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1.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(3): 785-792, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963446

RESUMO

Background The Cochrane collaboration risk of bias assessment (RoB) tool is used in several fields to evaluate the methodological quality of studies. Its strengths and challenges are discussed. Objective To assess the sensitivity of the RoB tool in studies of pharmacist interventions. Setting DEPICT database was used to pool randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions. Method A Guide for RoB Judgment in Pharmacy Services was created to help in the interpretation and judgment of bias criteria. The evaluation of bias (low, unclear, high risk) was performed by RCT. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of different interpretations of eight elements of judgment in the RoB tool. Paired analysis and estimations of the effect size (95% confidence interval) of the criteria modifications compared to the original analyses were calculated. Main outcome measure Changes in the interpretations of judgment in the RoB tool. Results Overall, 8.3, 45.4, and 46.3% of the studies were determined to have low, unclear, and high risk of bias, respectively. High risk of bias was caused by attrition and detection domains. The number of studies classified with high risk of bias significantly increased for five of the eight interpretations, while unclear risk of bias increased for three interpretations (with a negligible effect size in all of them). Lack of blinding, loss of participants, and the use of subjective and self-reported outcomes were the main elements resulting in high risk of bias. Conclusion The RoB tool is useful for evaluating RCTs of pharmacist interventions if adapted criteria for judgment are used. Ignoring these adjustments produces a floor-effect with studies classified with high risk of bias.

2.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 17: 210-216, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502691

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the significant impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there is not yet an analytical decision tool for assessing efficiency of interventions to prevent primary CVD events in Brazil. Therefore, we sought to adapt a Scottish CVD Policy Model to be used in the proposed population. METHODS: Calibration consisted of identifying multiplicative factors for linear predictors of existing survival analysis models to produce predictions that closely match observed data (Life-table and Brazilian cohort study). Target data were life expectancy (LE) and cumulative incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CBVD), fatal CVD and fatal non-CVD. Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE) was used to estimate differences between predictions and observations. Acceptance criteria were defined as a fit of less than one year for LE and 1% for cumulative incidence. Male and female models were built separately. RESULTS: The original model underestimated LE (RMSE=2.85 for men and 1.91 for women), CHD and CBVD for women (RMSE=0.044 and 0.041, respectively). The calibration process identified multiplicative factors to reach acceptance criteria for the four target data mentioned above (RMSE=0.61, 0.21, 0.016 and 0.017, respectively). Over prediction was identified only for CHD events in men (RMSE=0.031) being further calibrated (RMSE=0.008). All other target data met the acceptance criteria. Overall, the calibrated model predicts properly to individuals aging 35-80 years old, diabetics or not, smokers or not, with or without family history of CVD, and presenting at least one of the risk factors uncontrolled: Systolic Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol or HDL-Cholesterol. DISCUSSION: This is the first decision analytic model capable of assessing efficiency of interventions that prevent primary CVD events in Brazil. In future research, independent external validation should be carried out to corroborate the reliability of the model outputs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 58(2): 210-219, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pharmacists have adopted an active role in asthma management. This review aimed to analyze the intervention dose, understood as the "amount of program delivered," and core components of the intervention provided by pharmacists in asthma management. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted in December 2016 using PubMed. STUDY SELECTION: A 2-stage approach was used. At the first stage, systematic reviews of pharmacists' interventions in asthma management were identified. At the second stage, primary studies included in the systematic reviews were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: The DEPICT-2 (Descriptive Elements of Pharmacist Intervention Characterization Tool) was used for data extraction. In addition GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) guidelines were used as a reference to classify the interventions' core components. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies were included. In most of the studies, the pharmacist-patient intervention occurred at the community pharmacy setting (n = 22). The most common core components used in pharmacists' interventions were the provision of drug information and patient counseling (n = 27). Pharmacists' interventions frequently were targeted at assessing and improving the use of patient's inhaler technique (n = 27). Educational materials and written action plans were the materials most commonly used in the interventions (n = 20). The duration (n = 13) and the frequency (n = 16) of the intervention were the most frequent information about the intervention dose measure reported. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists' interventions in asthma management are complex. Structured educational programs and patient counseling appear to be the most frequent core components of pharmacists' interventions. Interventions were focused on providing information about the condition and on inhaler technique assessment and training. However, most studies failed to report the intervention dose sufficiently to be reproduced. The reporting of this indicator is crucial to ensure the reproducibility of the interventions assessed and their implementation in practice. (Registration number CRD42016029181.).


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/normas , Farmácias/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Humanos , Papel Profissional
4.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 15(4): 0-0, oct.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-169521

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this overview (systematic review of systematic reviews) is to evaluate the impact of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) applied to medication use in the care process. Methods: A search for systematic reviews that address CDSS was performed on Medline following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane recommendations. Terms related to CDSS and systematic reviews were used in combination with Boolean operators and search field tags to build the electronic search strategy. There was no limitation of date or language for inclusion. We included revisions that investigated, as a main or secondary objective, changes in process outcomes. The Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) score was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. Results: The search retrieved 954 articles. Five articles were added through manual search, totaling an initial sample of 959 articles. After screening and reading in full, 44 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. In the medication-use processes where CDSS was used, the most common stages were prescribing (n=38 (86.36%) and administering (n=12 (27.27%)). Most of the systematic reviews demonstrated improvement in the health care process (30/44 - 68.2%). The main positive results were related to improvement of the quality of prescription by the physicians (14/30 - 46.6%) and reduction of errors in prescribing (5/30 - 16.6%). However, the quality of the studies was poor, according to the score used. Conclusion: CDSSs represent a promising technology to optimize the medication-use process, especially related to improvement in the quality of prescriptions and reduction of prescribing errors, although higher quality studies are needed to establish the predictors of success in these systems (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 15(4): 1036, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317919

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this overview (systematic review of systematic reviews) is to evaluate the impact of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) applied to medication use in the care process. Methods: A search for systematic reviews that address CDSS was performed on Medline following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane recommendations. Terms related to CDSS and systematic reviews were used in combination with Boolean operators and search field tags to build the electronic search strategy. There was no limitation of date or language for inclusion. We included revisions that investigated, as a main or secondary objective, changes in process outcomes. The Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) score was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. Results: The search retrieved 954 articles. Five articles were added through manual search, totaling an initial sample of 959 articles. After screening and reading in full, 44 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. In the medication-use processes where CDSS was used, the most common stages were prescribing (n=38 (86.36%) and administering (n=12 (27.27%)). Most of the systematic reviews demonstrated improvement in the health care process (30/44 - 68.2%). The main positive results were related to improvement of the quality of prescription by the physicians (14/30 - 46.6%) and reduction of errors in prescribing (5/30 - 16.6%). However, the quality of the studies was poor, according to the score used. Conclusion: CDSSs represent a promising technology to optimize the medication-use process, especially related to improvement in the quality of prescriptions and reduction of prescribing errors, although higher quality studies are needed to establish the predictors of success in these systems.

6.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 13(1): 201-208, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26846907

RESUMO

A critical analysis of the research on clinical pharmacy services with regards to study characteristics has not been undertaken since 1998. However, several meta-analyses have been conducted to demonstrate the impact of pharmacists' interventions in specific medical conditions. These meta-analyses present high heterogeneity in part because the interventions are poorly and inconsistently described in primary studies. The aim of this article is to present the characteristics of randomized control trials (RCTs) that assess clinical pharmacy services to identify areas of improvement in future pharmacy practice research studies. Different emphasis of research across geographic regions of the world were also examined. During these 40 years, 520 articles reporting 439 RCTs assessing clinical pharmacy services were published. Of the 439 studies, 77.7% (n = 341) were published in the year 2000 or thereafter, 41.46% (n = 182) were conducted in the US, 27.56% (n = 121) in Europe, and 30.98% (n = 136) in the rest of the world. Studies in pharmacy practice have improved in terms of design, with an increase in the number of published RCTs after 2000. However, the small sample size of RCTs is still an issue. After 2000, a significantly higher proportion of studies were conducted in community pharmacy, targeting specific medical conditions, and with a higher number of patients randomized to the intervention group. Conversely, a significantly smaller proportion of studies were conducted in the hospital and targeted a single recipient after 2000. Studies conducted in the US had significantly more intervention arms, focused mostly on a specific medical condition, and were performed in primary care. Different health care systems' organization and policies may influence clinical pharmacy services research across countries.


Assuntos
Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Tamanho da Amostra
7.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 22(6): 699-713, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27231797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and has a substantial impact on people's health and quality of life. CVD also causes an increased use of health care resources and services, representing a significant proportion of health care expenditure. Integrating evidence-based community pharmacy services is seen as an asset to reduce the burden of CVD on individuals and the health care system. OBJECTIVES: To (a) identify community pharmacy evidence-based services designed to help prevent CVD and (b) provide fundamental information that is needed to assess their potential adaptation to other community pharmacy settings. METHODS: This review used the DEPICT database, which includes 488 randomized controlled trials (RCT) that address the evaluation of pharmacy services. Articles reviewing these RCTs were identified for the DEPICT database through a systematic search of the following databases: MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), and DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals). The DEPICT database was reviewed to identify evidence-based services delivered in the community pharmacy setting with the purpose of preventing CVD. An evidence-based service was defined as a service that has been shown to have a positive effect (compared with usual care) in a high-quality RCT. From each evidence-based service, fundamental information was retrieved to facilitate adaptation to other community pharmacy settings. RESULTS: From the DEPICT database, 14 evidence-based community pharmacy services that addressed the prevention of CVD were identified. All services, except 1, targeted populations with a mean age above 60 years. Pharmacy services encompassed a wide range of practical applications or techniques that can be classified into 3 groups: activities directed at patients, activities directed at health care professionals, and assessments to gather patient-related information in order to support the previous activities. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides pharmacy service planners and policymakers with a comprehensive list of evidence-based services that have the potential to be adapted to different settings from which they were originally implemented and evaluated in order to reduce the burden of CVD. DISCLOSURES: Funding for this review was provided by the University of Technology Sydney Chancellor's Postdoctoral Fellowship awarded to Sabater-Hernández. No other potential conflict of interest was declared. Study concept and design were contributed by Sabater-Hernández, Fernandez-Llimos, Rotta, and Correr. Sabater-Galindo and Sabater-Hernández took the lead in data collection, along with Franco-Trigo and Rotta. Data interpretation was performed by Sabater-Hernández, Durks, and Lopes. The manuscript was written primarily by Sabater-Hernández, along with Hossain, and revised by Fernandez-Llimos, Rotta, and Benrimoj, with assistance from Durks, Sabater-Galindo, Franco-Trigo, and Correr.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
8.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 14(1): 650, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27011774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. RESULTS: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no statistically significant difference between genders with regard to learning styles. CONCLUSION: The pragmatist style is the prevailing style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná. Although students may have a learning preference that preference is not the only manner in which students can learn, neither their preference is the only manner in which students can be taught. Awareness of students' learning styles can be used to adapt the methodology used by teachers to render the teaching-learning process effective and long lasting. The content taught to students should be presented in different manners because varying teaching methods can develop learning skills in students.

9.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 14(1): 656, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27011775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure length of hospital stay (LHS) in patients receiving medication reconciliation. Secondary characteristics included analysis of number of preadmission medications, medications prescribed at admission, number of discrepancies, and pharmacists interventions done and accepted by the attending physician. METHODS: A 6 month, randomized, controlled trial conducted at a public teaching hospital in southern Brazil. Patients admitted to general wards were randomized to receive usual care or medication reconciliation, performed within the first 72 hours of hospital admission. RESULTS: The randomization process assigned 68 patients to UC and 65 to MR. LHS was 10±15 days in usual care and 9±16 days in medication reconciliation (p=0.620). The total number of discrepancies was 327 in the medication reconciliation group, comprising 52.6% of unintentional discrepancies. Physicians accepted approximately 75.0% of the interventions. CONCLUSION: These results highlight weakness at patient transition care levels in a public teaching hospital. LHS, the primary outcome, should be further investigated in larger studies. Medication reconciliation was well accepted by physicians and it is a useful tool to find and correct discrepancies, minimizing the risk of adverse drug events and improving patient safety.

10.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 14(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-150375

RESUMO

Objective: To measure length of hospital stay (LHS) in patients receiving medication reconciliation. Secondary characteristics included analysis of number of preadmission medications, medications prescribed at admission, number of discrepancies, and pharmacists interventions done and accepted by the attending physician. Methods: A 6 month, randomized, controlled trial conducted at a public teaching hospital in southern Brazil. Patients admitted to general wards were randomized to receive usual care or medication reconciliation, performed within the first 72 hours of hospital admission. Results: The randomization process assigned 68 patients to UC and 65 to MR. LHS was 10±15 days in usual care and 9±16 days in medication reconciliation (p=0.620). The total number of discrepancies was 327 in the medication reconciliation group, comprising 52.6% of unintentional discrepancies. Physicians accepted approximately 75.0% of the interventions. Conclusion: These results highlight weakness at patient transition care levels in a public teaching hospital. LHS, the primary outcome, should be further investigated in larger studies. Medication reconciliation was well accepted by physicians and it is a useful tool to find and correct discrepancies, minimizing the risk of adverse drug events and improving patient safety (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Ensaio Clínico , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Erros de Medicação/tendências
11.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 37(5): 687-97, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26001356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple reviews have evaluated the impact of pharmacist-delivered patient care on health-related outcomes. However, it is unclear which of the pharmacist-delivered interventions in these services are the most effective. Aim of the review To gather the evidence of the impact of clinical pharmacy services on the medication use process or on patient outcomes using an overview of systematic reviews. METHODS: PubMed was searched to retrieve systematic reviews published between 2000 and 2010 that assessed the impact of clinical pharmacy services on the medication use process or patient outcomes. Two independent reviewers evaluated the study eligibility and one extracted the description and results of the services. The methodological quality of each review was assessed with the R-AMSTAR tool. RESULTS: Of the 343 potentially relevant records identified, 49 systematic reviews, comprising a total of 269 randomized controlled trials, met the selection criteria. Clinical pharmacy services that focused on specific medical conditions, such as hypertension or diabetes mellitus, revealed a positive impact of pharmacists' interventions on patient outcomes. For other medical conditions, however, the results were inconclusive (e.g., dyslipidemia or thromboprophylaxis). Interventions that targeted medication adherence and assessed the impact of clinical pharmacy services in prescription appropriateness also produced inconclusive results because of the variability of methods used to assess both medication adherence and medication appropriateness. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic reviews that assessed clinical pharmacy services targeting specific conditions were more conclusive given that the intervention was well defined, and the measured outcomes were unequivocal and tangible. Conversely, the results were inconclusive for interventions with a broader target and with monitoring parameters that were unclearly established or inconsistently assessed across studies. These findings emphasize the need to better define clinical pharmacy services and standardize methods that assess the impact of these services on patient health outcomes.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Gerenciamento Clínico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 21(4): 584-90, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25676042

RESUMO

RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: DEPICT (Descriptive Elements of Pharmacist Intervention Characterization Tool) was created in response to the frequently reported issue of poor intervention description across studies assessing the impact of clinical pharmacy activities. The aim of this study was to create an improved version of DEPICT (i.e. DEPICT 2) to better characterize clinical pharmacy services in order to ensure consistent reporting, therefore enhancing reproducibility of interventions in practice. METHOD: A qualitative approach through a thematic content analysis was performed to identify components of pharmacist interventions described in 269 randomized controlled trials. A preliminary version of DEPICT 2 was applied independently by two authors to a random sample of 85 of the 269 RCTs and reliability determined by the prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) or the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The final version of DEPICT 2 was compared against DEPICT 1. RESULTS: The final version of DEPICT 2 comprised 146 items and 11 domains. The inter-rater agreement analysis showed that DEPICT presented good to optimal reproducibility, with a mean PABAK value of 0.87 (95% CI 0.85-0.89) and a mean ICC value of 0.88 (95% CI 0.62-1.14). The mean difference between items checked in the two versions (DEPICT 2 - DEPICT 1) was 10.58 (95% CI 9.55-11.61), meaning that approximately 11 more components were identified in the new version of DEPICT. CONCLUSIONS: DEPICT 2 is a reliable tool to characterize components of clinical pharmacy services, which should be used to ensure consistent reporting of interventions to allow their reproducibility in practice.


Assuntos
Intervenção Médica Precoce/normas , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 13(4): 597, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26759614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to provide appropriate advice to the patient at the time of dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC) medication counseling, community pharmacists need access to current and reliable information about medicines. Brazilian pharmacists have assumed new functions such as prescribing medication, in a dependent model, based in protocols. OBJECTIVE: To examine the practice of community pharmacists in a Brazilian State, focusing on OTC recommendation. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in a state of Brazil was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014, with data collection through a pre-piloted self-administered anonymous survey via Survey Monkey(®) platform. Following ethical approval, the online instrument was sent to 8,885 pharmacists registered in Parana State, Brazil, focusing on professionals working in community pharmacies. The questionnaire assessed the community pharmacy setting, the search for information, the knowledge of the evidence-based practice, the important factors to consider when recommending an OTC medicine, and the pharmacist prescribing. Responses were imported into SPSS(®) (version 22.0) for analysis. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the association between responses and demographic information with a significance level less than 5% (p<0.05). RESULTS: Of the pharmacists, 97.4% dispensed medications and counseled patients for a median of six hours per day. Product's efficacy (97%) and adverse effects (62.3%) were the most important factors taken into account when counseling a nonprescription medicine. Few pharmacists knew the meaning of terms related to evidence-based health. Most respondents agreed that pharmacists have the necessary training to prescribe. CONCLUSION: Over-the-counter medication counseling is a daily practice among Brazilian pharmacists. Learning needs exist for community pharmacists in relation to evidence-based practice. Thus, sources of information with good evidence could be used daily by community pharmacists, especially as regards nonprescription medication counseling.

14.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 71(22): 1965-72, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25349242

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The completeness and utility of pharmacy-oriented Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) relative to MeSH terminology pertaining to other healthcare professions (dentistry and nursing) are evaluated. METHODS: The 2013 version of the MeSH thesaurus-the standard vocabulary used by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to index articles in PubMed and MEDLINE-was searched for dentistry-, nursing-, and pharmacy-specific terms using a truncation strategy (search terms: nurs*, dent*, and pharm*); the hierarchical level of each term and the number of descendant terms (an indication of the granularity of the associated NLM-indexed content) were determined. PubMed searches were conducted to identify areas of the MeSH hierarchy containing dentistry- and nursing-specific terms but no equivalent pharmacy-specific term. RESULTS: The search of the MeSH thesaurus identified 145 terms representing dentistry-specific activities and 94 and 26 terms specific to nursing and pharmacy practice, respectively. Analysis of the three sets of MeSH terms indicated that dentistry-oriented MeSH terms were generally situated more prominently within the MeSH hierarchy than terms for nursing- and pharmacy-oriented research; the MeSH terminology oriented toward nursing or dentistry practice was relatively more granular, allowing for increased specificity and power of information retrieval during PubMed and MEDLINE searches. Seventeen proposed new MeSH terms describing key areas of pharmacy practice were identified; the inclusion of these terms in the MeSH hierarchy could substantially expand and improve the retrievability of NLM-indexed literature. CONCLUSION: Imbalances and gaps were found in MeSH coverage of pharmacy concepts and terminology relative to MeSH terminology specific to the nursing and dentistry professions.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Medical Subject Headings , Farmácia , Humanos , MEDLINE , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , PubMed , Estados Unidos , Vocabulário Controlado
16.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 12(2): 378, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25035713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relation between patient adherence and therapeutic effectiveness of hypolipidemic agents in clinical practice. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 417 patients using hypolipidemic drugs (simvastatin, atorvastatin) between 2003 and 2010 was performed. The population studied consists of patients assisted by the Public Health Service in the far-west region of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The Medication Possession Ratio obtained from pharmacy refill data was used to measure patient adherence. Therapeutic effectiveness was evaluated based on the difference obtained in the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, before and after taking the drug, in an average time of 8.3 months. RESULTS: Following the treatment with hypolipidemic agents, it has been observed a reduction of 14.3% for total cholesterol, 19.6% for LDL-cholesterol, and 14.4% for triglycerides. HDL-cholesterol increased by an 8.0% average. The major changes in lipid profile were promoted by atorvastatin 20 mg daily. The medication adherence rate decreased over the monitoring period. Adherence rates below 60% were associated with therapeutic failure, while rates equal to 80% or higher were associated with the best response to the lipid-lowering drugs. CONCLUSION: Adherence to hypolipidemic agents is higher at the beginning of the treatment, but it decreases over time, affecting the achievement of therapeutic goals.

17.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 12(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-125670

RESUMO

Objective: to evaluate the relation between patient adherence and therapeutic effectiveness of hypolipidemic agents in clinical practice. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 417 patients using hypolipidemic drugs (simvastatin, atorvastatin) between 2003 and 2010 was performed. The population studied consists of patients assisted by the Public Health Service in the far-west region of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The Medication Possession Ratio obtained from pharmacy refill data was used to measure patient adherence. Therapeutic effectiveness was evaluated based on the difference obtained in the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, before and after taking the drug, in an average time of 8.3 months. Results: Following the treatment with hypolipidemic agents, it has been observed a reduction of 14.3% for total cholesterol, 19.6% for LDL-cholesterol, and 14.4% for triglycerides. HDL-cholesterol increased by an 8.0% average. The major changes in lipid profile were promoted by atorvastatin 20 mg daily. The medication adherence rate decreased over the monitoring period. Adherence rates below 60% were associated with therapeutic failure, while rates equal to 80% or higher were associated with the best response to the lipid-lowering drugs. Conclusion: Adherence to hypolipidemic agents is higher at the beginning of the treatment, but it decreases over time, affecting the achievement of therapeutic goals (AU)


Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre la adherencia del paciente y la efectividad terapéutica de los hipolipemiantes en la práctica clínica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 417 pacientes que usaban hipolipemiantes (simvastatina, atorvastatina) entre 2003 y 2010. La población estudiada estaba compuesta de pacientes atendidos en el Servicio Público de Salud de la región del oeste lejano del estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se usó como medida de adherencia el ratio de posesión de medicación obtenido de los datos de consumo en la farmacia. La efectividad terapéutica se evaluó en base a la diferencia obtenida en los niveles séricos de colesterol total, colesterol-LDL, colesterol-HDL y triglicéridos antes y después de tomar el medicamento en una media de tiempo de 8,3 meses. Resultados: Después del tratamiento con hipolipemiantes, se observó una reducción del 14,3% para el colesterol total, 19,6% para el LDL, y 14,4% para los triglicéridos. El HDL aumentó en una media del 8,0%. Los mayores cambios del perfil lipídico fueron promovidos por la atorvastatina 20 mg diarios. La tasa de adherencia a la medicación disminuyó durante el periodo seguido. Las tasas de adherencia por debajo del 60% estaban asociadas con fracaso terapéutico, mientras que las tasas del 80% o superiores estaban asociadas a la mejor respuesta a los hipolipemiantes. Conclusión: La adherencia a los hipolipemiantes fue mayor al principio del tratamiento, pero disminuye a lo largo de éste, afectando a la consecución de los objetivos terapéuticos. Los procedimientos sistemáticos de monitorización de la tasa de adherencia y la evaluación del perfil lipídico por el farmacéutico (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Ann Pharmacother ; 47(11): 1498-506, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24259596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacy practice studies have been criticized for presenting poor intervention description, which has serious implications when attempting to replicate interventions elsewhere. Evidence of improved outcomes for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) following pharmacist intervention exist in the literature, but similar concerns with intervention description have been raised. OBJECTIVE: To assess the implementability of evidence-based clinical pharmacist interventions in patients with CKD, based on the information contained in the published manuscripts. METHODS: PubMed was searched to retrieve systematic reviews addressing the role of pharmacists in patients with CKD. Primary studies describing clinical pharmacy services in CKD were subsequently extracted. To describe and characterize pharmacists' interventions, the DEPICT (Descriptive Elements of Pharmacist Intervention Characterization Tool) was applied. Studies were independently classified as "implementable" or "nonimplementable" by 2 authors, based on whether they could be easily implemented into practice using the description provided in the article. Finally, implementable interventions were grouped in different areas. RESULTS: Five reviews were retrieved, and 39 original studies were analyzed. Of these, 59.0% were classified as nonimplementable. Among implementable interventions, 6 evidence-based areas of pharmacist interventions were identified: anemia, renal osteodystrophy, and cardiovascular risk factors management, medication appropriateness evaluation and medication reconciliation, patient education and compliance, and cost containment. CONCLUSIONS: Information contained in most articles reporting pharmacist interventions in CKD is not sufficient to ensure the implementation of the service in clinical practice. Pharmacy practice research articles should be written with the aim of improving clinical practice and not just showing the results of pharmacists' interventions.


Assuntos
Farmacêuticos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/métodos , Papel Profissional , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto
19.
JAMA Dermatol ; 149(3): 341-9, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23553036

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Considering that most randomized controlled trials compare antifungals with placebo instead of other antifungals, conventional meta-analysis is insufficient to define superiority between the evaluated strategies. To our knowledge, this is the first mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis on antifungal treatments in the literature and shows all the evidence available at the time of the study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of topical antifungals used in dermatophytosis treatment, using mixed-treatment comparisons. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a comprehensive search (up to July 31, 2012) for all entries in MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Randomized controlled trials that compared topical antifungals with one another or with placebo in dermatophytosis treatment were selected for analysis. Methodologic quality of the trials was assessed using the Jadad scale. We excluded studies that scored less than 3 points. The outcomes evaluated were mycologic cure at the end of treatment and sustained cure. A random-effects Bayesian mixed-treatment comparisons model was applied to combine placebo-controlled and direct topical antifungals comparison trials. RESULTS Pooled data of the 65 trials identified did not show any statistically significant differences among the antifungals concerning the outcome of mycologic cure at the end of treatment. Regarding the sustained cure outcome, butenafine hydrochloride and terbinafine hydrochloride were significantly more efficacious than were clotrimazole, oxiconazole nitrate, and sertaconazole nitrate. Terbinafine also demonstrated statistical superiority when compared with ciclopirox (ciclopiroxolamine), and naftifine hydrochloride showed better response compared with oxiconazole. No inconsistency was detected in the network of evidence for both outcomes, sustaining the validity of the mixed-treatment comparisons results. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: With the outcome mycologic cure at the end of treatment, there was no significant difference among the antifungals. Butenafine, naftifine, and terbinafine might be the best strategies for maintaining cured status. Because of the different costs of the antifungals, pharmacoeconomic analysis is required to identify the most efficient strategy for dermatophytosis management.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Pharmacotherapy ; 33(2): 144-51, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23359454

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of nucleoside or nucleotide analog monotherapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis virus B (HBV) with adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir, lamivudine, telbivudine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. DESIGN: Mixed-treatment comparison meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled clinical trials. PATIENTS: A total of 3972 adults with a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A systematic review was conducted to search for randomized clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of nucleoside or nucleotide analogs used as monotherapy. The evaluated outcomes were reduction of HBV DNA levels, normalization of alanine aminotransferase levels, and seroconversion of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). A mixed-treatment comparison was conducted to compare the odds ratios among the treatments and to rank the therapies to determine the optimal treatment option. Tenofovir had the best results among the nucleoside or nucleotide analogs for the three evaluated efficacy outcomes in both HBeAg-positive and -negative patients. CONCLUSION: Tenofovir has the highest probability of reducing HBV DNA, normalizing alanine aminotransferase levels and inducing HBeAg seroconversion after 1 year of treatment. An efficacy comparison of therapies is an important tool to guide clinicians in selecting the optimal treatment option.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Nucleosídeos/administração & dosagem , Nucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
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