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1.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(11): e0064822, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36286541

RESUMO

A ceftazidime-avibactam-resistant KPC-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was isolated in Argentina from a tracheal aspirate. The patient was treated with ceftazidime-avibactam in combination with other agents for 130 days. Whole-genome sequencing of P. aeruginosa identified a D179Y substitution in the Ω loop of KPC-3, corresponding to KPC-31, integrated at the chromosome. The strain belonged to the sequence type 235/O11 (ST235/O11) high-risk clone. Evaluation of carbapenemase detection assays most used by clinical laboratories failed to identify the isolate as a KPC producer.


Assuntos
Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima/farmacologia , Ceftazidima/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azabicíclicos/farmacologia , Compostos Azabicíclicos/uso terapêutico , beta-Lactamases/genética , Combinação de Medicamentos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 1-8, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36286547

RESUMO

During 2020-2021, countries in Latin America and the Caribbean reported clinical emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales that had not been previously characterized locally, increased prevalence of carbapenemases that had previously been detected, and co-production of multiple carbapenemases in some isolates. These increases were likely fueled by changes related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including empirical antibiotic use for potential COVID-19-related bacterial infections and healthcare limitations resulting from the rapid rise in COVID-19 cases. Strengthening antimicrobial resistance surveillance, epidemiologic research, and infection prevention and control programs and antimicrobial stewardship in clinical settings can help prevent emergence and transmission of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , América Latina/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias
3.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36154980

RESUMO

Escherichia coli is one of the main human pathogens causing different hospital- and community-acquired infections. During the period from January 2013 to March 2015, 1.96% (32/1632) of E. coli isolates recovered at the Hospital Regional de Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego province, were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs). These isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (91%) and/or ceftazidime (28%). No resistance to carbapenems was detected. Twenty-six isolates were positive for blaCTX-M gene, grouped as CTX-M-1/15 (54%); CTX-M-9/14 (25%); CTX-M-2 (17%); and CTX-M-1/15 plus CTX-M-9/14 (4%). Five TGC-resistant strains were positive for blaCMY gene, while one strain harbored TEM-19 ESBL. Twelve isolates were identified as ST131 E. coli hyperepidemic clone, and one as ST69. Genome sequence analysis of seven blaCTX-M-15E. coli selected isolates confirm the circulation of ST131, ST617 and ST405 international high-risk clones in the city of Ushuaia.

4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 918868, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899052

RESUMO

Carbapenems are commonly used to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Unfortunately, carbapenem resistance is increasingly reported in many gram-negative bacteria, especially Acinetobacter baumannii. Diazabicyclooctane (DBO) ß-lactamase inhibitors, such as avibactam (AVI), when combined with sulbactam successfully restore sulbactam susceptibility against certain carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) isolates. In the present study, we tested zidebactam, a novel DBO with an additional mechanism of action, in combination with sulbactam against CRAB isolates, including strains that exhibited resistance against sulbactam/avibactam combination. A panel of 43 geographically and genetically distinct CRAB isolates recovered from different hospitals and containing different mechanisms of resistance were included in the present study. We also tested three reference strains (AB0057, AB5075, and AYE). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for sulbactam (range 0.12-512 mg/l) and sulbactam plus 4 mg/l zidebactam were performed using microdilution according to CLSI Standards. A decrease ≥2 dilutions in sulbactam MICs was observed in 84% of the isolates when tested in combination with zidebactam. The sulbactam/zidebactam combination was able to restore sulbactam susceptibility in 91% of the isolates, including isolates that were resistant to sulbactam/avibactam combination. These data encouraged us to further explore sulbactam/zidebactam in other experimental models especially against CRAB isolates resistant to other DBOs.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii , Sulbactam , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Azabicíclicos , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Ciclo-Octanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Piperidinas , Sulbactam/farmacologia
5.
Microb Genom ; 8(4)2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384831

RESUMO

Pneumococcal serotype 35B is an important non-conjugate vaccine (non-PCV) serotype. Its continued emergence, post-PCV7 in the USA, was associated with expansion of a pre-existing 35B clone (clonal complex [CC] 558) along with post-PCV13 emergence of a non-35B clone previously associated with PCV serotypes (CC156). This study describes lineages circulating among 35B isolates in South Africa before and after PCV introduction. We also compared 35B isolates belonging to a predominant 35B lineage in South Africa (GPSC5), with isolates belonging to the same lineage in other parts of the world. Serotype 35B isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa in 2005-2014 were characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Multi-locus sequence types and global pneumococcal sequence clusters (GPSCs) were derived from WGS data of 63 35B isolates obtained in 2005-2014. A total of 262 isolates that belong to GPSC5 (115 isolates from South Africa and 147 from other countries) that were sequenced as part of the global pneumococcal sequencing (GPS) project were included for comparison. Serotype 35B isolates from South Africa were differentiated into seven GPSCs and GPSC5 was most common (49 %, 31/63). While 35B was the most common serotype among GPSC5/CC172 isolates in South Africa during the PCV13 period (66 %, 29/44), 23F was the most common serotype during both the pre-PCV (80 %, 37/46) and PCV7 period (32 %, 8/25). Serotype 35B represented 15 % (40/262) of GPSC5 isolates within the global GPS database and 75 % (31/40) were from South Africa. The predominance of the GPSC5 lineage within non-vaccine serotype 35B, is possibly unique to South Africa and warrants further molecular surveillance of pneumococci.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Humanos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Sorogrupo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Vacinas Conjugadas
6.
Biomedicines ; 10(3)2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35327400

RESUMO

Cefiderocol, a recently introduced antibiotic, has a chemical structure that includes a cephalosporin that targets cell wall synthesis and a chlorocatechol siderophore moiety that facilitates cell penetration by active iron transporters. Analysis of the effect that human serum, human serum albumin, and human pleural fluid had on growing Acinetobacter baumannii showed that genes related to iron uptake were down-regulated. At the same time, ß-lactamase genes were expressed at higher levels. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of this antimicrobial in A. baumannii cells growing in the presence of human serum, human serum albumin, or human pleural fluid were higher than those measured when these fluids were absent from the culture medium. These results correlate with increased expression levels of ß-lactamase genes and the down-regulation of iron uptake-related genes in cultures containing human serum, human serum albumin, or human pleural fluid. These modifications in gene expression could explain the less-than-ideal clinical response observed in patients with pulmonary or bloodstream A. baumannii infections. The exposure of the infecting cells to the host's fluids could cause reduced cefiderocol transport capabilities and increased resistance to ß-lactams. The regulation of genes that could impact the A. baumannii susceptibility to cefiderocol, or other antibacterials, is an understudied phenomenon that merits further investigation.

7.
Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis ; 2022: 3924212, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35154314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irrational use of antimicrobials (ATMs) triggers microbial resistance (AMR) which has severe consequences for human health. ATM consumption varies among countries and within each territory. These data should be known, in order to perform local policies towards AMR reduction. This work aimed to expose the association of the level of consumption of carbapenems and fluoroquinolones with their resistance rates in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Argentina. METHOD: Consumption of antimicrobials was expressed by defined daily dose (DDD)/1000 inhabitants for each ATM during one year period, discriminating by each country region. Resistance of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems/fluoroquinolones groups was recorded. Consumption/resistance ratio "R" was calculated for each region of the country, comparing results with other countries. RESULTS: P. aeruginosa resistance rate to fluoroquinolone (F) was 26.4% in blood samples and 29.7% in urine samples, whereas resistance rates to carbapenems (C) were 19.9 and 17.7% in blood and urine, respectively. Correlation between consumption and resistance was demonstrated for both antimicrobials (C : R = 0.58; p=0.003 and F : R = 0.77; p=0.0001). Great fluctuations of resistance levels were seen among regions within the country, always correlating resistance with areas in which a higher level of ATM consumption was detected. CONCLUSION: P. aeruginosa resistance to fluoroquinolone/carbapenems in Argentina directly correlated with antimicrobial consumption levels. A great heterogeneity in resistance profile was observed among areas where ATMs were widely used. Global data at the national level might mask local realities that require specific health policies in order to control the irrational use of ATMs.

8.
Vaccine ; 40(3): 459-470, 2022 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920903

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of severe invasive disease associated with high mortality and morbidity worldwide. A total of 2908 pneumococcal isolates were analyzed between 2006 and 2019. Gold standard pneumococcal serotyping (the Neufeld-Quellung reaction) was performed to identify the serotypes associated with infection in children < 5 years in Argentina and agar dilution method was carried out to determine their profiles to 14 antimicrobial agents. In 2012, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was included in the National Immunization Program. In this work we have analyzed the local epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal diseases before and after the introduction of this vaccine in order to understand the epidemiological relevance and impact of PCV13. During the periods compared in the present study there was a significant increase in the proportion of non-PCV13 serotypes, serogroup 24 (246.7%) and 12F (85.7%), and a significant decrease in PCV13 serotypes, including serotypes 14 (91.2%), 5 (95.6%) and 1 (84.6%) among others. Another observation was that serotypes 3 (7.4%) and 19A (4.9%) still remain among the most frequent serotypes despite being part of the PCV13 formulation. Regarding antimicrobial resistance, in the present study we observed an increase in erythromycin resistance during the period of study mainly associated to serotype 14 in the pre-PCV13 period and to serogroup 24 in the post-PCV13 period, which also was the major NVT serotype associated with antimicrobial resistance and MDR. Serotypes 14, 24A/B/F and 19A were in the first three places among isolates resistant to all the antibiotics tested. Our data highlight the importance of continuous surveillance to assess the impact of pneumococcal vaccines and the use of antibiotics in the dynamic of pneumococcal serotypes.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Argentina/epidemiologia , Criança , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Vacinas Conjugadas
9.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 830209, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369469

RESUMO

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causes infections outside the intestine. Particular ExPEC clones, such as clonal complex (CC)/sequence type (ST)131, have been known to sequentially accumulate antimicrobial resistance that starts with chromosomal mutations against fluoroquinolones, followed with the acquisition of bla CTX-M-15 and, more recently, carbapenemases. Here we aimed to investigate the distribution of global epidemic clones of carbapenemase-producing ExPEC from Argentina in representative clinical isolates recovered between July 2008 and March 2017. Carbapenemase-producing ExPEC (n = 160) were referred to the Argentinean reference laboratory. Of these, 71 were selected for genome sequencing. Phenotypic and microbiological studies confirmed the presence of carbapenemases confirmed as KPC-2 (n = 52), NDM-1 (n = 16), IMP-8 (n = 2), and VIM-1 (n = 1) producers. The isolates had been recovered mainly from urine, blood, and abdominal fluids among others, and some were from screening samples. After analyzing the virulence gene content, 76% of the isolates were considered ExPEC, although non-ExPEC isolates were also obtained from extraintestinal sites. Pan-genome phylogeny and clonal analysis showed great clonal diversity, although the first phylogroup in abundance was phylogroup A, harboring CC10 isolates, followed by phylogroup B2 with CC/ST131, mostly H30Rx, the subclone co-producing CTX-M-15. Phylogroups D, B1, C, F, and E were also detected with fewer strains. CC10 and CC/ST131 were found throughout the country. In addition, CC10 nucleated most metalloenzymes, such as NDM-1. Other relevant international clones were identified, such as CC/ST38, CC155, CC14/ST1193, and CC23. Two isolates co-produced KPC-2 and OXA-163 or OXA-439, a point mutation variant of OXA-163, and three isolates co-produced MCR-1 among other resistance genes. To conclude, in this work, we described the molecular epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing ExPEC in Argentina. Further studies are necessary to determine the plasmid families disseminating carbapenemases in ExPEC in this region.

10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 96: 105131, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748986

RESUMO

The Pseudomonas putida group (P. putida G) is composed of at least 21 species associated with a wide range of environments, including the clinical setting. Here, we characterized 13 carbapenem-resistant P. putida G clinical isolates bearing class 1 integrons/transposons (class 1 In/Tn) carrying blaVIM-2 metallo-ß-lactamase gene cassettes obtained from hospitals of Argentina. Multilocus sequencing (MLSA) and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rDNA, gyrB and rpoD sequences distinguished 7 species among them. blaVIM-2 was found in three different cassette arrays: In41 (blaVIM-2-aacA4), In899 (only blaVIM-2), and In528 (dfrB1-aacA4-blaVIM-2). In41 and In899 were associated with complete tniABQC transposition modules and IRi/IRt boundaries characteristic of the Tn5053/Tn402 transposons, which were designated Tn6335 and Tn6336, respectively. The class 1 In/Tn element carrying In528, however, exhibited a defective tni module bearing only the tniC (transposase) gene, associated with a complete IS6100 bounded with two oppositely-oriented IRt end regions. In some P. putida G isolates including P. asiatica, P. juntendi, P. putida G/II, and P. putida G/V, Tn6335/Tn6336 were carried by pLD209-type conjugative plasmids capable of self-mobilization to P. aeruginosa or Escherichia coli. In other isolates of P. asiatica, P. putida G/II, and P. monteiliieilii, however, these blaVIM-2-containing class 1 In/Tn elements were found inserted into the res regions preceding the tnpR (resolvase) gene of particular Tn21 subgroup members of Tn3 transposons. The overall results reinforce the notion of P. putida G members as blaVIM-2 reservoirs, and shed light on the mechanisms of dissemination of carbapenem resistance genes to other pathogenic bacteria in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Pseudomonas putida/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Integrons/genética , Pseudomonas putida/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Microb Genom ; 7(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586054

RESUMO

Invasive disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (IPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. In Argentina, PCV13 was introduced into the childhood immunization programme nationwide in 2012 and PCV7 was available from 2000, but only in the private market. Since 1993 the National IPD Surveillance Programme, consisting of 150 hospitals, has conducted nationwide pneumococcal surveillance in Argentina in children under 6 years of age, as part of the SIREVA II-OPS network. A total of 1713 pneumococcal isolates characterized by serotype (Quellung) and antimicrobial resistance (agar dilution) to ten antibiotics, belonging to three study periods: pre-PCV7 era 1998-1999 (pre-PCV), before the introduction of PCV13 2010-2011 (PCV7) and after the introduction of PCV13 2012-2013 (PCV13), were available for inclusion. Fifty-four serotypes were identified in the entire collection and serotypes 14, 5 and 1 represented 50 % of the isolates. Resistance to penicillin was 34.9 %, cefotaxime 10.6 %, meropenem 4.9 %, cotrimoxazole 45 %, erythromycin 21.5 %, tetracycline 15.4 % and chloramphenicol 0.4 %. All the isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin, rifampin and vancomycin. Of 1713 isolates, 1061 (61.9 %) were non-susceptible to at least one antibiotic and 235(13.7 %) were multidrug resistant. A subset of 413 isolates was randomly selected and whole-genome sequenced as part of Global Pneumococcal Sequencing Project (GPS). The genome data was used to investigate the population structure of S. pneumoniae defining pneumococcal lineages using Global Pneumococcal Sequence Clusters (GPSCs), sequence types (STs) and clonal complexes (CCs), prevalent serotypes and their associated pneumococcal lineages and genomic inference of antimicrobial resistance. The collection showed a great diversity of strains. Among the 413 isolates, 73 known and 36 new STs were identified belonging to 38 CCs and 25 singletons, grouped into 52 GPSCs. Important changes were observed among vaccine types when pre-PCV and PCV13 periods were compared; a significant decrease in serotypes 14, 6B and 19F and a significant increase in 7F and 3. Among non-PCV13 types, serogroup 24 increased from 0 % in pre-PCV to 3.2 % in the PCV13 period. Our analysis showed that 66.1 % (273/413) of the isolates were predicted to be non-susceptible to at least one antibiotic and 11.9 % (49/413) were multidrug resistant. We found an agreement of 100 % when comparing the serotype determined by Quellung and WGS-based serotyping and 98.4 % of agreement in antimicrobial resistance. Continued surveillance of the pneumococcal population is needed to reveal the dynamics of pneumococcal isolates in Argentina in post-PCV13. This article contains data hosted by Microreact.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genética Populacional , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Argentina , Pré-Escolar , Hospitais , Humanos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Sorotipagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 45: e76, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe bacterial resistance and antimicrobial consumption ratio at the subnational level in Argentina during 2018, considering beta-lactams group as a case-study. METHODS: Antimicrobial consumption was expressed as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants. Resistance of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactams was recorded. Resistance/consumption ratio was estimated calculating "R" for each region of Argentina, and this data was compared with other countries. RESULTS: The most widely consumed beta-lactams in Argentina were amoxicillin (3.64) for the penicillin sub-group, cephalexin (0.786) for first generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime (0.022) for second generation; cefixime (0.043) for third generation and cefepime (0.0001) for the fourth generation group. Comparison between beta-lactams consumption and bacterial resistance demonstrated great disparities between the six regions of the country. CONCLUSIONS: The case-study of Argentina shows that antimicrobial consumption and resistance of the most common pathogens differed among regions, reflecting different realities within the same country. Because this situation might also be occurring in other countries, this data should be taken into account to target local efforts towards better antimicrobial use, to improve antimicrobial stewardship programs and to propose more suitable sales strategies in order to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54532

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever a relação entre o consumo de antimicrobianos e a resistência bacteriana no nível subna-cional na Argentina em 2018, considerando o grupo dos betalactâmicos no estudo de caso.Métodos. O consumo de antimicrobianos foi representado por doses diárias definidas (DDD) por 1.000 habi-tantes. Foi registrada a resistência de Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Staphylococcus aureus aos betalactâmicos. A relação entre consumo e resistência foi calculada com base no “R” para cada região do país e os dados da Argentina foram comparados aos de outros países.Resultados. Os betalactâmicos de maior consumo na Argentina foram amoxicilina (3,64) no grupo das pen-icilinas, cefalexina (0,786) no grupo das cefalosporinas de primeira geração, cefuroxima (0.022) no grupo das cefalosporinas de segunda geração, cefixima (0.043) no grupo das cefalosporinas de terceira geração e cefepima (0.0001) no grupo das cefalosporinas de quarta geração. Ao se comparar o consumo de betalac-tâmicos e a resistência bacteriana, observou-se grande disparidade entre as seis regiões do país.Conclusões. O estudo de caso revela diferenças no consumo de antimicrobianos e na resistência dos patógenos mais comuns entre as regiões da Argentina, refletindo realidades distintas dentro do mesmo país. Como esta mesma situação pode estar ocorrendo em outros países, estes achados devem servir para dire-cionar os esforços locais a uma melhor utilização dos antimicrobianos, aperfeiçoar os programas de gestão do uso destes medicamentos e propor estratégias de venda mais apropriadas, visando a prevenir e controlar a resistência aos antimicrobianos.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To describe bacterial resistance and antimicrobial consumption ratio at the subnational level in Argentina during 2018, considering beta-lactams group as a case-study. Methods. Antimicrobial consumption was expressed as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants. Resistance of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactams was recorded. Resistance/consumption ratio was estimated calculating “R” for each region of Argentina, and this data was compared with other countries. Results. The most widely consumed beta-lactams in Argentina were amoxicillin (3.64) for the penicillin sub-group, cephalexin (0.786) for first generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime (0.022) for second generation; cefixime (0.043) for third generation and cefepime (0.0001) for the fourth generation group. Comparison between beta-lactams consumption and bacterial resistance demonstrated great disparities between the six regions of the country. Conclusions. The case-study of Argentina shows that antimicrobial consumption and resistance of the most common pathogens differed among regions, reflecting different realities within the same country. Because this situation might also be occurring in other countries, this data should be taken into account to target local efforts towards better antimicrobial use, to improve antimicrobial stewardship programs and to propose more suitable sales strategies in order to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar la razón entre la resistencia bacteriana y el consumo de antimicrobianos a nivel subnacional en Argentina en el 2018, considerando el grupo de los betalactámicos como estudio de caso. Métodos. El consumo de antimicrobianos se expresó como una dosis diaria determinada (DDD) por 1000 habitantes. Se registró la resistencia de Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Staphylococcus aureus a los betalactámicos. Se determinó la razón entre la resistencia y el consumo calculando “R” para cada región de Argentina, y estos datos se compararon con los de otros países. Resultados. Los betalactámicos más consumidos en Argentina fueron la amoxicilina (3,64) para el subgrupo de la penicilina; la cefalexina (0,786) para las cefalosporinas de primera generación; la cefuroxima (0.022) para las de segunda generación; la cefixima (0.043) para las de tercera generación, y la cefepima (0.0001) para el grupo de la cuarta generación. La comparación entre el consumo de betalactámicos y la resistencia bacteriana demostró que había grandes disparidades entre las seis regiones del país. Conclusiones. El estudio de caso en Argentina indica que el consumo de antimicrobianos y la resistencia a los patógenos más comunes difería entre las regiones; esto demuestra que hay distintas realidades dentro del mismo país. Como esta situación también se puede dar en otros países, estos datos se deben tener en cuenta para definir las actividades locales destinadas a fomentar un mejor uso de los antimicrobianos, para mejorar los programas de manejo de los antimicrobianos y para proponer estrategias de venta más adecuadas con el fin de prevenir y controlar la resistencia a los antimicrobianos.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever a relação entre o consumo de antimicrobianos e a resistência bacteriana no nível subncional na Argentina em 2018, considerando o grupo dos betalactâmicos no estudo de caso. Métodos. O consumo de antimicrobianos foi representado por doses diárias definidas (DDD) por 1.000 habitantes. Foi registrada a resistência de Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Staphylococcus aureus aos betalactâmicos. A relação entre consumo e resistência foi calculada com base no “R” para cada região do país e os dados da Argentina foram comparados aos de outros países. Resultados. Os betalactâmicos de maior consumo na Argentina foram amoxicilina (3,64) no grupo das penicilinas, cefalexina (0,786) no grupo das cefalosporinas de primeira geração, cefuroxima (0.022) no grupo das cefalosporinas de segunda geração, cefixima (0.043) no grupo das cefalosporinas de terceira geração e cefepima (0.0001) no grupo das cefalosporinas de quarta geração. Ao se comparar o consumo de betalactâmicos e a resistência bacteriana, observou-se grande disparidade entre as seis regiões do país. Conclusões. O estudo de caso revela diferenças no consumo de antimicrobianos e na resistência dos patógenos mais comuns entre as regiões da Argentina, refletindo realidades distintas dentro do mesmo país. Como esta mesma situação pode estar ocorrendo em outros países, estes achados devem servir para direcionar os esforços locais a uma melhor utilização dos antimicrobianos, aperfeiçoar os programas de gestão do uso destes medicamentos e propor estratégias de venda mais apropriadas, visando a prevenir e controlar a resistência aos antimicrobianos.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , beta-Lactamas , Argentina , beta-Lactamas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos
14.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1391-1399, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine microbiology results are a valuable source of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance data in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as well as in high-income countries. Different approaches and strategies are used to generate AMR surveillance data. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to review strategies for AMR surveillance using routine microbiology results in LMICs and to highlight areas that need support to generate high-quality AMR data. SOURCES: We searched PubMed for papers that used routine microbiology to describe the epidemiology of AMR and drug-resistant infections in LMICs. We also included papers that, from our perspective, were critical in highlighting the biases and challenges or employed specific strategies to overcome these in reporting AMR surveillance in LMICs. CONTENT: Topics covered included strategies of identifying AMR cases (including case-finding based on isolates from routine diagnostic specimens and case-based surveillance of clinical syndromes), of collecting data (including cohort, point-prevalence survey, and case-control), of sampling AMR cases (including lot quality assurance surveys), and of processing and analysing data for AMR surveillance in LMICs. IMPLICATIONS: The various AMR surveillance strategies warrant a thorough understanding of their limitations and potential biases to ensure maximum utilization and interpretation of local routine microbiology data across time and space. For instance, surveillance using case-finding based on results from clinical diagnostic specimens is relatively easy to implement and sustain in LMIC settings, but the estimates of incidence and proportion of AMR is at risk of biases due to underuse of microbiology. Case-based surveillance of clinical syndromes generates informative statistics that can be translated to clinical practices but needs financial and technical support as well as locally tailored trainings to sustain. Innovative AMR surveillance strategies that can easily be implemented and sustained with minimal costs will be useful for improving AMR data availability and quality in LMICs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Amostragem para Garantia da Qualidade de Lotes
15.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068158

RESUMO

An increasing number of untreatable infections are recorded every year. Many studies have focused their efforts on developing new ß-lactamase inhibitors to treat multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates. In the present study, sulbactam/avibactam and sulbactam/relebactam combination were tested against 187 multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter clinical isolates; both sulbactam/avibactam and sulbactam/relebactam restored sulbactam activity. A decrease ≥2 dilutions in sulbactam MICs was observed in 89% of the isolates when tested in combination with avibactam. Sulbactam/relebactam was able to restore sulbactam susceptibility in 40% of the isolates. In addition, the susceptibility testing using twenty-three A. baumannii AB5075 knockout strains revealed potential sulbactam and/or sulbactam/avibactam target genes. We observed that diazabicyclooctanes (DBOs) ß-lactamase inhibitors combined with sulbactam restore sulbactam susceptibility against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter clinical isolates. However, relebactam was not as effective as avibactam when combined with sulbactam. Exploring novel combinations may offer new options to treat Acinetobacter spp. infections, especially for widespread oxacillinases and metallo-ß-lactamases (MBLs) producers.

16.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e76, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289870

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective. To describe bacterial resistance and antimicrobial consumption ratio at the subnational level in Argentina during 2018, considering beta-lactams group as a case-study. Methods. Antimicrobial consumption was expressed as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants. Resistance of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactams was recorded. Resistance/consumption ratio was estimated calculating "R" for each region of Argentina, and this data was compared with other countries. Results. The most widely consumed beta-lactams in Argentina were amoxicillin (3.64) for the penicillin sub-group, cephalexin (0.786) for first generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime (0.022) for second generation; cefixime (0.043) for third generation and cefepime (0.0001) for the fourth generation group. Comparison between beta-lactams consumption and bacterial resistance demonstrated great disparities between the six regions of the country. Conclusions. The case-study of Argentina shows that antimicrobial consumption and resistance of the most common pathogens differed among regions, reflecting different realities within the same country. Because this situation might also be occurring in other countries, this data should be taken into account to target local efforts towards better antimicrobial use, to improve antimicrobial stewardship programs and to propose more suitable sales strategies in order to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la razón entre la resistencia bacteriana y el consumo de antimicrobianos a nivel subnacional en Argentina en el 2018, considerando el grupo de los betalactámicos como estudio de caso. Métodos. El consumo de antimicrobianos se expresó como una dosis diaria determinada (DDD) por 1000 habitantes. Se registró la resistencia de Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Staphylococcus aureus a los betalactámicos. Se determinó la razón entre la resistencia y el consumo calculando "R" para cada región de Argentina, y estos datos se compararon con los de otros países. Resultados. Los betalactámicos más consumidos en Argentina fueron la amoxicilina (3,64) para el subgrupo de la penicilina; la cefalexina (0,786) para las cefalosporinas de primera generación; la cefuroxima (0.022) para las de segunda generación; la cefixima (0.043) para las de tercera generación, y la cefepima (0.0001) para el grupo de la cuarta generación. La comparación entre el consumo de betalactámicos y la resistencia bacteriana demostró que había grandes disparidades entre las seis regiones del país. Conclusiones. El estudio de caso en Argentina indica que el consumo de antimicrobianos y la resistencia a los patógenos más comunes difería entre las regiones; esto demuestra que hay distintas realidades dentro del mismo país. Como esta situación también se puede dar en otros países, estos datos se deben tener en cuenta para definir las actividades locales destinadas a fomentar un mejor uso de los antimicrobianos, para mejorar los programas de manejo de los antimicrobianos y para proponer estrategias de venta más adecuadas con el fin de prevenir y controlar la resistencia a los antimicrobianos.


RESUMO Objetivo. Descrever a relação entre o consumo de antimicrobianos e a resistência bacteriana no nível subnacional na Argentina em 2018, considerando o grupo dos betalactâmicos no estudo de caso. Métodos. O consumo de antimicrobianos foi representado por doses diárias definidas (DDD) por 1.000 habitantes. Foi registrada a resistência de Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Staphylococcus aureus aos betalactâmicos. A relação entre consumo e resistência foi calculada com base no "R" para cada região do país e os dados da Argentina foram comparados aos de outros países. Resultados. Os betalactâmicos de maior consumo na Argentina foram amoxicilina (3,64) no grupo das penicilinas, cefalexina (0,786) no grupo das cefalosporinas de primeira geração, cefuroxima (0.022) no grupo das cefalosporinas de segunda geração, cefixima (0.043) no grupo das cefalosporinas de terceira geração e cefepima (0.0001) no grupo das cefalosporinas de quarta geração. Ao se comparar o consumo de betalactâmicos e a resistência bacteriana, observou-se grande disparidade entre as seis regiões do país. Conclusões. O estudo de caso revela diferenças no consumo de antimicrobianos e na resistência dos patógenos mais comuns entre as regiões da Argentina, refletindo realidades distintas dentro do mesmo país. Como esta mesma situação pode estar ocorrendo em outros países, estes achados devem servir para direcionar os esforços locais a uma melhor utilização dos antimicrobianos, aperfeiçoar os programas de gestão do uso destes medicamentos e propor estratégias de venda mais apropriadas, visando a prevenir e controlar a resistência aos antimicrobianos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Argentina , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(1)2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115847

RESUMO

CLSI and EUCAST recommend that only broth microdilution (BMD) should be used for routine colistin susceptibility testing; however, this technique can be difficult to perform in resource-poor settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a colistin agar spot test (COL-AS) and a colistin drop test (COL-DT) compared to BMD. COL-AS and COL-DT were assessed with a collection of 271 Gram-negative bacilli clinical isolates: 195 Enterobacterales (including 63 mcr-1 positive strains), 37 Acinetobacter spp., and 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa For COL-AS, 3.0 µg/ml (final concentration) of colistin was added to a Mueller-Hinton agar plate and subsequently swabbed with a 0.5 McFarland standard suspension of the tested strain within a 1 cm2 spot. For COL-DT, 10 µl of a 16 µg/ml colistin solution was dripped on the surface of a Mueller-Hinton agar plate, previously inoculated with a lawn of the tested strain (0.5 McFarland standard). Colistin solution was made either by dissolving powder or by disk elution in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CA-MHB). Overall, 141/271 (52%) isolates were categorized as colistin resistant by reference BMD. COL-AS yielded a categorical agreement (CA) of 95.5% compared to BMD, with 0.7% very major errors and 3.8% major errors. COL-DT yielded a CA of 96.2% compared to BMD, with 0.7% and 0% very major errors and 3.1% and 3.8% major errors, for colistin powder and disk elution solutions, respectively. Most major errors occurred for mcr-1 strains with MICs that fluctuated from 2 to 4 µg/ml according to the method used. In conclusion, we developed and validated methods suited to the systematic screening of resistance to colistin in Gram-negative bacilli.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Colistina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética
18.
ACS Infect Dis ; 6(11): 3026-3033, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970406

RESUMO

Novel variants of OXA-48-type enzymes with the ability to hydrolyze oxyimino-cephalosporins and carbapenems are increasingly reported. Since its first report in 2011, OXA-163 is now extensively spread throughout Argentina, and several variants like OXA-247 have emerged. Here, we characterized a new blaOXA-48-like variant, OXA-438, and we performed a comparative kinetic analysis with the local variants OXA-247 and OXA-163 and the internationally disseminated OXA-48. blaOXA-163, blaOXA-247, and blaOXA-438 were located in a 70 kb IncN2 conjugative plasmid. OXA-438 presented mutations in the vicinity of conserved KTG (214-216), with a 2-aa deletion (R220-I221) and a D224E shift (as in OXA-163) compared to OXA-48. Despite Kpn163 (OXA-163), Kpn247 (OXA-247) and Eco438 (OXA-438) were resistant to meropenem and ertapenem, and the transconjugants (TC) remained susceptible (however, the carbapenems minimum inhibitory concentrations were ≥3 times 2-fold dilutions higher than the acceptor strain). TC163 and Eco48 were resistant to oxyimino-cephalosporins, unlike TC247 and TC438. kcat/Km values for cefotaxime in OXA-163 were slightly higher than the rest of the variants that were accompanied by a lower Km for carbapenems. For OXA-163, OXA-247, and OXA-438, the addition of NaHCO3 improved kcat values for both cefotaxime and ceftazidime; carbapenems kcat/Km values were higher than for oxyimino-cephalosporins. Mutations occurring near the conserved KTG in OXA-247 and OXA-438 are probably responsible for the improved carbapenems hydrolysis and decreased inactivation of oxyimino-cephalosporins compared to OXA-163. Dichroism results suggest that deletions at the ß5-ß6 loop seem to impact the structural stability of OXA-48 variants. Finally, additional mechanisms are probably involved in the resistance pattern observed in the clinical isolates.


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos , beta-Lactamases , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas , Cinética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
19.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44: e55, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the resistance profile and the genetic characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates that harbor the mobilizable colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in Argentina. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 192 E. coli isolates positive for mcr-1 obtained from 69 hospitals of Buenos Aires City and 14 Argentinean provinces in 2012 - 2018. The antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by agar diffusion, broth macrodilution, and/or agar dilution. Standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect resistance genes and incompatibility groups; specific PCR was applied to discriminate between blaCTX-M allelic groups and mcr-1.5 variant. The genetic relatedness among isolates was evaluated by XbaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing in a subset of isolates. RESULTS: All E. coli isolates showed minimal inhibitory concentrations to colistin ≥ 4µg/mL; nearly 50% were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, with CTX-M-2 being the main extended-spectrum ß-lactamase detected. Five E. coli were carbapenemase-producers (3 NDM, 2 KPC). The mcr-1.5 variant was detected in 13.5% of the isolates. No genetic relationship was observed among the mcr-1-positive E. coli clinical isolates, but a high proportion (164/192; 85.4%) of IncI2 plasmids was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of IncI2 plasmids among highly diverse E. coli clones suggests that the mcr-1 gene's wide distribution in Argentina may be driven by the horizontal transmission of IncI2 plasmids.

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