, 438 patients were randomized (1:1:1) and 390 included in the modified ITT efficacy set. The PANSS total score (mean difference, 95% CI) improved significantly from baseline to day 85 with Risperidone ISM® 75 and 100 mg, with placebo-adjusted differences of -13.0 (95% CI, -17.3 to -8.8); (p < 0.0001), and -13.3 (-17.6 to -8.9); (p < 0.0001), respectively. Significantly improved mean changes were also obtained for CGI-S score from baseline to day 85 for both doses of Risperidone ISM® compared with placebo -0.7 (-1.0 to -0.5); p < 0.0001, for both doses. The statistically significant improvement for both efficacy outcomes were observed as early as 8 days after first injection. The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events were increased blood prolactin (7.8%), headache (7.3%), hyperprolactinemia (5%), and weight increase (4.8%). Neither new nor unexpected relevant safety information was recorded. Risperidone ISM® provided rapid and progressive reduction of symptoms in patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia without need of oral risperidone supplementation or loading doses. Both doses were safe and well tolerated.

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