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2.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(6): 421-423, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313218
3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999431

RESUMO

The electronic properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) can be precisely tuned by chemical doping. Here we demonstrate that amino (NH2) functional groups attached at the edges of chiral GNRs (chGNRs) can efficiently gate the chGNRs and lead to the valence band (VB) depopulation on a metallic surface. The NH2-doped chGNRs are grown by on-surface synthesis on Au(111) using functionalized bianthracene precursors. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy resolves that the NH2 groups significantly upshift the bands of chGNRs, causing the Fermi level crossing of the VB onset of chGNRs. Through density functional theory simulations we confirm that the hole-doping behavior is due to an upward shift of the bands induced by the edge NH2 groups.

4.
Small ; 15(12): e1804713, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30748106

RESUMO

Molecular recognition is a crucial driving force for molecular self-assembly. In many cases molecules arrange in the lowest energy configuration following a lock-and-key principle. When molecular flexibility comes into play, the induced-fit effect may govern the self-assembly. Here, the self-assembly of dicyanovinyl-hexathiophene (DCV6T) molecules, a prototype specie for highly efficient organic solar cells, on Au(111) by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy is investigated. DCV6T molecules assemble on the surface forming either islands or chains. In the islands the molecules are straight-the lowest energy configuration in gas phase-and expose the dicyano moieties to form hydrogen bonds with neighbor molecules. In contrast, the structure of DCV6T molecules in the chain assemblies deviates significantly from their gas-phase analogues. The seemingly energetically unfavorable bent geometry is enforced by hydrogen-bonding intermolecular interactions. Density functional theory calculations of molecular dimers quantitatively demonstrate that the deformation of individual molecules optimizes the intermolecular bonding structure. The intermolecular bonding energy thus drives the chain structure formation, which is an expression of the induced-fit effect.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 200, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643120

RESUMO

Turning graphene magnetic is a promising challenge to make it an active material for spintronics. Predictions state that graphene structures with specific shapes can spontaneously develop magnetism driven by Coulomb repulsion of π-electrons, but its experimental verification is demanding. Here, we report on the observation and manipulation of individual magnetic moments in graphene open-shell nanostructures on a gold surface. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we detect the presence of single electron spins localized around certain zigzag sites of the carbon backbone via the Kondo effect. We find near-by spins coupled into a singlet ground state and quantify their exchange interaction via singlet-triplet inelastic electron excitations. Theoretical simulations picture how electron correlations result in spin-polarized radical states with the experimentally observed spatial distributions. Extra hydrogen atoms bound to radical sites quench their magnetic moment and switch the spin of the nanostructure in half-integer amounts. Our work demonstrates the intrinsic π-paramagnetism of graphene nanostructures.

6.
Sci Adv ; 4(2): eaaq0582, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464209

RESUMO

We report on the construction and magnetic characterization of a fully functional hybrid molecular system composed of a single magnetic porphyrin molecule bonded to graphene nanoribbons with atomically precise contacts. We use on-surface synthesis to direct the hybrid creation by combining two molecular precursors on a gold surface. High-resolution imaging with a scanning tunneling microscope finds that the porphyrin core fuses into the graphene nanoribbons through the formation of new carbon rings at chemically predefined positions. These ensure the stability of the hybrid and the extension of the conjugated character of the ribbon into the molecule. By means of inelastic tunneling spectroscopy, we prove the survival of the magnetic functionality of the contacted porphyrin. The molecular spin appears unaffected by the graphenoid electrodes, and we simply observe that the magnetic anisotropy appears modified depending on the precise structure of the contacts.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(1): 25-30, 2018 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220194

RESUMO

Recent advances in graphene-nanoribbon-based research have demonstrated the controlled synthesis of chiral graphene nanoribbons (chGNRs) with atomic precision using strategies of on-surface chemistry. However, their electronic characterization, including typical figures of merit like band gap or frontier band's effective mass, has not yet been reported. We provide a detailed characterization of (3,1)-chGNRs on Au(111). The structure and epitaxy, as well as the electronic band structure of the ribbons, are analyzed by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, and density functional theory.

8.
ACS Nano ; 11(11): 11661-11668, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049879

RESUMO

We report the energy level alignment evolution of valence and conduction bands of armchair-oriented graphene nanoribbons (aGNR) as their band gap shrinks with increasing width. We use 4,4″-dibromo-para-terphenyl as the molecular precursor on Au(111) to form extended poly-para-phenylene nanowires, which can subsequently be fused sideways to form atomically precise aGNRs of varying widths. We measure the frontier bands by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, corroborating that the nanoribbon's band gap is inversely proportional to their width. Interestingly, valence bands are found to show Fermi level pinning as the band gap decreases below a threshold value around 1.7 eV. Such behavior is of critical importance to understand the properties of potential contacts in GNR-based devices. Our measurements further reveal a particularly interesting system for studying Fermi level pinning by modifying an adsorbate's band gap while maintaining an almost unchanged interface chemistry defined by substrate and adsorbate.

9.
ACS Nano ; 11(7): 7355-7361, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28636331

RESUMO

We report the on-surface synthesis of 7-armchair graphene nanoribbons (7-AGNRs) substituted with nitrile (CN) functional groups. The CN groups are attached to the GNR backbone by modifying the 7-AGNR precursor. Whereas many of these groups survive the on-surface synthesis, the reaction process causes the cleavage of some CN from the ribbon backbone and the on-surface cycloisomerization of few nitriles onto pyridine rings. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and density functional theory reveal that CN groups behave as very efficient n-dopants, significantly downshifting the bands of the ribbon and introducing deep impurity levels associated with the nitrogen electron lone pairs.

10.
Nano Lett ; 17(1): 50-56, 2017 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073274

RESUMO

Bottom-up chemical reactions of selected molecular precursors on a gold surface can produce high quality graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Here, we report on the formation of quantum dots embedded in an armchair GNR by substitutional inclusion of pairs of boron atoms into the GNR backbone. The boron inclusion is achieved through the addition of a small amount of boron substituted precursors during the formation of pristine GNRs. In the pristine region between two boron pairs, the nanoribbons show a discretization of their valence band into confined modes compatible with a Fabry-Perot resonator. Transport simulations of the scattering properties of the boron pairs reveal that they selectively confine the first valence band of the pristine ribbon while allowing an efficient electron transmission of the second one. Such band-dependent electron scattering stems from the symmetry matching between the electronic wave functions of the states from the pristine nanoribbons and those localized at the boron pairs.

11.
ACS Nano ; 10(9): 9000-8, 2016 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27548516

RESUMO

Contributing to the need for new graphene nanoribbon (GNR) structures that can be synthesized with atomic precision, we have designed a reactant that renders chiral (3,1)-GNRs after a multistep reaction including Ullmann coupling and cyclodehydrogenation. The nanoribbon synthesis has been successfully proven on different coinage metals, and the formation process, together with the fingerprints associated with each reaction step, has been studied by combining scanning tunneling microscopy, core-level spectroscopy, and density functional calculations. In addition to the GNR's chiral edge structure, the substantial GNR lengths achieved and the low processing temperature required to complete the reaction grant this reactant extremely interesting properties for potential applications.

12.
ACS Nano ; 10(5): 5131-44, 2016 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27110642

RESUMO

The local interaction between graphene and a host substrate strongly determines the actual properties of the graphene layer. Here we show that scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can selectively help to visualize either the graphene layer or the substrate underneath, or even both at the same time, providing a comprehensive picture of this coupling with atomic precision and high energy resolution. We demonstrate this for graphene on Cu(111). Our spectroscopic data show that, in the vicinity of the Fermi level, graphene π bands are well preserved presenting a small n-doping induced by Cu(111) surface state electrons. Such results are corroborated by Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectra (ARPES) and Density Functional Theory with van der Waals (DFT + vdW) calculations. Graphene tunable transparency also allows the investigation of the interaction between the substrate and foreign species (such as atomic H or C vacancies) on the graphene layer. Our calculations explain graphene tunable transparency in terms of the rather different decay lengths of the graphene Dirac π states and the metal surface state, suggesting that it should apply to a good number of graphene/substrate systems.

13.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8903, 2015 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26561388

RESUMO

Surface chemistry and catalysis studies could significantly gain from the systematic variation of surface active sites, tested under the very same conditions. Curved crystals are excellent platforms to perform such systematics, which may in turn allow to better resolve fundamental properties and reveal new phenomena. This is demonstrated here for the carbon monoxide/platinum system. We curve a platinum crystal around the high-symmetry (111) direction and carry out photoemission scans on top. This renders the spatial core-level imaging of carbon monoxide adsorbed on a 'tunable' vicinal surface, allowing a straightforward visualization of the rich chemisorption phenomenology at steps and terraces. Through such photoemission images we probe a characteristic elastic strain variation at stepped surfaces, and unveil subtle stress-release effects on clean and covered vicinal surfaces. These results offer the prospect of applying the curved surface approach to rationally investigate the chemical activity of surfaces under real pressure conditions.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 115(13): 136101, 2015 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26451568

RESUMO

The forces between two single molecules brought into contact, and their connection with charge transport through the molecular junction, are studied here using non contact AFM, STM, and density functional theory simulations. A carbon monoxide molecule approaching an acetylene molecule (C_{2}H_{2}) initially feels weak attractive electrostatic forces, partly arising from charge reorganization in the presence of molecular . We find that the molecular contact is chemically passive, and protects the electron tunneling barrier from collapsing, even in the limit of repulsive forces. However, we find subtle conductance and force variations at different contacting sites along the C_{2}H_{2} molecule attributed to a weak overlap of their respective frontier orbitals.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(40): 27118-26, 2015 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26414934

RESUMO

Dicyanovinyl (DCV)-substituted oligothiophenes are promising donor materials in vacuum-processed small-molecule organic solar cells. Here, we studied the structural and the electronic properties of DCV-dimethyl-pentathiophene (DCV5T-Me2) adsorbed on Au(111) from submonolayer to multilayer coverages. Using a multi-technique experimental approach (low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopy), we determined the energetic position of several affinity levels as well as ionization potentials originating from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO), evidencing a transport gap of 1.4 eV. Proof of an excitonic state was found to be a spectroscopic feature located at 0.6 eV below the LUMO affinity level. With increasing coverage photoemission from excitonic states gains importance. We were able to track the dynamics of several electronically excited states of multilayers by means of femtosecond time-resolved 2PPE. We resolved an intriguing relaxation dynamics involving four processes, ranging from sub-picosecond (ps) to several hundred ps time spans. These show a tendency to increase with increasing coverage. The present study provides important parameters such as energetic positions of transport levels as well as lifetimes of electronically excited states, which are essential for designing organic-molecule-based optoelectronic devices.

16.
ACS Nano ; 8(10): 10715-22, 2014 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25244124

RESUMO

Dicyanovinyl-quinquethiophene (DCV5T-Me2) is a prototype conjugated oligomer for highly efficient organic solar cells. This class of oligothiophenes are built up by an electron-rich donor (D) backbone and terminal electron-deficient acceptor (A) moieties. Here, we investigated its structural and electronic properties when it is adsorbed on a Au(111) surface using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We find that DCV5T-Me2 self-assembles in extended chains, stabilized by intercalated Au atoms. The effect of metal-ligand hybridization with Au adatoms causes an energetic downshift of the DCV5T-Me2 lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) with respect to the uncoordinated molecules on the surface. The asymmetric coordination of a gold atom to only one molecular end group leads to an asymmetric localization of the LUMO and LUMO+1 states at opposite sides. Using model density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we explain such orbital reshaping as a consequence of linear combinations of the original LUMO and LUMO+1 orbitals, mixed by the attachment of a bridging Au adatom. Our study shows that the alignment of molecular orbitals and their distribution within individual molecules can be modified by contacting them to metal atoms in specific sites.

17.
Science ; 338(6108): 779-82, 2012 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23139328

RESUMO

Energy harvesting from noise is a paradigm proposed by the theory of stochastic resonances. We demonstrate that the random switching of a hydrogen (H(2)) molecule can drive the oscillation of a macroscopic mechanical resonator. The H(2) motion was activated by tunneling electrons and caused fluctuations of the forces sensed by the tip of a noncontact atomic force microscope. The stochastic molecular noise and the periodic oscillation of the tip were coupled in a concerted dynamic that drives the system into self-oscillation. This phenomenon could be a way for enhancing the transfer of energy from incoherent sources into coherent dynamics of a molecular engine.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(18): 187602, 2010 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20482209

RESUMO

The influence of structural defects, in the form of step lattices, on the spin polarization of the spin-orbit split Shockley surface state of Au(111) has been investigated. Spin- and angle-resolved photoemission data from three vicinal surfaces with different step densities are presented. The spin splitting is preserved in all three cases, and there is no reduction of the spin polarization of individual subbands, including the umklapp bands induced by the step lattice. On the sample with the highest step density studied, where the wave functions are delocalized over several terraces, the spin splitting is enhanced substantially, likely as an effect of the effective surface corrugation as on related surface alloys. The spin texture shows in all cases spin polarization vectors tangential to the Fermi circles, with the same helicities as on Au(111).

19.
ACS Nano ; 4(3): 1603-11, 2010 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20146459

RESUMO

A new class of nanostructured templates is obtained by submitting Au111 films to high-temperature vapor deposition of Gd in ultrahigh vacuum. In a low coverage regime, Gd atoms are embedded in the topmost Au layer, inducing a structural transformation of the herringbone reconstruction to create a network of trigons. At higher dose, the reactive deposition of Gd leads to the formation of an atomically perfect GdAu2 surface compound characterized by a long-range periodic Moire pattern. Both the trigon and Moire lattices are highly ordered nanostructures, which turned out to be robust templates to grow metal nanodots. As a test example, Co was deposited at room temperature, forming uniform dots that faithfully arrange by following the underlying trigons or Moire periodicity. For the latter, one can achieve nanodot arrays that exhibit record areal density.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(9): 3253-9, 2009 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19173644

RESUMO

By means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we characterize at the single-atom level the mechanism of the water formation reaction on the (10 x 2)-O/Rh(110) surface, a prototype of a one-dimensional (1D) oxide where the lattice expansion and the segmentation of the surface play a fundamental role. When the reaction is imaged in the 238-263 K temperature range (35 s/image acquisition time), a peculiar comblike propagation mechanism for the reaction front is found. Fast STM measurements (33 ms/image) prove that this mechanism holds also at room temperature, being therefore an intrinsic characteristic of the reaction on the 1D oxide. DFT calculations explain the observed behavior as due to the interplay between the lattice expansion in the initial surface and its relaxation during the reaction that leads to varying configurations for the reactants. At low temperatures, the reaction produces, in its final stages, a low-coverage, ordered patterning of the surface with residual oxygen. The pattern formation is related to the segmentation of the oxide phase.

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